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Full text of "The general biographical dictionary : containing an historical and critical account of the lives and writings of the most eminent persons in every nation ; particularly the British and Irish ; from the earliest accounts to the present time .."

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Mnted  by  Nichols^  Son,  and  Bintl&y, 
Red  Don  Passafe,  Fleet  Street,  Londim. 


















,  OTRIDGB  AND  SON  ;  G.  AND  W.  NICOL  ;  G.  WILKIE  |  J.  WALKER  J  R.  LEA  • 




JtlAMAZZINI  (BernarDIn),  iLn  ttatlan  physician,  Waa* 
born  of  a  citizen^s  family  at  Carpi  near  Modena,  Nov.  5) 
1633.  When  be  bad  laid  a  foundation  in  grammar  and 
classical  literature  in  his  own  country,  he  went  to  Parma 
to  study  philosophy ;  and^  afterwards  applying  himself  to 
physic,  took  a  doctor^s  degree  there  in  1659.  Then  his 
•went  to  Rome,  for  the.  sake  of  penetrating  still  further  into 
his  art;  and  afterwards  settled  a& a. practitioner  in  the  duchy 
of  Castro.  After  some  time,  i^l  h<^1tb/obltged  him  to  re*- 
turn  to  Carpi  for  his  native  aiir)r*j!>vhere  hfe  jnsrried,  and  foU 
lowed  the  business  of  bis  prc^^iion  r  ^Ull^  1671,  at  the 
advice  of  some  friends,  he  removed  to  M^dena.  His  bre-^ 
thren  of  the  faculty  there  conceived  ^t  Ifrst  but  meanly  of 
bis  learning  and  abilities ;  but,  when  he  had  undeceived 
them  by  his  publications,  their  contempt  is  said  to  have 
been  changed  into  jealousy.  In  1682,  he  was  made, pro* 
lessor  of  physic  in  the  university  of  Modena,  which  was 
just  founded  by  duke  Francis  II. ;  and  he  filled  this  office 
for  eighteen  years,  attending  in  the  mean  time  to  practice^ 
aud  not  neglecting  polite  literature^  to  which  he  was  always 
partial,  and  wrote  a  very  elegant  Latin  style.  In  1700^  he 
went  to  Padua  upon  invitation,  to  be  a  professor  there  r 
but  the  infirmities  of  age  began  now  to  -come  upon  him. 
fie  lost  his  sight,  and  was  forced  to  read  and  write  with 
other  people's  eyes  and  hands.  The  senate,  however,  of 
Venice  made  him  rector  of  the  college  in  1708,  and  also 
raised  him  from  the  second  professorship  in  physic  to  the 
first  He  would  haverefused  these  honourable  posts ;  but,  be^ 
ing  overruled,  performed  all  the  funcjtions  of  them  very  dili- 
gently to  the  time  of  his  death*  He  died  Nov.  S^hh  birth* 
Vol.  XXVI.  B  • 


day,  1714,  aged  eighty*  one.  Ramazzini  was  a  member  oi 
several  of  the  a«cademies  of  science  established  in  Ger- 
many,  Berlin,  &c.,  and  left  several  works ;  the  principal 
of  which,  and  one  which  will  ever  be  held  in  estimation,  i» 
his  treatise  09  the  diseases  of  artist»  and  manufacturers, 
entitled  ^  De  Morbis  Arti6cum  Diatriba/'  first  published 
in  1700,  and  frequently  reprinted,  and  published  in  Eng-' 
lisfau  He  also,  published  some  tracts  relative  to  certain 
epidemics,  both  among  meri  and  cattle;  some  '^Epheme- 
rides  Barometricss ;"  a  work  on  the  abuse  of  Peruvian  bark ; 
and  several  orations  delivered  in  his  professorial  capacity. 
All  his  works  have  been  ooUected  and  published  together 
at  Padua,  Geneva,  London,  and  Naples;  the  edition  of 
London,  17^6,  4to,  is  the  most  correct.^ 

RAMEAU  (John  Phiup),  chevalier  de  St.  Michel^  com- 
poser to  the  king  of  France,  and  to  P  Academie  Royale  de 
la  M^isique,  or  serious  opera  at  Paris,  was  born  at  Dijon  ia 
1683«  He  went  early  in  his  life  to  Italy,  and  at  bis  re* 
turn  was  appointed  organist  i^^  Clermont  en  Auvergne, 
where  his /^  Trait^  d^  la  Musique^'  was  wcitten,  in  1722. 
He  was  afterwards  elected  organist  of  St  Croix  de  la  Bre* 
tonuerie  at  Paris.  Here  bis  time  was  chiefly  employed  in 
teaching;  however,  he  published  barpsicbord  lessons,  and 
several  other  theoretical  wocks^  without  distinguishing  hiisL« 
self  much  as  a  vocftl  composer,  till  1733,  when,  at  fifi^ 
years  of  age,  be  produced  bis  .first  opera  of  ^^  Hippolite  et 
Aricie.*'  The  music  of  this  drama  excited  professionai 
envy  and  national  discord.  Party  rage  was  now  as. violent 
bettjireen  the  admirers  of  Lulli  and  Rameau,  as  in  England 
between  the  friends  of  Bononcini  and  Handel,  or,  in  mo** 
deicn  times,  at  Paris,  between  the  Gludkists  and  the  Pk^ 
cinists.  When  the  French,  during  the  last  century,  were 
so  contented  with  the  music  of  LuUi,  it  was  nearly  as  good 
as  that  of  otbex  countries^  and  better  patronized  and  anpf 
pprted  by  the  most  splendid  prince  in  Europe.  But  tfafs 
nation,  so  frequently  accused  of  mo£e  volatility  and  caprice, 
than  their  neighbours,  have  manifested  a  steady  perse- 
vering constancy  in  their  music,  which  the  strongest  ridic 
euleand  contempt  of  other  nations  could  never  vanquish. 

Rameau  only  answered  his  antagonists  by  new  produc- 
tions,- which  were  still  more  successful ;  and,  at  length,  he 
was  acknowledged  by  his  countrymen  to  be  not  only  supe- 

1  moj^  Dict«  Hist.  d«  MedicifBe.^Fabroni  VitaB  Itaioroiii. 

tt  A  M  B  A  a 

rior  to  dll  competition  at  Paris,  but  sole  monatth  o^th^ 
musical  world.  From  1733  to  1160  be  composed  twenty* 
ODQ  oper94,  of  wbich  tiip  names  and  dates  are  annually 
publisbi^iiil.^  V  Spectacles  de  Paris/*  aad  in  many  othev 
periodical  works«  Rameatt*s  style  of  compositioDi  wbich; 
eontinped  in  fatour  almost  unmolested  (ot  upwards  of  forty 
years,  tboiigb  formed  upon  that  of  Lulli»  is  more  rich  ia 
bannony,  an4  varied*  in  melody.  The  gewrif  however  dis^^ 
pleasing  to  all  ears  but  those  of  France,  wbich  bad  been 
t)urse4  io  it,  was  carried  by  the  learning  and  genius  of 
BameaM  to  its  acme  of  perfection;  and  when  that  it 
achieved  in  any  style,  it  becomes  the  business  of  subse« 
queot  composers  .to  invent  or  adopt  another,  in  which  * 
sopaetbing  is  still  left  to  be  done,  besides  servile  imitation^ 

The  q>era  of  **  Caatov  and  Pollux*'  having  been  long 
regarded  in  Frmice  as  the  master-piece  of  this  composer,^ 
Dr.\3uri\qtbas  entered  into  a  strict  critical  examination 
of  it,  for  wbich  we  refer  to  his  History.  He  concludea 
w^tb  observing,  tBil,  though  the  several  merits  of  this  mu-^ 
sician  bave  been  too  mucK  magnified  by  partisans  and  pa«-' 
triots  \n  France^  and  too  muck  depreciated  by  the  abettora 
q£  other  ^ysjtems  and  fAhw  styles,  as  well  as  patriots  of 
ptbf  r  countries,  yet  Hameau  was  a  great  man ;  nor  can 
the  professor  of  any  art  or  science  mount  to  the  summit  of 
fame,  and  be  elected,  by  his  countrymen  supreme  dictator 
in  bis  particular  faeuUy,  without  a  large  portion  of  genius^ 
and  abilities. 

The  successful  revival  of  bis  opera  of  <'  Castor  aad  Pol-^^ 
lux'*  ip  17i54,  after  the  victory  obtained  by  his  friends' 
over  the  Italian  burletta  singers  who  had  raised  such  dis« 
tuibanjpeby  their  performance  of  Pergolesi's  intermezzo, 
llie^*  Serva  Padrooa,''  was  regarded  as  the  most  glprious 
event  of  bis  life.  The  partisans  for  the  national  honour 
could  never  hear  it  often  enough.  <^  This  beautiful  opera," 
says' M*  de  la  Boi'de,  ^^witfaout  any  diminution  in  the  ap- 
plause; or  pleasure  of  the  andience,  supported  a  hundred 
represe/itations,  charming  at  once  the  spul^  heart,  miad^ 
eyes,  ears,  and  imagination  of  all  Paris.'' 

From  this  asra  to  the  time  of  bis  death,  in  1767,  a( 
^bty^four  years  of  age,  Rameau^s  glory  was  complete.* 
Toe  loyal  academy  of  music,  who  all  regi^rded  themselves 
as  his  children,  performed  a  solemn  service  in  the  cburcb. 
of  the  oratory,  at  bis  funeral.    And  M.  Philidor  had  a  masis 

B  2 

4  •  1ft  A  M  L  S  R. 

p«ti^m^m  at  the  cbufch  of  the  CartxieHtes,  in  bonoor  of 
a  man  whose  talents  be  so  mtich  revered.^ 
'  RAMLER  (Charles  Wiluam),  a  German  poet  of  great 
celebrity  in  bis  own  country,  but  little  known  bere,  was 
born  in  1725,  at  Kolberg,  and  became  prbfessor  of  betles 
lettres  in  a  military  academy  at  Berlin.  In  concert  with 
Lessing,  be  tbere  edited  two  ancient  poets  of  tbe  Germians/ 
Logau  and  Wernilie.  His  Lyrical  Anthology  contributed 
mticfa  to  improve  tbe  taste  of  bis  countrymen,  by  those 
ilsbanges  of  diction  which  almost  every  poem  received- front 
bis  pen.  Sixteen  odes  of  Horace  be  translated  with  great 
felicity,  and  composed  many  originar  imitations  of  them. 
His  oratorios,  which  Graunset  to  music,  would  baVe  been 
warmly  admired,  but  in  tbe  country  of  Klopstock.  In 
1774,  be  translated  the  critical  works  of  Batteu:?,  wbtcb 
be  accompanied  with  considerable  additions. 

■  Ramler's  odes  were  first  coUected  apart  in  1772;  they 
had 'beenr  composed  on  several  occasions^  during  the  pre- 
ceding fifteen  years.  Their  character  is  pecaliarly  Hora-* 
lian,  but  they  have  too  much  the  air  of  close  imitation, 
yet  tfaey  hsk^re  procured  bim  the  name  of  the  German  Ho*- 
race»  /  He  sang,  the  praises  of  tbe  king  of  Prussia  with  as 
much  spirit  as  Horace  did  those  of  Augustus,  but  with  less 
flattery.  '  He  died  March  19,  1798.  •      , 

.  RAMSAY  .(Alla»>),  one^of  the  .extrabrdifnary  instafices 
of  the  power  of  uncultivated  genius,  was  born  at  Lead-^ 
bills*,  Oct.  13,  1685  f.  His  father,  John  Ramsay,  de- 
^scendedof  tbe  Rann^iys  of  Coobpen,  an  ancient  and  re- 
spectable family  in  Mid**  Lothian^  was  fttctor  to  tbe  earl  of 
Hopeton^  and  superintendant  of  his  fead-mines.  His  ma^ 
tfaer,  Alice  Bower,  was  daughter  of  Allan  Bower,  a  gen- 
tleman of  Derbysbine,  who,  on  account  of  his  great  skilE 
in  mining,  bad-  been  invited  by  sir  James  Hope  of  Hope- 
ton  to  set  his  valuable  mines  in  motion. 

•  When  Allan  Ramsay  was  about  a  y^ar  014  bis  father  died, 

and  bis  mother  being  but  ill  provided  for,  soon  after  mar- 
ried a  second  husbami  in  tbe  neigbbouthood,  by  whom  she 

•  •  .  '     ■ 

..  *  The  f ^ographieal  situation  of  bis  more,  born,  id  Lead>bil1,'^  &c. 

native  pUce  is  tery    poefically  de-  f  There  is  an  ode  addressed  to  his 

tiiribed  Id  the  beginning  of  an  6de  for  -  fi-iend  sir  Alexander  Diclc  of  Cprstor- 

llis  9dmissiOB  into  a  club  of  Clyds^  phii>,  written  o»  bis-  seveattetk  bktlw 

dale  gentlemen,  printed  in  the  first  vo-  day,  and  dated  Oct.  15,  1155, 

iume  of  his  poems;   <*  Of  Crawford  - 

'  ^  Bqrnay's  Hist,  of  Music— 4iud  life  of  Ramean  in  Rees's  Cyclopaedia. 
s  Pict.  Hiit — Maty*s  Review,  to^.  YJIl.  from  a  German  biography. 

K  A  MS  AY;  « 

bad  several*  cbiUreti;  '  In  tbts  'Mta|iti0'n  yoQt)g^  B-a,m;iay 
conld  not  be  fkupposed  to  have  maeb  carer  or  expense 
bestowed  upon  bim :  be  bad,  however^  a<;QeB8  to  ail  the 
learning  a  vilhige-scbool  could  afford,  and  it  was  during 
this  period,  the  first  fifteen  years  of  bis  life^  that  he  bad 
an  opportunity  of  storing  bis  mind  with  those  rural  images 
whicb  were  afterwards  so  agreeably  esbibited  in  byi 

'  About  the  year  ITOO,  bis  mother  died:  be  was  now 
completely  an  orphan;  but  was  come  to  an  age  when  it 
'Was  proper  for  bim  to  do  something  for  bis  own  subsistence. 
His  own  wish,  as  be  was  often  beard  to  say,  was. to  have 
been  bred  a  painter,  and  be  bad  even  attempted  to  copy 
prints  be  found  in  books,  before  be  left  the  country, 
Wbat  were  the  particular  causes  wbicb  -prevented  this  wish 
ffom  being  gratified,  have  not  cpme  to  our  knowledge ;  but 
his  step-Aiitber,  being  exceedingly  desirous  of  getting  rid 
of  bim  at  any  rate,  carried  bim  to  Edinburgh,  and.  bound 
him  apprentice  to  a-wig«maker  *,  probably  believing  it  to 
be  the  most  profitable  trade  of  the  two. 

But,  although  young  Ramsay  was  of  that  happy  temper 
'wbieb  readily  agcommodates  itself  to  accidental  circum* 
stances,  yet,  poor  as  be  was,  be.coiild  not ^ heartily  re* 
eoocile  himself  to  an  occupation  in  which  bis  active  and 
liberal  mind  found  no  tskercise  that  w^s.  fit  for  it.  He 
therefore  thought  how  be  might  procure  for  himself  a  de- 
cent fl^aintenaoc^  by  some  means  more  connected  yrUh  his 
poetical  gienius  atid  growing  p^s^ion  for  literary  know* 
ledge;  AU  tbid  he  accompliiBhed  by  turning  bookseller,  ia 
which  employment  he  -.  succeeded  very  much  to  bis  satisr 
faction,  publishing  sometin^s  bis  own  works^  sonietimes 
those  gof  other  aatbors,  as  they  pqcasionally  presented 

The 'first  pf  his  own  writings  were  given  to  the  public! 
in  detached  pieces;  buli  upon  finding  that  these  ipe(  with 
approbation  from  people  of  the  best  taste,  bqtif  in  Scotland 
and  England,  it  oncQuraged  bim  ^o  open  a  subscription  for 
a  volume  in  quarto,  which  came  out  in  17219  and  produce4 
him  a  very  consideirable  9uin  of  money.  . 

In  1728,. he  published  a  s0cpnd  volume  in  quarto;  and 
^bese  two  volumes,  whicb  have  been  otten  reprinted  in 

*  Not «  barber^  at  bas  be^n  a(ivanc«d  in  somfe  London  publicationt. 

$  Jl  A  M  S  A  Y, 

octavOy  contain  all  his  printed  works  which  he  has  thongbl 
fit  to  acknowledge.  The  longest  piece  among  th^m,  and 
the  on^  which  has  been  the  most  universally  read  and  ad* 
vaired,  is  a  pastoral  comedy,  tailed  the  ^*  Gentle  Shep« 
berd,"  which,  though  it  presents  only  that  mode  of  coun* 
try  life  which  belongs  to  the  cpmer  of  Scotland  where  he 
llimself  was  born,  yet  is  every  where  filled  with  such  jost 
sentiments  and  general  imagery  as  will  insure  it  approba^ 
tion  in  every  country  where  its  langu&ge  cap  b0  either  un- 
derstood or  translated,* 

•  The  first  scene,  between  Patie  and  Roger,  of  this  dra- 
na,  was  written  early,  and  published  first  by  itself,  and 
afterwards  in  his  first  volume  in  1121^  as  an  independent 
eclogue.  '  In  that  volume  is  likewise  tdbe  found  the  dia-^ 
logue  song  between  Patie  al^d  Peggie,  afi^rwards  intro-- 
duced  into  the  second  act.  After  the  publication  of  thisi 
JSrst  volume,  he  put  forth  another  eclogue  between  Jenny 
and  Peggy,  as  a  sequel  to  Patie  and  Rqg;er,  and  which 
|iOw  stands  the  second  scene  in  the  *^  Gentle  Shepherd/^ 
At  what  particular  time  betweefn  17^1  and  1728  he  con*r 
teived  the  idea  of  forming  a  complete  drama,  of  which 
those  two  were  to  serve  as*  the  opening,  is  npt  precisely 
known ;  but  it  was  not,  probably^  till  after  publishing  the 
last  mentioned  eciogne ;  for  be  had  more  skill  d>an  to  wea? 
kto  the  efiect  of  a  complete  work,  b?  giving  it  to  th^  pub«c 
lie  in  detached  scenes,  andatstich  different  periods. 

Soon  after  the  first  edition,  in  octavo,  of  this  pastpral 
was  published^  and  about  thie  time  of  the  publication  of 
bis  second  volume  in  qupirto,  the  ^^  Beggar's  Opera*',  mad^ 
its  appearance,  with  such  success  that  it  soon  produced  i^ 
great  number  of  other  pieces  upon  the  same  mi|sical  plan. 
Amongst  the  rest,  Ramsay,-  who  chad  always  been  a  great 
admirer  of  Gay,  especially  for  his  ballads,  was  so  far  car- 
tied  away  by  the  current  as  to  print  a  new  editipn  of  his 
pastoral,  interspersed  with  songs  lulapted  to  the  common 
Scotch  tunes.  He  did  not  reflect  at  the  time  that  the 
^-  Beggar's  Opera"  was  only  meant  as  ^  piece  of  ironical 
satire,  whereas  his  ^*  Gentle  Shepherd'^*  was  a  simple  imi- 
tation of  nature,  and  neither  a  mimickry  nor  mockery  of 
any  other  peifformance.  He  was  soon,  However,  sensible  of 
bis  error,  and  would  have  been  glad  to  have  retracted  those 
songs;  but  it  was  too  late ;  the  public  was  already  in  pos- 
session of  them,  and  as  the  number  of  singers  is  always 
greater  than  that  of  soi|nd  critics,  the  Qiany  editions  sinc(^ 


printed  of  that  p&storal  have  been  almost  uniformly  in  this 
vitiated  C|i$te.  He  comforted  himself,  however,  with  the 
thought  that  the  contagion  bad  not  infected  bis  second  vo* 
lume  in  quarto,  where  the  "  Grentle  ShepberdV  is  still  to  be 
found  in  iu  original  purity. 

,  He  had  made  himself  very  much  master  of  the  French^ 
language ;  and  his  imitations  <if  the  ESables  of  La  Motte  are 
excellent.  He  much  lamented  his  deficiency  in  the  Latin, 
of  which,  however,  he  had  picked  up  so  much,  as  by  the 
help  of  Dacier,  to  catch  the  spirit  of  tbe^Odes  of  Horace, 
which,  even  by  this  twiitgbt,  he  above  all  writings  ad- 
mired, and  supplying,  by  congenial  iancy,  what  he  wanted 
in  erudition,  has  imitated  some  of  them  with  a  truly  Hor 
ratian  felicity. 

Before  he  left  Leadhillshe  had  no  opportunity  of  read« 
ing  any  books  but  such  as  were  in  the  hands  of  the  country 
j>eople  all  over  Scotland*  Amongst  thos^  were  the  history 
in  verse  of  king  Robert  the  Bruce,  the  exploits  of  sir  WiU 
liami  Wallace,  and  the  poems  of  sir  David  Lindsey  *,  a  fa* 
vouirite  of  king  James  V.  which  coming  at  an  early  period 
to  one  not  distracted  by  a  variety  of  studies,  made  a  deep 
impression  upon  his  miod^  and  gave  a  cast  to  all  his  after 
sentiments,  particularly  with  regard  to  the  dignity  and  in- 
dependence of  Scotland,  in  the  history  and  antiquities  of 
which  lie  became  very  knowing.  In  the  *^  Ever  Creea,'^ 
a  collection  of  old  Scottish  poems,  published  by  him  in 
}724,  there  are  two  pieces  of  his  own,  one  of  them  called 
*^  The  Vision,'*  said  to  have  been  written  in  Latin,  about 
1900,  and  translated  in  1524,  and  which  has  for  its  subject 
the  sufferings  of  Scotland  under  Edward  L  and  the  Baliol 
faction.  It  consists  of  twenty  pages,  and  is  fuU  of  poetical 
imagery.  What  were  bis  motives  for  writing  so  long  a 
poem  without  reaping  any  fame  from  it,  is  not  eMsy  to  guess, 
perhaps  it  was  only  for  the  aake  of  amusing  himself  with 
the  profound  remarks  of  learned  critics  and  antiquaries 
upon  it ;  perhaps  some  political  ideas  not  very  orthodox 
had  their  share  in  the  concealment  But  whatever  might 
be  his  reason  for  concealing  himself  at  this  time,  he  cer- 
tainly did  not  mean  that  this  ^ould  continue  dways  a 
secret,  as  appears  by  bis  communicating  it  to  bis  son,  from 

*  His  early  liking  to  these  books  printed ;  s»  that  after  be  was  seventy 

carried  bim  so  far  as  to  retain,  daring  years  old,  be  used  Uf  read  Chaucer  in 

life,  a  partiaKty  for  the  Saxon  or  black  that  type  in  preferenct  to  the  modeni 

Jetter,  in  which  th#y  happened  to  be  editions. 

R  A  M  S  A  Y. 

I  t 

ivhhm  the  writer  of  this  article  bad  the  information  i  and 
by  his. putting,  by  way  of  name  to  the  end  of  it,  A  R.  Scot.  ^ 
which,  though  it  appears  at  first  sight  to  mean  Archibald 
Scot,  is  no  other  than  the  two  initials  of  Ivs  own  name, 
with  his  country  added  to  them.  His  notions  about  the 
independency  of'  Scotland  hnd  made  him,  for  some  time, 
consider  the  union  of  the  two  crowns  as  a  hardship:  an 
opinion  which  he  held  in  common  with  many  worthy  men 
and  sincere  friends  of  their  country  in  those  days  ;  and  there 
is  a  poem  of  his  in  print  called  ^^  The  Tale  of  the  Three 
Bonnets,*'  in  which  the  manner  of  bringing  about  that  treaty 
is  handled  with  a  great  deal  of  satirical  humour:  but  hid 
good  sense  and  observation  getting,  atiength,  the  better 
of  those  early  prejudices,  this  poem  never  obtained  a  place 
in  any  of  his  two  volumesj^  and  is  now  'diflBcult  to  be  met 

To  those  who  look  upon  poetry  as  an  affair  of  labour  and 
diflBcuIty,  it  must  appear  very  strange  that  any  man  should 
compose  so  much  of  it,  with  so  little  view  either  to  fame 
or  profit.  But  the  fact  is,  that  writing  verse  cost  Ramsay 
no  trouble  at  all,  and  as  it  lightly  came  it  ligktb/  went 
In  the  "  Ever  Green,"  already  mentioned,  there  is  what 
is  called  a  ^^  Fragment  of  Hardiknute,"  of /which  almost 
one  half  made  its  first  appearance  in  that  publication. 
But  this  was  a  forgery  which  could  not  be  supposed  to  lie 
▼ery  heavy  upon  his'  conscience,  as^he  knew  that  the  origi*. 
nal  ^'Fragment"  so  justly  admired,  was  not  of  above  ten 
or  fifteen  years  greater  antiquity  than  his  owif  additions  to 
it.  For  it  bad  been  ushered  into  the  world' by  a  lady  Ward- 
law,  who  produced  it,  by  two  or  three  stanzas  at  a  time, 
saying  she  had  taken  th^m '  down  in  writing  from  an  old 
woman,  who  sung  them  while  she  was  spinning  at  her  dis- 
taff. But  as  lady  Wa^dlftW  had  given  sufficient  proofs  of 
her  poetical  genius,  by  several  smaller  compositions,  and 
as  this  spectre  of  an  old  woman  bad  never  appeared  to  any. 
body  but  herself,  none  of  her  acquaintance  ever  doubted 
of  her  being  the  true  author.  What  p^rts  of  this  prc'v 
tended  fragoPient,  as  printed  in  the  '^  Ever  Green,"  were  lady 
.  WsM^dtaw^s,  and  what  were  Ramsay's,  his  son,  from  whom  we 
likewise  had  this  anecdote,  could  not  precisely  remembei?, 
and  said,  that  they  were  all  too  nnuch  of  the  same  texture 
for  his  critical  skill  alone  to  make  the  distinction  ^  but  that 
it  was  a  point  which  might  be  easily  ascei^tained  by  com- 
paring whsitt  is  in  the  '*  Ever  Gr^ep"  with  ^he  copies  o% 

R  A  M  S  i(  Y.  9 

^  Hardiknute/*  printed  before  1724.  In  the  ^<  Ever 
Green,"  the  whole  of  this  poem  is  printed  in  the  spelling 
of  the  15th  century,  which,  though  the  flimsiest  of  all  dis* 
guises,  has  a  wonderful  effect  in  imposing  upon  the  bulk 
of  readers. 

As  to  his  person,  be  was  of  a  middle  stature,  or  some- 
what less,  but  well  shaped  and  active,  and  enjoyed  per- 
petual  health,  except  that  in  his  latter  years,  he  was  now 
and  then  troubled  with  the  gravel.  His  disposition  was 
cheerful  and  benevolent ;  and  what  is  not  often  the  lot  of 
men  of  lively  imaginations,  he  was  blessed  with  an  equality 
of  mind,  free  from  impatience  or  anxiety,  and  little  ele<» 
vated  or  cast  down  with  any  thing  prosperous  or  adverse 
that  befell  him. 

'Having  acquired  by  business  what  he  reckoned  a  suSi- 
cient  fortune,  that  is,  an  independent  subsistence  of  the 
plaiirest  kind,  he  retired,  about  1739,  to  a  small  house 
he  had  built  in  the  midst  of  a  garden  on  the  north  side  of 
the  Casde-hill  of  Edinburgh.  There  he  passed  the  last 
twenty  years  of  his  life  in  the  conversation  of  his  friends, 
in  reading  a  few  chosen  books,  in  the  cultivation  of  h;s  lit- 
tle garden,  and  in  other  innocent  and  healthful  amuse- 
ments. Although  he  had  no  further  desire  of  attracting 
the  notice  of  the  public,  he  continued  to  write  epistles, 
and  other  occasional  pieces  of  poetry,  for  the  entertainment 
of  his  private  friends.  When  urged  by  one  of  them  to 
give  some  more  of  his  works  to  the  press,  be  said,  *^  that 
he  was  more  inclined,  if  it  were  in  his  power,  to  recall 
much  of  what  he  had  already  given  ;  and  that  if  half  his 
printed  works  were  burnt,  the  other  half,  like  the  SybilPs 
books,  would  become  more  valuable  by  it.'*  He  bad  even 
formed  a  project  of  selecting  as  many  of  his  princips^l 
pieces  as  would  fill  one  volume  ;  leaving  the  rest  to  perish 
by  neglect     But  this  was  never  executed. 

Great  part  of  pyery  summer  he  passed  with  his  friends 
in  the  country,  but  chiefly  with  sir  John  Clerk  of  Penny- 
cuik,  one  of  the  barons  of  the  Exchequer,  a  gentleman 
emiuent  for  bis  learning  and  taste  in  the  polite  arts,  and 
who  bad  known  and  esteemed  Mr.  Ramsay  from  the  time 
of  bis  first  appearance.  The  death  of  this  valuable  friend, 
in  1756,  was  a  great  grief  to  him;  which  was,  however, 
mueji  alleviated  by  the  continuation  of  the  same  friendship 
\n  his  son  and  successor,  sir  James,  who,  upon  Mr.  Ram-* 
l^^'s  deatb^  wbicjb  happened.  Jan.  7,  173.S,  erected  oear 


bi9  seat  of  Pennycuik,  »  statefy  obeliak  of  hewn  storie  it 
\^s  mpmory,  wUb  this  inscription : 

Alftfio  Ramsay  Poets  egregio, 

.     Qui  latis  concessit  VII  Jan.  MDCCLVUL 

Amico  paterno  et  suo, 

Slonumentum  inscribi  jus^it 

D.  Jacobus  Clerk, 


KAMSAY  (Allan),  son  of  tbe  preceding,  and  a  distin* 
guisbed  portrait-painter,  was  born  at  Edinburgh  in  1709^ 
and  having  devoted  himself  to  painting,  went  at  an  early 
period  to  study  in  Italy,  where  he  received  some  instruct 
tions  from  SoUmene,  and  Imperiali,  two  artists  of  great 
celebrity  there.  After  bis  return  he  practised  for  some 
time  in  Edinburgh,  but  chiefly  in  London,  and  acquired 
a  considerable  degree  of  reputation  in  his  profession,  and 
piuch  esteem  from  all  who  knew  him,  as  a  scholar  and  a 
gentleman.  By  the  interest  of'  lord  Bute,  he  wa3  intro-r 
duced  to  bis  present  majesty,  when  prince  of  Wales,  whose 
portrait  he  painted  both  at  whole  Iehgtb»  and  in  profile^ 
apd  both  were  engraved|  the  fornier  by  the  unhappy  Ry-r 
land,  and  the  latter  by  Woollett.  There  are  alsq  several 
mezzotinto  prints  after  pictures  which  he  painted  of  some 
of  the  principal  personages  among  bis  countrymen.  JHe 
practised  with  sucpess  for  many  years,  and,  at  the  death 
of  Mr.  Shakelton,  in  March  1767  was  appointed  principal 
painter  to  the  crown/  a  situation  which  he  retained  till  hiii 
death,  though  he  retired  from  practice  about  eight  years 
after  his  appointment*  He  visite4  Rome  at  four  diflPerent 
times,  ^^  i^mit,^'  as  Mr.  fuseli  says,  *^  with  ti^e  love  of  cisusic 
lore,  to  trace,  4>\i  dqbious  vestiges,  the  haunts  of  ancient 
genius  and  learning. -'  On  his  return  froip  his  Ii^st  visit  to 
Jfaly,  in  which  he  was  accompanied  by  his  son,  the  present 
inajor-general  Ramsay,  he  died  a  fftw  days  softer  landing 
^t  Dover,  August  10,  i  7 84; 

Mr.  Ramsay^s  portraits  possess  a  calm  representation  of 
nature,  that  much  ei^c^eds  the  mannered  affectation  of 
squareness,  which  prevailed  among  bis  conteq^porary  ar,- 
.tists;  and  it  piay  justly  be  alloweci,  ths^t  he  was  among  the 
llrst  pf  those  who  contributed  to  improve  the  degenerate 
style  of  portrait  paintipg.  Walpole  says,  ^'Reynolds  and 
Jlams^y  have  wanted  subjects,  not  genius/*    Mons.  Rou-- 

^  From  priirate  oommunication.    Th^  reader  may  also  consult  a  life  pre- 
ixed  to  lUmsay's  Works,  1800, 1^  tqU.  Bro« 

.    R  4  la  B  A  V,  II 

fuet»  in  bU  panipblet,  eotitled  ^'  The  preae&t  state  of  the 
Axis  in  England,''  published  in  17^^^  mentions  Mr.  Ramsay 
^&  '*  ao  able  painter,  wbo,  acknowledgipg  no  other  guide 
than  nature,  brought  ^  rational  taste  of  resemblaace  with 
him  firoxn  ltai\y ;  he  shewed  even  in  his  portraits,  that  just, 
steady  spirit,  which  he  so  agreeably  displays  in  his  convert 
a^tioo/*  Be  was  a  man  of  nxuqh  literary  taste,  and  was  the 
foilknder  of  the  <^  Select  Society"  of  Edinburgh  in  1754,  tq 
which  all  the  eminently  learned  men  of  that  city  belpnged^ 
ile  wrote  hiniself  some  ingenious  pieces  on  contro\*erted 
topics  of  history^  politics,  and  criticism,  published  undef 
fhe  title  of  '^  Investigator.'*  He  wrote  also  a  pamphlet  oi| 
th^  subject  of  Elizabeth  Canning,  which  attracted  much 
Attention  at  the  time,  and  was  the  means  of  opening  the 
eyes  of  the  public,  and  even  of  the  judges,  to  the  real 
truth  aild  e:^planation  of  th^t  mysterious  event.  Mr.  Ram-* 
9^y  was  a  good  Latin,  French,  and  Italian  scholar,  and,  like 
Gato^  learned  Greek  in  his  old  age.  He  is  frequently 
laaeBtioned  by  Boswell,  as  being  of  Dr.  Johnson's  parties, 
Vho  said  of  him,  **  Yoa  will  not  find  a  i|[)an  in  whose  con* 
?ersatio9  there  is  more  instrpction,  more  infofmation,  and 
mone  elegancy  than  in  Ramsay's*"^ 
■  IJAMSAY  (Andrew  Michael),  frequently  styled  the 
Chevalier  Ramsay,  a  title  by  which  be  frequently  signed 
)ii8  letters,  was  a  Scotsman  p(  an  ancient  family,  and  was 
born  at  Ayr  in  that  kingdom,  Jpne  9,  1686.  He  received 
the  first  part  of  his  education  at  Ayr,  and  was  then  re* 
9)oved  to  Edinburgh;  where,  distinguishing  himself  by 
good  parts  and  uncommon  proficiency,  he  was  sent  for  to 
St*  Andrew's,  in  order  to  a^^end  a  son  of  (he  earl  of 
Wemyss  ia  that  university.  After  this,  he  travelled  to 
Holland,  aqd  went  to  Leyden ;  wher^,  becoming  acquainted 
with  Poiretf  the  mystic  divipe,  he  became  tinctured  with 
^is  doctrii^s;;  and  resolved,  fo^  farther  satisfaction,  to 
consult  the  celebrated  Fenelon,  archbishop  of  Cambray, 
who  had  long  imbibed  the  fundamental  principles  of  that 
theplogy.  Before  he  left  Scotland,  he  had  conceived  a 
disgust  to  all  the  forms  of  religion  in  his  native  country^ 
and  had  jtettled  in  a  species  of  deism,  which  became  con- 
firmed during  his  abode  in  Holland,  yet  not  without  leav- 
ing him  soinetimes  in  a  considerable  state '  of  perplexity* 

1  Edwards's  Continuation  pf  Walpole's  Anecdote8.-rrPilti|lStQD}  by  Fuselk— >• 
*t*ytlcr'ii  Life  of  fCames. — BQSweli'^  Life  pf  Johnson. 

13  RAMS  A»Y. 

On  bis  arrival  at  Cambray  in  1710,  -he  was  received  -whit  v 
great  kindness  by  the  archbishop,  who  took  him  into  his 
family,  heard  with  patience  and  attention  the  history  of  his- 
religious  principles,  entered  heartily  with  him  inio  a  dis^- 
cussion  of  .them,,  and,  .in  six  months'  time,  is  said  to  have 
made  him  as  good,  a  catholic  as  himself. 

The  subsequent  course  of  his  life  received  its  dtrection- 
fropQ  his  £riend:ihip  and  connections  with  this  prelate.  Fe-^ 
uelon  bad  been  preceptor  to  the  duke  of  Burgundy,  heir*' 
apparent,  after  the  death  of  his  father  the  dauphin,  to  the 
crown  of  France  ;,  yet  neither  of  .them  came  to  the  posses-^ 
SJQU  of  it,  being  survived  by  Lewis  XIV.  who  was  •sue-'  * 
eeedfid  by  his  great  grandson,  son  to  the  duke  of  Burgundy,* 
and  now  Lewis  XV.  Ramsay,  haviliig  been  first  governor 
to  the  dnke  de  Charteaw-Thiery  and  tbe.prince  de  Turenne,* 
was  made  knight  of  the  order  of  St.  Lazarus ;  and  after- 
ward^  was  invited  to  Rome  by  the  chevalier  de  St.  George,- 
styled  there  James  IIL  king  of  Great  Britain,  to  take  tb^ 
charge  of  educating  fans  chjfklren.  He  went  accordingly  to 
that  court  in  1724 ;  but  the  intrigues  and  dissentions,  which 
he  found  on  his  arrival  there,  gave  him  so  much  uneasiness, 
that,  with  the  Pretender's  leave,  he  presently  returneid  to^ 
Paris.  Thence  he  returned  to  Scotland,  and  was  kindly 
received  by  the  duke  of  Argyle  |ind  Greenwich  ;  in  whose  . 
family  he  resided  some  years,  and  employed  his  leisure 
there  in  writing  several  of  his.  works..  In  1730  hebad  the 
degree  of  doctor  of  iaw  conferred  on  him  at^Oxford,  being 
adniitted  for  this  purpose  of  St.  Mary  hall  in  April  of  that 
year,,  wd  presented  to  his  degree  by  the  Celebrated  tory 
Dr.  King,  the  principal  of  that  house.  .  After  iiis  return  to 
France,  he  resided  some  time  at  Pontoise,  a  seat  of  the 
prince  de  Turenne,  dpke  de  bouillon ;  with  ;wfaom.becon* 
|;inued  in  the  post  of  intend^t  till  his  death.  May  6,.  1743, 
at  St.  Germain-en*Laie,  where  his  i  body  was  interred  ; 
but  bis  heart  was  deposited  ii^.tbe  nunnery  of  ^t.  Sacva^ 

ipent  at  Paris. ,  ' 

pis  works  are,  1.  V  Discours  sur  le  Poeme  Epique;'*^ 
prefixed  to  the.  later  editions  of  Telemaohus..  2.  >'  La  Vie* 
de  Mr.  Fenelon,^'  of  which  there  is  an^Euglisb  translation^ 
3.  "  Essai  sur  le  Gouvernment  Civil."  4.  *'  Le  Psycho^ 
inetre,  ou  Reflexions  sur.les  difii^rens  cbaracteres  de  Tes-*^ 
eprit,  par  un  Milord  Anglois."  These  are  remarks  upon 
lord  Shaftesbury's  Characteristics.  5.  "  Les  Voyages  do 
Cyrus,"  ia  French  and  English,  the  only  work  of  his  much 

RAMSAY.  11 

known  in  this  country.  It  is  a  professed  imiution  of  Tele- 
machnsj  and  we  can  remember  was  once  a  very  popukr 
boofcr  6.  **  L'Histoite  de  M.  de  Turenne,  in  French  and 
English.**  7.  *^  Poems,**  somewhat  in  th^  mystic  and  in- 
flated style,  printed  at  Edinburgh,  17:^8,  4to,  seemingly 
ikritfaoat  hts' knowledge.  8.  *'Two  Letters  in  French,  to 
M;  Racine-  th^  son,  upon  the  true  sentiments  of  Mr.  Pope, 
in  his  Essay  on  Man.*'  These  were  printed  after  his  de* 
eease,  in  "  Les  Oeuvres  de  M.  Racine  le  fils,**  tom.  IL 
1747,  and  form  a  kind  of  defcDCe  of  Pope  from  the  charge 
of  irreligion  in  the  "  Essay.**  This  is  a  subject  of  which 
the  chevalier  was  perhaps  a  better  judge  than  of  philoso- 
phy ;  for  in  one  of  these  letters  he  calls  Locke  genie  super^ 
ficiely  ^*  a  superficial  genius.'*  Two  posthumous  works  of 
his  were  also  printed  at  Glasgrow  :  9,  **  A  plan  of  educa- 
tion ;^'  and,  10.  **  Philosophical  Principles  of  natural  and 
revealed  Religion,  explained  and  unfolded  in  a  geometrical 
order,*'  1749,  2  vols,  4to,  neither  of  which  ever  attracted 
much  attention.  The  last,  bis  French  biographers  seem  to 
.be  of  opinion,  must  have  been  either  falsely  attributed  to 
him,  or  much  altered  by  his  editors,  as  he  maiutains  the 
doctrine  of  the  metempsychosis,  and  denies  the  eternity  of 
heli-tonnenta ;  and  not  only  contends  that  these  were  the 
Benttments  of  Feoeion,  but  that  they  are  agreeable  to  the 
decisions  of  the  church.^ 

.  RAMSAY  (Jambs),  justly  celebrated  for  his  philan- 
thropy, was  born  July  25,  1733,  at  Frasersburgh,  a  small 
towo  in  the  county  of  Aberdeen,  North  Britain.  From  his 
earliest  years  he  discovered  a  serious  disposition,  and  a 
strong  thirst  for  knowledge,  and  after  bis  grammatical  edu- 
cation,' was  inclined  to  pursue  the  studies  necessary  for  a 
clergyman  ;  but  the  narrowness  of  his  circumstances  pre- 
'  Ycnted.his  going  to  Oxford  or  Cambridge,  where  he  might 
be  qualified  to' enter  the  English  church,  in  the  principles 
of  which'  be  had  been  educated.  Yielding  therefore  Xo 
necessity,  be  resolved  to  study  surgery  and  pharmacy,  and 
was  with  this  view  bound  apprentice  to  Dr.  Findlay,  a  me- 
dical/practitioner  in  Frasersburgh.'  In  the  mean  time,  with 
the  approbation  of  his  master,  he  entered,  in  1750,  of 
Kiog*s  college,  Aberdeen,  and  having  obtained  one  of  the 
highest  bursaries  or  exhibitions  belonging  to  that  seminary, 
lie  was  enabled  to  prosecute  his  studies  with  comfcprr,  and 

*  Biog.  Brit.— -J9«ift*8  Workf.--Wartoii's  Essty  on  Pope. 

14  tt  A  M  i  A  It. 

forthr^e  years  had  Dr.  Reid,  then  one  df  the  pit>ffe88or»^ 
for  bis  preceptor.  T6  that  great  atid  amiable  philosopher 
be  so  recommended  himself  by  his  talents,  his  industry^ 
and  his  virtues,  that  he  was  hondured  with  bis  friendship 
to  the  day  of  his  death. 

In  1755^  he  went  to  London^  and  sttidied  surgery  and 
pharmacy  tinder  the  auspices  of  Dr.  Macailley ;  in  vhosm 
family  be  lived  for  two  years^  much  esteemed  both  by  hint 
and  his  celebrated  ladjr.    Afterwards  he  served  in  his  tne^ 
dical  capacity  for  several  years'  in  the  royal  navy,  and  by 
the  humane  and  diligent  discbarge  of  his  duties,  endeared 
himself  to  the  seattien^  and  acquired  the  esteem  of  his  offi^i 
cers»    Of  his  humanity  there  is  indeed  one  memorable 
instance,  which  must  not  be  omitted^     Whilst  he  acted  as 
surgeon  of  the  Arundel^  then  commarided  by  Captain  (af^ 
terwards  Vice-admiral  sir   Charles)  Middleton^,  a  ^Iave«< 
ship,  on  her  passage  from  Africa  to  the  West  Iudies|,  fell  \t$ 
with  the  fleet  to  yvhich  the  Arundel  belonged.     An  epi- 
demical distemper^  too  common  in  such  vessels,  had  swept 
itway  not  only  a  great  number  of  the  unfortunate  negroes^ 
but  also  many  of  the  ship's  crew,  and  among  others  the 
aurgeon.     In  this  distressed  situation  the  commander  of 
the  Guinea  ship  applied  to  the  English  commodore  for 
medical  assistance;  but  not  a  surgeon  or  surgeon's  matei 
in  the  whole  fleet,    except  Mr.  Ramsay,  woiild  expose 
himself  to  thie  contagion  of  so  dangerous  a  distempen 
Prompted,  however,  by  bis  own  innate  benevolence,  and 
fully  authorized  by  bis  no  less  benevolent  commander,  thd 
surgeon  of  the  Arundel,  regardless  of  personal  danger,* 
wept  on  board  the  infected  ship,  visited  all  the  patientS| 
and  remained  long  enough  to  leave  behind  him  written  di- 
rections for  their  future  treatment*    In  this  ienterprise  he 
escaped  the  contagion^  but  in  his  return  to  Uis  own  ship, 
just  as  he  had  got  on  the  deck,  he  fell,  and  broke  his  thigh 
bone,  by  which  he  was  confined  to  his  apartment  for  tea 
months,  aiid  rendered  i^  a  small  degree  lame  through  the 
remainder  of  his  life. 

The  humanity  which  he  displayed  on  this  occasion 
gained  him  the  friendship  and  esteem  of  sir  Charies  Mid- 
dleton,  which  no  future  action  of  his  life  had  the  smallest 
tendency  to  impair ;  but  the  fracture  of  his  thigb*bone, 
and  his  subsequent  lameness,  determtn^ed  him  to  quit  the 

*  Afterwards  Lord  BtriitfH* 

RAMSAY;  15 

navy,  aod  once  more  turn  bis  thoughts  towards  tb^  church; 
Accordingly,  while  the  Arundel  lay  at  St.  Christopber^s^ 
he  opened  his  views  to  some  of  the  principal  inhabitants  of 
the  island,  by  wham  he  was  so  strongly  recommended  to 
the  bishop .  of  London,  that  on  his  coming  home  witlr  git 
Charles  Middleton,  who  warmly  joined  in-  the  recommen-^ 
datipQ,  he  was  admitted  into  orders ;  after  which  he  knme«^ 
diately  returned  to  St  Christopher!s,  where  be  was  prc 
aented  by  the  governor  to  two  reetories,  valued  at  700/.  a 

As  soon  as  he  bad  taken  possession  of  his  livings,  iti 
1763>  he  married  Miss  Rebecca  Akers,  the  daughter  of  a 
planter  of  the  best  family-connexions  in  the  i^and,  and 
began  to  regulate  his  household  on  the  pious  plan  incul- 
cated in  his  *^  E^y  on  the  Treatment  and  Conversion  of 
the  African  slaves  in  the  British  sugar  colonies."  He  sum- 
moned aU  bis  own  slaves  daily  to  the  prayers  of  the  family, 
when  he  took  an  opportunity  of  pointing  out  to  them  their 
duty  in  the  plainest  terms,  reproving  those  that  had  don^ 
amiss,  and  commending  such  as  had  shewn  any  thing  like 
virtue:  but  he  confessed  that  his  occasions  for  reproof  were 
more  frequent  than  for  commendation*  As  became  his 
office  and  character,  he  inculcated  ufSon  others  what  he 
practised  himsdf^  and  knew  to  be  equally  the  duty  of  alL 
On  his  first  settlement  as  a  mkiister  in  the  West  Indies,  ha 
made  some  pahlic  attempts  to  instruct  slaves.  He  begaii 
to  draw  up  some  easy  plain  discourses  for  their  instruction. 
He  invited  them  to  attend  on  Sundays,  at  particular  hours. 
He  appointed  hours  at  home  to  instruct  such  sensible  slaved 
as  would  of  tbeoiselves  attend.  He  repeatedly  exhorted 
their  masters  to  encourage  such  in  their  attendance,  and 
recommended  the  French  custom,  of  beginning  and  end-^ 
ing'work  by  prayer.  But  inconceivable  is  the  iistlessness 
with  which  he  was  heard,  and  bitter  was  the  censure  heap- 
ed oh  him  in  return.  It  was  quickly  suggested,  and  gene- 
rally believed,  that  he  wanted  to  interrupt  the  work  of 
slaves,  to  give  them  time,  forsooth,  to  say  their  prayers  ;f 
and  that  he  aimed  at  the  making  of  them  Christians,  to  ren- 
der them  incapable  of  being  good  slaves,  &c«  That  hef 
was  hurt  by  this  display  of  gross  ignorance,  bigotry,  and 
avarice^  cannot  be  questioned,  for  be  had  a  mind  benevo- 
lent, warm,  and  irritable ;  but  be  still  retained  many  friends 
among  the  most  worthy  members  of  the  community. 

Although  his  serious  studies  were  now  theological,  he* 

16  RAM  SAY. 

considered  himself  as  answerable  for  a  proper  use  of  ^wry 
branch  of  knowledge  which  he  possessed.  He  therefore 
took  the  charge  of  several  plantations  around  him  in  the 
capacity  of  a  medical  practitioner ;  and  attended  them  with 
unremilting  diligence^  and  with  great  success.  Thus  he 
lived  till  1777,  when,  relinquishing  the  practice  of  physic 
entirely,  .he  paid  a  visit  to  the  place  of  his  nativity,  .which 
he  had  not  seen  since  1755.  After  remaining  three  weeks 
^n.j^cqtland,  and  .near  a  year  in  England,  during  which 
time  he  was  admitted  into  the  confidence  of  lord  George 
Germaine9  secretary  of  state  for  the  American  department^ 
he  was  appointed  chaplain  to  admiral  Barrington,  then  go- 
ing, out  to  take  a  command  in  the  West  Indies.  .Under 
this  gallant  officer,  and  afterwards  under  lord  Rodney,  he 
^as  present  at  several  engagements,  where  he  displayed  a 
fortitude  and  zeal  for  the  honour  of  bis  country  which  would 
not  hsLve  disgraced  the  oldest  admiral.  To  the  navy,  in^* 
deed,  he  seems  to  have  been  strongly  attached;  and  he 
wrote,  at  an  early  period  of  hi^  life,  an  ^^  Essay  on.  the 
Duty  and  Qualifications  of  a  Sea-officer,'^  with  such  a 
knowledge  of  the  service  as  would  not  have  discredited  the 
pen  of  the  most  experienced  commander.  Qf  the  first  edi* 
tion  of  this  essay  the  profits  were  by  its  benevolent  author 
appropriated  to  the .  Magdalen  and  British  Lying-in  hoa*- 
pitals,  as  those  of  tjhe.  second  and  third  were  to  the  Mari-* 
time-'School^  or,  in  the  event  of  its  failure,  to  the  Marine 

Although  caressed  by  both  the  admirals..under  whom  bd 
served,  and  having  such  influence  with  lord  Rodney  as  to 
be  able  to  reader  essential  services  to  the  Jews  and  other 
persons  whom  he  thought  harshly  treated  at  the  capture  of 
St.  Eustatius,  Mr.  Ramsay  once  more  quitted  the  sea-ser<* 
vice,  apd  retired  to  his  pastoral  charge  in  the  island  of 
St.  Christopher's.  There,  howeyer,  though  the  fomier 
animosities  against  htm  bad  entirely  subsided,  and  his 
friendship  was  now  solicited  by  every  person  of  conse-* 
quence  in. the  island,  be  remained  but  a  little  w;hile. .  Sick 
of  the  life  of  a  planter,  and  of  the  prospect  of  the  slavery 
around  him,  he  resigned  his  livings,  bade  adieu  to  the 
island,  and  returned  to  England  with  his  wife  and  family 
in  the  end  of  17^1.  Immediately  on  his  arrival,  he  was,. 
through  the  interest  of  his  steady  friend  sir  Charles  Mid-^ 
dleton,  presented  to  the  livings  of  Teston  and  Nettlesl^adr 
in  the  county  of  Kent,    . 

K  A  MSA  Y.  •  t1 

Here  be  was  sood  detetauned^  by  tbe  ad^ce  of  those 
wfaom  be  most  respected,  to  publish  what  bad  been  written 
BHkny  years  before,  «ii  '^  Essay  on  tbe  Treatment  and  Con« 
vekston  of  AArican  Slaves  in  the  British  Sugar  Colonies/* 
Tbe  controversy  in  which  this  publication  involved  him,  is 
probably  recent  in  the  memory  of  many  of  our  readers* 
He  defended  himself  with  great  ability;  but  they  who 
could  not  answer  bis  argaments,  could  at  least  invent  ca» 
lumnies :  and  sorry  we  are  to  add,  that  they  wei^  not  un«- 
successfiil  in  removing  one  poweirfiQl  advocate  for  tbe  abor 
lition  of  that  abominable  traffic,  of  which  all  Europe  seems 
now.  ashamed.  The  agitation  given  to  his  mind  by  these 
calumnies,  and  the  fatigues  he  underwent  in  his  endea^^ 
vours  to  rescue  from  misery  the  most  helpless  portion  of 
the  human  race,  contributed  to  shorten  a  life  in  no  com- 
mon degree  useful.  He  had  been  for  some  time  afflicted 
with  a  pain  in  his  stomach,  for  which  he  was  prevailed 
upon,  though  with  great  reluctance,  to  try  the  effects. of 
air  and  exercise,  by  attempting-  a  journey  of  100  miles. 
But  in  London,  being  seized  with  a  violent  vomiting  of 
blood,  be  was  unable  either  to  proceed  or  to  be  removed 
home;  and  in  the  house  of  sir  Charles  Middleton  he  ended 
hi?  days,  July  20,  1789.  He  may  be  justly  tfcconnted  one 
of  the  first  and  most  active  of  those  benevolent  men'  who 
roused  the  attention  of  the  nation  to  the  degradation  of  its 
character  in  continuing  the  slave-trade,  although  he  did 
not  live  to  witness  the.  completion  of  bis  wishes.  His 
works,  besides  tbose  to  which  we  have  alluded,  consist  of 
a  volume  of  ^^  Sea^Sermons,''  preached  on  board  bis  ma* 
jesty's  ship  the  Prince  of  Wales ;  a  **  Treatise  on  Signals,'' 
and  various  pamphlets  in  answer  to  his  opponents  on  tbe 
subject  of  the  slave-trade.' 

RAMSDEN  (Jesse),  an  excellent  optician  and  ckecha- 
nist,  was  born  at  Halifax,  in  Yorkshire,  in  1795,  and  after 
some  school- education,  served  an  apprenticeship  in  his 
native  place  to  the  trade  of  a  hot-^presser,  after  which  he 
came  to  London,  and  applied  himself  to  engraving.  Iti 
the  course  of  this  employment,  mathemi^tical  instruments 
were  often  brought  to  him  to  be  engraved,  which  induced 
hipn  to  try  his  genius  in  that  way;  and  such  was  his  suc- 
cess, th^t  by  1763  be  made  instruments  for  several  of  the 
best  artists.     Soon  after  his  coming  up  to  London  he  mar* 

^  EncyelopMdia  BciUnnicB. 

Vol.  XXVI.  C 

rt      .  tlAMSDEU 

ried  the  dftugbtdr'of'Mr.  DoUond,  tbe  celebrated  optieiaa 
of  St»  Pftut'ftcharcb-yard;  by  which  means  be  waaintro* 
da<ied  to'Che  knowlec%e  of  a  profession  in  which  Ms  genina 
enabled  him  to  exeell,  and  attract. the  approbation  of  the 
publici  in  the  same  manner  as  bis  private  worth  endearad 
hioi  to  society.     In  1763  or  176%  he  opened  a  shop  iii'the 
fiayo)arklet;  but  in  1775  be  removed  to  Piccadilly,  wheve 
be  carried  on  business  till  his  death. 
*    Mr.  Ramsden  greatly  improved  Hadley^s  quadrant,  ov 
sextant ;  and  be  invented  «  curious  nyuibine  for  dividing 
oiatbematical  instruments ;  for  which  discovery  he  receiviad 
a  premium  from  the  board  of  longitude*    He. also  improved 
the  construction  of  the  theodoUtei  as  well  as  the  barometer 
for  measuring  the  heights  of  mountains.    The  pyrometer 
{or  measuring  the  dilatation  of  bodiies  by  beat,  also  employed 
his  talents ;  and  he  made  many  important  discosreries  ^a^' 
improvements  in  optics.     But  his  astronomical  instrunietitt 
appear  to  have  been  the  principal  of  his  works.     He  imh 
proved' tbfe  refracting  mkromecer^as  also  the  transit  instru* 
ment  and  quadrant    He  procured  a  patent  for  an  impnoved 
equatorial.    His  moral  quadrants  were  excellent,  and  much 
sought  for.  J '    ' 

'  Mr.  Ramsden  was  chosen  a  fellow  of  the  royaL  society  in 
1786.  B^ing  always  of  a  slender  frame  of  body,:  as.  well  as 
of  delicate  constitotion,  in  his  latter  years  his  healtbgra- 
duaUy  declined ;  to  recruit  which  be  bad  retirbd  to  Brigfat- 
iielmslone,  where  he  died,  Nov.  5,  1800.* 

>  RAMUS  (Petbr),  or  La  Ramme^b,  a  celebrated  French 
mathematician  and  philosopher,  was  born  in  1515,  in  a 
Village  of  Vermandois,  in  Picardy,  of  a  family  so  greatly 
xTeduced  by  the  ravages  of  war,  that  his  grandfather,  iiaviag 
lost  all  bis  possessions,  was  obliged  to  turn  collier  for  a.  live- 
4ifabod.  His  father  followed  husbandry,  biit  appeanr  to 
have  been  unable  to  give  ai^y  education  to  this  son,  whose 
early  years  were  spent  in  mean  occupations.  At  leogthifae 
obtained  the  place  of  servant  in  the  college  of  Navarre,  at 
Paris^  where  be  picked  up  the  rudiments  of  learning,  and 
-became  i^cquaihted  .with  the  logic  of  Aristotle*  All  his 
ieisaie  time,  he  devoted  to  study,  so  that  what  isreiated  in 
tbe'lkst  Scaligeraoa  of  his  living  to  nineteen  without  learn - 
iog  to  read,  and  of  his  being  very^ dull  and  stupid,  is  to- 
•taliy  ioopnsistent  with  the  truth.     On  the  contrary, '  his 

>  fiatton't  Diet,  new  edit.  1S15. 

R  A,M  U  St  l^ 

talBtfRi  and  perseveraace  at  Ia$t-procuned.him  to  be  regii- 
IsLtly  educated  in  the  coHege,  and  baying  finished  classical 
leamiiig  and  rhetoric^  be  wetat  through  a  course  of  philo- 
sophy, which  took  hiiD  up  three  years  and  a  half.  The 
tl^sU  'which  be  made  for  bis  oiaster's  degree  denied  tbe 
authority  of  Aristotle,  and  this  be  maintained  with  great 
ability,  and  very  ingeniously  replied  to^  the  objections  of 
the  professors.  This  success  inclined  him  to  examine  the 
doctrine  of  Aristotle  more  closely,  and  to  combat  it  vi- 
l^orously  :  but  be  confined  himself  principally  to  bis  logic. 
All  this,  bowever,  was  little  less  than  heresy;  and  the  two 
$rst  books  he  published,  the  one  entitled  **  Institutiones 
Dialectioae/'  the  other  ^<  Aristotelicie  Animadversiones/* 
30  irritated  the  professors  of  the  uuiversity  of  Paris,  that, 
besides  many  effusions  of  spleen  and  calumny,  they  prose- 
'  cuted  this  anti-peripatetic  before  the  civil  magistrate,  as  a 
«man.  who  was  at  war  with  religion  and  learning.  The  cause 
was  then  carried  befoie  the  parliament  of  Paris,  but  bis 
enemies  dreading  either  the. delay  or  the  fairness  of  iv 
trial  ihere,  brought  it  before  the  king,  Francis  L  who 
ordered  that  Ramus,  and  Antony  Govea,  who  was  his  prin* 
cipal  adversary,  should  chuse  two  judges  each,  to  pro- 
nounce on  the  controversy  after  they  should  have  ended 
their  disputation ;  while  he  himself  api^ointed  an  umpirl^. 
Ramus,  in  obedience  to  the  king's  orders,  appeared  befbre 
the  fiite  judjiifes,  though  three  of  them  were  his  declared 
enemies.  The  dispute  lasted  two  days ;  and  Govea  had  all 
the  advantage  he  could  desire,  Ramus's  books  being  pro- 
hibited in  all  parts  of  the  kingdom,  and  their  author  sen- 
tenced not  to  write  or  teach  philosophy  any  longer.  This 
sentence,  which  elated  his  enemies  beyond  all  bounds  of 
moderation,  was  published  in  Latin  and  French  in  all  the 
.streets  of  Paris,  and  in  all  parts  of  Europe,  whither  it  could 
rfaesenc.  Plays  were  acted  with  great  pomp,  in  which  Ra- 
-.r]Dus;wa(S  ridiculed  in  various  ways  amidst  the  applauses  and 
accIaBiations  of  the  Aristotelians.  This  happened  in  l^^S. 
.  !rhe^ year  after,  the  plague  made  great  havoc  in  Paris,  and 
ifbrced  most  of  the  students  to  quit  the  university,  and  cut 
off  .several  of  the  professors*  On  their  returuy  Ramus, 
being  .prevailed  upon  to  teach  in  it,  soon  drew  together  a 
great  number  of  auditors,  and  through  the  patronage  and 
protection  of  the  cardinal  of  Lor  rain  he  obtained  in  1547 
from  Henry  IL  the  liberty  of  speaking  and  writings  and  the 
royal  professorship  of  philosophy  and  eloquence  in  15-51. 

c  2     •  * 

20  RAMUS. 

Tbe  parliament  of  Paris  bad,  before  this,  maiatained  him' 
in  the  liberty  of  joining  philosophical  lectures  to  those  of 
eloquence ;  and  this  arret  or  decree  bad  put  an  end  to  se* 
teral  prosecQtions,  which  Ramus  and  his  pupils  had  suf- 
^er^ d.  As  soon  as  be  was  made  regius  professor,  be  was 
fired,  with  new  zeal  for  inaproving  the  sciences;  and  was 
extremely  laborious  and  active,  on  this  occasion,  notwith* 
standing  the  machinations  of  his  enemies.  He  bore  at  that 
time  a  part  in  a  very  singular  affair,  which  deserves  to  be 
mentioned.'  About  1550  the  royal  professot^  corrected, 
^ttaong  other  abuses,  that  which  had  crept  into  the  pro- 
nunciation of  the  Latin,  tongue.  Some  of  the  clergy  fol- 
lowed this  regulation ;  but  the  Sorbonnists  were  mnch 
offended  at  it  as  an  innovation,  and  defended  tbe  old  pro- 
nunciation with  great  zeal.  Things  at  length  were  carried 
so  far^  that  a  clergyman  who  had  a  good  living  was  ejected 
from  his  beoefice  for  having  pronounced  quisquis^  quanqtimfi, 
according  to  the  new  way,  instead  of  kiskts^  kankam^  ac- 
cording to  the  old.  Tbe  clergyman  applied  to  the  parKa- 
l^ent;  and  the  royal  professors,  with  Ramus  among  tbem, 
fearing  he  would  fall  a  victim  to  the  credit  and  authority 
of  the  faculty  of  divines,  for  presuming  to  pronounce  the 
Latin  tongue  according  to  their  regulations,  thought  it  in- 
eumbent  on  them  to  assist  him.  Accordingly  they  went 
k>  the  court  of  justice,  and  represented  in  such  strong 
terms  the  indignity  of  the  prosecutix)tt,  that  the  person  ac- 
cused was  acquitted,  and  the  pronunciatiot>  of  Latin  re- 
covered its  liberty. 

I(amus  was  bred  up  in  the  catholic  religion,,  but  after- 
wards deserted  it,  and  began  to  discover  bis  new  principles 
in  1552|^by  removing  the  images  from  the  chapel  of  bis 
college.  This  naturally  increased  tbe  number  as  well  as 
btgoity  of  his  enemies,  who  now  succeeded  in  compelting 
him  to  leave  the  university.  He  still  appears  to  have  bitd 
a  friend  in  the  king,  who  gave  him  leave  to  retire  to  Fon- 
tainbleau  ;  where,  by  the  help  of  books  in  tbe  royal  library, 
he  pursued  geometrical  and  astronomical  studies;  As  soon 
as  his  .euenries  knew  where  he  was,  he  found  himself  no- 
where safe ;  so  that  he  was  forced  to  go  and  conbeal  him« 
tfetf  in  several  other  places.  During  this  interval  the  ex- 
eellent  and  curious  collection  of  books  he  bad  left  in  the 
college  was  plundered  ;  but,  after  a  peace  was  concluded 
in  1563,  between  Charles  IX.  and  the  protestants,  he  again 
took  possessionof  his  employment,  maintained  hiinself  in 

H  AM  U  13.  fl 

it  with  vigour,  and  was  particularly  zealous  im  promoting, 
the  study  of  the  niatbeinatics.  This  lasted  till  the  seqond 
civil  war  in  1567,  when  be  was  forced  to  leave  Paris  and. 
fibelt^  himself  among  the  protestants,  in  whose  i|rmy  he 
was  at  the  battle  of  St.  Denys.  Peace  having  been  coo* 
duded  some  months  after,  he  was  restored  to  bis  professor«.> 
ship ;  biit>  foreseeing  that  the  war  would  soon  break  oat 
again,  h^  obtained  the  king's  leave  to  visit  the  univ^sitt#s 
of  Germany.  He  accordingly  undertook  this  journey  ia 
1568,  and  received  much  respect  and  great  honours 
wherevfer  be  came«  He  returned  to  France  after  the  third 
war  ip,  1571 ;  and  lost  his  life  miserably,  in  4he  massacre 
of  St.  Bartholomew's  day,  1572.  Charpentaire^  a  pro^  , 
feasor  of  mathematics,  who  had  been  eclipsed  by  the  vi««  - 
perior  talents  of  Ramus,  seized  the  opportuaity  of  being 
revenged  upon  his  rival,  and  employed  assassinstto  murder 
him.  jSamus  gave  them  money  in  order  to  procure  his 
escape, 'but  in  vain;  for,  after  wounding  him  in  jyiany 
places,  they  threw  him  out  of  a  window ;  and,  hia  bpwetf 
gushing  put,  in  the.  fall,  some  Aristotelian  scholars,  en^ 
Couraged  by  their  masters,  spread  them  about  the-  streisls ; 
then  dragged  his  body  in  a  moM  ignominious  manner,  and 
threw  it  into  the  Seine.  ^  i       ..       * 

'  •  Ramus  was  a  man  of  eloquence,  and  ofuniversal-  learn* 
ing/r  lie  was  free  from  avarice,  sober,  temperate,'  and 
chaste.  Hlis  temperance  was  Tery  exemplary*  Ha  C0a» 
lented  himself  with  only  boiled  meat,  and  ate  but*  little  ,at 
dinner :  he  drank  no  wine  for  twenty  years,  nprtl^n  until 
bis  physicians  prescribjed  it.  Heiay  upomatraw'$  used  to  rise 
very  early,  and  to  study  all  day ;  and -led  a^dAgleliSs  with 
the  utmost  purity*  He  was  zealous  for  the  protftstant  r^r 
liglouj^  but  was  ^t < the  s^me  time  an' advocate  fpr^tatrp- 
ducieg  a  damocratioal  government'  ia  the  cfaurch-;  wbi^h 

design  was  defeated  in  a  iiational  synosd* 
*^''  l^ew  persons  in  the  present-day  will  be  ioclined-to  dou^t 
IfhelberHamas  did  aright  in  attempting  4a  qndeimine.ihe 
ffkindaiions  pf  that  anthpritty  which  Aristotle  bad  so  Jpng 
possessed,  in  the  schools^  and  no  one  .who  will  lake  .the 
ttmtbte  lie  examine  the  manner  in  which  be  li^id  opett^  tb# 
4efM)ta  and  incons^tencies  of  the  Organon,:  will:  hesitate  >n 
ano^iog  him  Mosiderable  merit  in  this  partjof  his/des^(tt» 
lBaM;e«ipf)nganewlogioalinstitute,;Ratnfiswasnot,  bowefec' 
e^liiaUy  sue<^$8ful.  The  general  outline  of  )^h.  pieiii  aeopvdr 
ingM'BrunKer^  is  this:  ^<  Considering  dialectics  fis^  afief 

23  RAMUS. 

deducing  conclusions  frora  prenoises,  he  eiideavout^  to  im- 
prove this  art  by  uniting  it  with  that  of  rhetoric.  Of  the 
several  branches  of  rhetoric^  he  considers  invetitton  and 
disposition  as  belonging  equally  to  logic.  Making  Cicero 
bis  chief  guide,  be  divides  his  treatise' on  dialectics  into 
two  parts,  the  first  of  which  treats  of  the  invention  of  ar- 
gUQients,  the  second,  of  judgments.  Arguments  he  de- 
rives not  only  from  what  the  Aristotelians  call  middle 
terms,  but  from  any  kind  of  proposition,  which,  connected 
with  another,  may  serve  to  prove  any  assertion.  Of  these 
be  enumerates  various  kinds.  Judgments  he  divides  into 
axioms,  or  self-evident  propositions,  and  dianoea,  or  de- 
ductions by  means  of  a  series  of  arguments.  Both  these  he 
divides  into  various  classes;  and  illustrates  the  whole  by 
examples  from  the  ancient  orators  and  poets.*' 
',.  In  the  logic  of  Ramus  many  things  are  borrowed  from 
^Aristotle,  and  only  appear  under  new  names ;  aiid  ihany 
Others  are  derived  irom  other  Grecian  sources,  particularly 
irom  the  dialogues  of  Plato  and  the  logic  of  the  Stoics. 
The  author  has  the  merit  of  turning  the  art  of  reasoning 
from  the  futile  speculations  of  the  schools  to  forensic  and 
common  use ;  but  his  plan  is  defective  in  confining  the 
whole:  dialectic  art  to  the  single  object  of  disputation,  and 
in  omitting  many  things  which  respect  the  general  culture 
of  the  understanding,  and  the  investigation  of  truth.  Not* 
withstanding  the  defects  of  bis  system,  we  cannot,  how- 
ever, subscribe  to  the  severe  censure  which  has  been 
passed  upon  Ramus  by  lord  Bacon  apd  others;  for  much  is, 
we  chink,  due  to  him,  for  having  with  so  much  firmness 
and  perseverance  asserted  the  natural  freedom  of  the  hu- 
man understanding.  The  logic  of  Ramus  obtained  great 
authority  in  the  schools  of  Germany,  Great  Britain,  Hol- 
land, and  France;  and  long  and  violent  contests  isirose 
between  the  followers  of  Ramus  and  those  of  the  Stagyrite. 
T**hese  were  not,  however,  sufficiently  important  in  their 
conseiquences  to  require  a  distinct  relation,  and  the  fame  of 
.  Peter  Ramus  vanished  before  that  of  Des  Cartes.  He  pub- 
lished a  great  many  books :  the  principal  of  those  on  ma- 
tbenfiatics  are,  1.  "  Scholarum  Mathematicarumr  libri  31.** 
2.  '*  ArithrAeticsB  libri  duo ;  Aigebrae  libri  duo ;  Geometriie 
libri  27."  These!  were  greatly  enlarged  and  explained  by 
Sehoner,  and  published  in  2  volumes  4to,  and  there  were 
several  editions  of  them.  '■  The  geometry,  which  is  cbie^y 
practical,  was  translated  into  English  by  ^Uiam  Bfedwelli 

&  A  M  U  S.  23 

and  London,  1636,  Ui  4tp.  H^  publiihod  aisp 
a  singular  work,  Paris  1558,  4to,  ti^e  l$bpo)Ls,of  Euclid, 
contaioiog  only.tbe.definitioos.aQd  general  enunciations,  of 
tbe  propositions,  without  diagfams.or  d^moiif  tratipi»|  which 
he. thinks  it  better  for  the  teacher  to  suppress*  ^  , 

BAMUSIO,  or  RAMNUSIO  (Jqhn  Baptist),,  a  valua,- 
ble  coJiector  of  voyages  and  travels,  the  son  of  Paul  Il%- 
musio,  Ik  lawyer,  was  born  at  Venice  in  1486.     He  made 
great  proficiency  in  his  classical  and  philosophical  studies^, 
but  had  a  particular  turn  for  politics,  and  was  thought  so 
accoQQplisbed  in  tbe  knowledge  of  public  affairs,  that  he  was 
frequently  deputed,  by  the  state  to  Switzerland,  Rome, 
and  .France.    He  .was  also  made  secretary  of  the  council  of 
ten  at  Yenice,.  and  was  for  fdrty-(hree  .years,  more  or  les^ 
employed  in  that  post,  or  in  embassies.     When  old  and 
infirm,  he  retired  to  Padua,  where  he  died  in  July  1557^ 
in  the  seventy-second  year  of  bis  age.     His  principal  wor|L 
was  entitled  *^  Raccolta  delle  Navigazioni  e  de  Viaggi,'*  and 
was  published  at  different  periods  in  three  volumes,  foliq. 
Q{  this  valuable  work  complete  copies  are  not  |ea§ily  to  be 
met  with.  .  Brunet  recommends  the  following  selection  af 
forming  the  best  copy*:  vol.  I.  of  the  edition  1563  or  1588^ 
vo},  II.  of  1583,  and  vol.  III.  of  J  5^5.     To  this  last  volume 
should  be  added  tbe  supplement  to  the  edition  of  1606,  n* 
386—430,  which  contains  **  Viaggip  di  M.  Cesare  de  Fred^ 
rici  neir  India-Orientale.'"  [ 

RANCE'  (DoM.  Armand  Johnle  3ouTHit.UEa  DB}^ 
tbe  celebrated  abb£  and  reformer  of  the  monastery  of  La 
Trappe,  was  born  January.  9,  1626,  at  Paris.  He  was  ne^ 
phew  of  Claudius  le  Bouthillier  de  Chavigny,  secretary  of 
state,  and  superintendant  of  the  financ^.  In  classical 
learning  he  made  so  rapid  a  progress  that,  witl^  some. di- 
rection from  his  tutor,  he  published,  at  the  age  of  twelve 
or  thirteen  years,  a  new  edition  of  ^^  Anacreon^^'  in  Greeks 
with  notei^  1639,  8vo.  This  qurious  volume,^  which  wais 
.dedicated  to  bis  godfather  Cardinal,  Richelieu, ,  was  re^ 
printed  in  1647,  a^  both  editions  are  now  scarce.  At. ten 
years  old,  according  to  th,e  absurd  custom  then  prev&len^ 
he  .was  appointed  canon  of  Nptre  Dame  in  Paris,  and  be* 
came  possessed  of  several  benefices  in  a  short  time.  '  H^ 
afterwards,  took  a  doctor  of  divinity^s  degree  in  the  Sor- 
bonne,  February  10,  1654,  and  appearing  then  in  a  public 

I'Qen.  Diet.— Moreri— NiceroD,  vol.  XIIl.-*Briiftk«r. 

9  ^Niotron,  vol.  X3UCV.«-Moreri  in  Ritmaiifio.— TirabofChi.   , 

M  ft  A  N  c  r. 

'  eharacter ,  soon  fceoaihe  ^fistingaished  no):  miljr  for  taste  aid 
poUteneM,  bot  for  those  smiable  qnalificsdons  wkicb  we 
of  use  in  sodetj.  He  was  not  however  without  his  firailtieBy 
'and  it  is  said  that  he  refiised  the  bishopric  of  Leon  fmn  a 
motive  of  vanity.  He  was  dieo  appointed  almoner  to  the 
duke  of  Orleans,  and  made  a'  shining  figoie  in  the  assembly 
~of  the  clei^gy  in  1655,  as  deputy  from  th^  second  order.  At 
length  becoming  conscious  how  little  splendour  and  pie- 
eminence  avail  to  happiness,  he  bad  adieu  to  all,  and  devoted 
bis  days  to  religious  exercises.  It  has  been  sMd,  that 
this  resolution  was  the  consequence  of  a  visit  he  paid 
to  a  fevourite  lady,  from  whom  he  had  been  absent  for 
tbme  time^  ^nd  whom  on  entering  her  apartment  hetfonnd 
dead  in  her  coffin,  and  frightfully  disfig«tfed  with  the  small- 
fox.  This  anecdote  is  taken  *  from  '*  Les  veritabies  Motifs 
de  la  Conversion  de  1' Abb6  de  la  Trappe,*'  published  by 
|>aniel  delaBpque,  Gologn,  16S5^  12mo;  but  some  of  his 
Mdgraphers  treat  it  as  fabulous.  One  of  them,  Mavscdlier, 
iritb  greater  ippeai^nce  of  prpbabilitgr,  attributes  his  con- 
tertfo^  to  his  having  narrowly  escaped  being  kiHedbythe 
iiall'of  a  fiffelock,  which  struck  his  gibeeiere,  'or  poueh,  on 
^ich  hi3  immediateljr  exckimed,  ^^  Alas  I  wheft  should  I 
Itave  bfeen,  hadinbt  my  God  badcooipacssion  on  me."  Which- 
eirer  bf  'the^c  incidents^  was  the^cause,  it  is  certain  that  he 
retired  from  the  world,  aod^  refused  even  to  be  assistant  to 
his  uncle,  who  was  archbishop  of  Touvs.  He  then  founded 
%  monastery,'  'tfae^fraterh-ity  belonging  td  whieb  practiBdffae 
tatmost  ^)f-denia1.  Th^ir  diet  is  merely  vegetable.^  They 
idlcw  not  themselves  wine,  flesh,  fish,  nor  eggs ;  they- enter 
iiitono  conveniattion  whh  strangeft,  and  for  some  dayaMe 
^olly  Mlent.  They  baVe '  each  a  separate  cell;  and  wsed 
to  .'pass  some  part  of  every  day  in  digging  their  own  graves 
liV  the  garden  of  the  convent  De  i^c6  placed,  this 
new  establishment  of  the 'monks  of  La  Trapper  in)  the 
liands'  of'  the  lathers  of  the  strict  Cist^ian  iObservatice. 
He  also  \sold  his  estate  at  Veret  for  lOO^OOO  crowBS, 
Which  surjt  'he  gave  to  the  H6tel  Dieu  atParis^  and  itook 
the  monastic  h&brt  in  the  abbey  of  Notre  I>ame  de  Perseigne^ 
Where  he  made  professrionf,'  June  6, 1664.  He  afterwatrds 
took  possesion  of  the  abbey^eta  Trappe,  and  iatrodimed 
those  regulktions  above  mentioned^  which  long^  madeit%the 
admhation  of  all  tratellers.  In  thisireti^at  he  lived  devotsd 
to  his  austere  observance9|.  until  l695>-wheu  b^  died  cm  his 
straw  pallet,  in  presence  of  the  bishop  of  Seez,  and  the 

R  A  N,C  E'.  as 

ifAcim  commntntff  October. 26^^  1700,  aged  Ti,  leaying 
onmy  pioas  works ;  amoag  which  the  principal  are,  a  book 
*<^deia  Saint^  dies  Devoirs  de  TEtat  monastique^'*  I68d, 
2.'W»ls.  4to;  **  EckireiMeniens  sur  ce  Livr^^'  1685,  4to'; 
<^  Explicatioa  sorla  Regie  de  S^  Benott,*'  l2ino;  <f  Re- 
flexions morales  sur  les  qoatre  Evangiles,"  4  volsk.  12bio  ; 
^<  Coin£6reiiGes  sur  les  Evaogiles^''  4  vols.  L2inay  >^  fantruo- 
tioos  et  MaximeSy'V  IStaio  ;  '^  Conduite  Chn^tienney '.  writ- 
ton  for  Mad.  de  Guise,'  ll3nio;  a  great  nomberof.  ^^i^piritual 
Letters,'!  2. vols.  12mo  ;  *^  Accounts  of  the  Lives.and  Deaths 
of  sonii^  Monks  of  la  Trappe,"  4  vob.  12  mo,  continued  to 
&  vols^  lasdjy  'SThe  Constitntions  and  AuIe&oEthe  Abbf 
of  la  Trappe/'  1701,  2  vols.  12mo.  His  life  has  been 
written  by  several  Romish  authors,  .particularly  hy  M.  de 
.Maupeou,  M.  Marsollier,  and  Le.Nain,  brother  of  M.  de 
TiUemontj  2  vols.  12mo.      . .      i    ' 

Mr.:Seward,  in  bis  ^'  Anecdotes.ofdistinguisbed  persons,^* 
iias  gtvim  a  nuniile  account  of  theanonisstery  of  La  Tlrappe^ 
to  wUchJwe  re&r  oor  readers. ;  iDoriog  tb^  revolutioiiaiy 
excesses  in  France,  this  little  establish  ment  shared  the  fate 
^f -all  other  religious  houses;*  the  monks  were  expelled, 
and  the  place  turned  into  a  fonndery  for  cannon.  The  monks 
9t  length'  found  an  asylum  in  England,  wh^re,  under  the 
saD(0tidn  of  government^  Mr..  Weld  of  Lulworth  castle 
^eeotedot  building  for  them,  in  which  they  vesmued  their 
lomer  austerities,  and  strictly  lollowed  all  the  observances 
«f  ..their  order.^  .  ^       .      . 

;  RANCONET  (Aimab.  0e),^  ja  native  of  Perigueux,-  or, 
accosdiBg  to  M^age,  of  Rourdeauic,  was-4be  son 'of  an 
advocaete  in  the  last  meotioved  city.  He  was  well  skAIed 
in  the  Roman  laW|  philosophy,  ,mathematios,>  and  antiqui^ 
ties;  aisd.  was  appointed  president ; of  the  parlisiment  of 
Paris^  after  havmg  been  counsellor  to-^hat  fof*tBoisrdeaait, 
fiia  mode  bf  life  was  singular.  H.e  seldom  sead  in  the  day^ 
«ime ;  bat  used  to  take  a  light  supper,  go, to  rest  dariy,'afld 
fisev  after  kis  first  sleep,  about  the  time  that  th€r.«Qoiiks^M]f 
mains;  then,  covering  his  head  like. a  capachtni-he^spi^fiFt 
fow^hdgrs  in  study,  and,  going  to  bed  again,  finished^  after 
mquiet sleep,  what  be  bad  iiieditatdd< upon  durin]^i^e  nighe. 
Qy  ibii  pleti,  he  used  to  say  that  thei  most  irapid  pri^grtsiiii 
tt  be  made,  in  leariung.  '  He*  wlis  an  ^ekoelletlt  Greek 
scholar;  and,  if  we'tnajr  beiieve  «M. fiidioKiy  it 

1  Moreri  in  Dick.  Hist.-o^ewafa's  Aiieeaotc«..^eDt  Ma^.  LXXXIII. 

26  RAN<?ONET. 

was  be  wh6  composed  the  Dictionary  which  goes  imder  the 
name  of  Charles  Stephens.  Pithou  adds|  that,  when  cax^- 
dinal  de  Lorraine  assembled  the  parliament  of  Paris  to  take 
their  advice  as  to  the  puntshment  of  heretics,  iUniMiet 
was  sO  imprudent  as  to  read  that  passage  in  which  Sulpitins 
Severus  touches  upon  the  execution  of  Priacillian ;  and  the 
cardinal  being  displeased^  sent  him  to  the  Bastille^  where 
he  died  of  grief,  1558,  aged  above  60.  Others,  say  that 
Ranconet's  confinement  proceeded  from  his  having  been 
falsely  accused  of  a  capiul  crime.  He.  left  in  M&  MLe 
Tresor  de  la  Langue  Frangoise,  tant  ancienne  que  mo* 
derne  ;*'  which  was  the  foundation  of  the  Dictionaries  of 
Nicot  and  MoneL^ 

RANDALL  (John),  an  English  divine,  was  b<»n  at 
*  M];ssenden  in  Buckinghamshire,  and  sent  very  St* 
Mary  Hall,  Oxford,  in  .1581,  whence  he.removed  to  Tri* 
nity  college,  and  took  his  degree  of  bachelor  of  arts.  In 
July  1587,  he  was  chosen  to  a  fellowship  of  Lincoln  collegia 
and  in  1589  proceeded  in  the  degcee  of  master  of  arts, 
^out .  this  time  he  was  ordained,  and  .became  one  of  the 
most  noted  preachers  in  the.  university.  In  A  598,  be  ;was 
admitted  bachelor  of  divinity,  and  the  year  after  resigned 
his  fellowship,  and  was,  presented  to  the  rectory  of  St.  An* 
drev»  Hubbard,  in  East-cheap,  London. . .  Here,  Antony 
Wood  informs  us,  **  after  some  time,  he  became  so  gceat « 
labourer  in  God*s  vineyard  by  his  .frequent  and  constant 
work  in  the  ministry,  as^  well  in  resolving  of  doubts  -aod 
cases  of  conscience  as  in  preaching  and  lecturing,  that  he 
went  beyond  his  brethren  in  that  city,  to  the  wonder  of  all.'' 
Wood  adds  that  this  was  the  more  wonderful,  as  he  was  a 
great  sufferer  by  sickness ;  and  that  he  fvas  f^  accounted  a 
judicious,  orthodox,  and  holy  man,  and  by  some  a  ze^ilQUS 
and  innocent  puritan,  of  a  harmless  life  and. conversation^ 
and  one.  that  was  solely  framed  to  do  good  acts."  He  died 
in  June  1622,  aged  about  fifty- four,  and  was  buried  m  his 
<:hurch.  By  bis  will  he  left  a  tenement  situated  in:  St.  Mary«> 
Hall-lane,  to  Lincoln  college.  Besides  some  single  s»^ 
mons,  and  a  collection  of  *'  Eleven  Sermons  on  Romans 
viii."  London,  1623,  he  was  the  author  of  the  following 
posthumous  works:  1.  ^^  The  great  Mystery  of  Godliness,? 
1624,  4to;  and  1640,  third  edition.'  2.  ^'Treatisecooceca^ 
ing  the  Sacraments,'?  1630,  4to.    3.  ^'.Catechistical  Leo» 

1  Monri.^J>ict  Hist. 

R  A  N  D  A  L  L.  27 

t'ures'' upon  *th0  Sacrament  of  the  Lbrd^s  Supper,**  1630, 
4to.  4.  **  Nine-and-twenty  Lectures  of  the  Churcbj  for 
the  support  of  the  same  in  these  times/*  ibid.  1631,  4ta^ 

RANDAL  (John),  music  professor  in  the  university  of 
Cambridge,  was  probably  a  native  of  London,  where  he 
was  bom  in  1715.  He  was  brought  up  in  the  king*s  chJEtpel, 
and  was  one  of  the  children  of  that  choir  who  first  performed 
in  Handel's  oratorio  of  Esther,  at  the  house  of  Bernard 
Gates,  master  of  the  bdys  in  James-street,  Westminster, 
on  Wednesday*  February  23,  1731,  when  it  was  performed 
in  action,  previous  to  its  having  been  heard  in  public,  or 
any  where  but  at  Cannons,  the  magnificent  seat  of  the  duke 
of  Chandos,  for  whose  chapel  it  was  composed  in  1720)^ 
Dr.  Randal  was  never  rated  very  higb  in  his  prbfession,  but 
was  regarded  as  a  slight  orgau-player,  and  had  never  dis^ 
tinguisbed  himself  as  a  composer.  He  obtained  bis  degree 
at  the  installation  of  the  duke  of  Grafton  in  the  university 
of  Cambridge,  for  which  he  composed  the  ode  written  by 
Gray.  To  the  astonishment  of  all  the  musical  profession^ 
he  undertook  to  have  this  composition  performed  by  the 
musicians  resident  in  the  university,  withotit  the  expence 
of  additional  hands  and  voices  from  London,  as  Drs. 
Greens  and  Boyce  had  thought  necessary  on .  former  oc<^ 
casions  at  Cambridge,  and  Dr.  William  Hayes  at  Oxford. 
As  Dn  Randal's  professional  life  was  unmarked  by  talents, 
his  death,  which  happened  March  18,  1799,  in  the  eighty* 
fdtirth  year  of  his  age,  was  hardly  noticed,  exeept  by  the 
candidates -for  the  professorship,  and  bis  organist's  places.^ 

RANDOLPH  (Thomas),  a  statesman  in  queen  Eliza-t- 
beth*s  reign,  the  son  of  Avery  Randolph  of  Badlesmere  in 
Kent,  was  born  in  that  county  in  1523.  He  was,  ac*» 
cording  td  his  own  account,  a  pupil  of  George  Buchanan,, 
but  had  his  academical  education  at  Christ  Church,  Oxford^ 
ihen  newly  founded ;  where  he  took  the  xlegree  of  bachelor 
oMaw  in  1547,  about  which  time  he  was  made  a  public 
notary.  In  Nov.  1549,  he  became  principal  of  Broadgate- 
hall  (now  Pembroke  college),  and  continued  in  that  office 
nriti)  1553,  when  the  persecution  of  4he  protestants  under 
qu6en  Mary,  obliged  him  to  retire  to  France.  On  the 
aeees&ion  of  queen  Elizabeth,  he  came  into  high  favour^ 
and'hitf  talenia  recommended  him  to  be  employed  in  various 
eoibassies,  particularly  in  Scotland  during  the  commotions 

■  AUi.  Ox.  ▼«!•  I.       '  *  By  Dr.  Boroey  in  Reel's  Cyclopttdfa. 


tlftiret  be  was  senl  thrice  to  queen  Mary,  and  afterwards 
creven  times  to  ber  son  and  successor  James  VI.  We  find 
him  also  ^eversd  times  supporting  the  same  character  at  the 
courts  of  Russia  and  France*  His  first  mission  to  Bt6tland^  in 
15i61,  had  for  its  professed  object  to  promote  ^  mutual  friend^ 
ship  between  the  two  nations,  and  to  endeavour  that  queen 
Mary,  who  had  just  }o$t  her  husband,  Francis  11.  king  of  France, 
should  not  again  marry  a  foreigner ;  but  according  to  Sir 
James  Melvil  and  others,  his  real  business  was  to  intrigue 
between  the  two  parties  Which  then  divided  Scotland,  and 
lUther  to  increase  than  allay  their  animosities.  In  this  plain 
secretary  Cecil  was  supposed  to'  be  the  director,  xmd  Ran«* 
dolpb  the  executor.  By  a  letter  published  by  Mn  Lodge, 
Who  says  that  Randolph  was  a  man  of  ^^  a*  dark  Intri- 
guing spirit,  futl  of  cunning,  and  void  of  conscience/.'  we 
learn  that  at  onie  time  he  was  confined  in  prison  at  Edin- 
burgh; but  probably  for  a  short  time,  as  the  circninst^lince 
is  not  mentioned  in  any  history.  In  Russia,  to  wnrie&  he 
was  sent  in  1560,  his  conduct  merits  greater  approbation, 
fis  in  the  following  year,  he  brought  to  conclusion 'a. com- 
mercial treaty  highly  advantageous  to  the  Englishmerchants, 
whcrwere  then  enabled  to  establish  the  **Russia  Cawapany." 
His  secretary  on  this  en>bas$y  was  George  TurbeuviHe  th^ 
poeit,  who  has  described  the  manners  and  custom sof  tbe 
Moscovitesin  some  epistles  to  his  friends,  which^ire  inserted 
iff  *Hakluyt's  voyages.  In  1571,  during  one  of/ hisemibas- 
Sies  to  Scotland,  he  had  the  spirit  to  chaneng«*iVirac^  the 
iFrench  ambassador  in  that  kingdom,  who  had  itaken  isome 
liberties  with  queen  Etizabeth^s  character  and  t^fithf  hi^  own. 
For  all  these  services  the  queen  is  accused'  of  hairing  re^ 
wat'ded  Mr.  Randolph  rather  niggardly^  having  bestowed 
6n  Mna  only  the  order  of  knighthood,  the  office ^f  cham- 
berlain of  the  exchequer,  and  that  of  postmaster,  to  neitbair 
bf  which  last  was  much  profit  annexed;  and  a  feiv-small 
estates.  Yet  with  these  he  is  said  to'have  beenr  ccwrte^ 
although  he  had  a  large  family.  'He  died  at  his  house-on 
"St  Petef*s  hill,  near  Thames-street,  London/  Ju.nd  r^ 
1S90,  in  the  sixty-seventh  year  of  his  age,  aifd  ws^ibliriejd 
inithe  church  of  St.  Peter,  Paiifs  wbarf.  In  his  latter :day» 
he  appears  to  have  lived  retired,  **  setting  hi^  mind^^*  as  lie 
expresses  it,  «  upon  the  heavenly  country,'  aftfd  retoncilfeKg 
himself  tfo  the  divine  mericy  by  a'timely  repeMaoesK^^Sot^ 
likewise  is  the  advice  h^  gave  to  sir  Francis  Walsingham, 
whose  sister  he  had  married.     He  tells  him,  "how  worthy, 



veoj  bow  necessary  a  thihgit  was,  tfaat.tbey  should  at  length  , 
bid  farewell  to  the  tricks^  he  of  a  secretary,  aud  himself  of 
an  ambassador.'*     Several  of  bis  letters  and  dispatches  are 
in  the  Cotton  collection  in  the  British  Museum,  and  among 
bishop  More's  books  in  the  public  libinry  at  Cambridge. 
Two  of  his  letters  were  published   by  James  Olipbant, 
among  Buchanan's  Letters,  1711,  8vo,  and  haye  been  in- 
serted since  in  the  Leyden  and  Edinburgh  edition  of  Bucha- 
nan's works,  one  to  Bucbauan  himself^  and  the  other  to 
Peter  Yonge,  schooUmaster  to  J&mes  VI.     Thefe  are  also 
some  of  his  letters,  instructions,  and  dispatches,  printed  in 
Strype's '^  Annals,"  Coodall's  ^^  £xaminatioQ.of  the  Let- 
ters said  to  be  written  by  Mary  queen  of  Scots,"  and  in 
Jlobertson's  "  History  of  Scotland,"  &c.* 

RANDOLPH  (Thomas),  an  English  poet,  was  the  son 
of  a  steward  to  Edward  lord  Zouch,  and  born  in  Noithamp- 
tonshire  (Wood  says,,  at  Newnham,  nearDaintry;  Laog- 
baine,atHoug)iton)Jane  15, 1605.  Hewas  educated  at  West* 
Bsinster-school,  whence,  being  a  king's  scholar,  he  was  elec- 
ted to  Trinity  college,Cambridge,  in  1623.  Here  he  obtained 
a  fellowship,  and  afterwards  commenced  master  of  arts,  in 
which  degree  he  was  incorporated  at  Oxford.  Very  early 
in  life  he  gave  proofs  of  good  talents,  and  was  not  only 
esteemed  and  adoiired  by  the  learned  at  the  university, 
but  grew  in  equal  favour  with  the  wits  and  poets  of  the 
metropolis.  His  learning,  gaiety  of  humour,  and  readiness 
of  repartee,  gained  him  admirers,  procured  him  admission 
in  all  companies,  and  especially  recommended  him  to  the 
iotimaey  and  friendship  of  Ben  Jonson,  who  admitted  him 
as  one  of  his  adopted  sons  in  the  Muses,  and  held  him  in 
equal  esteem  with  Cartwright. 

As  a  dramatic  writer,  his  turn  was  entirely  to  comedy ; 
and  Baker  pronounces  his  language  elegant,  and  his  senti- 
ments just  .and  forcible;  his  characters  for  the  most  part^ 
strongly  drawn,  and  his  satire  well  chosen  and  poignant ; 
and  this  critic  also  recommended  the  altering  his  pieces,  $o 
as  to  render  them  fit  for  the  present  stage,  or  at  the  least 
giving  the  world  a  correct  and  critical  edition  of  them. 

The  dramatic  pieces  he  has  left  behind  him,  five  in  num- 
ber^ were  published  in  1638,  by  his  brother,  Mr.  Thomas 
Randolph,  of  Christ-church  college,  Oxford,  along  with 
bit  po^mSy  som^  of  which  have  considerable  merit.     Qf 

^  Bios«  Brit*— Lodge*g  Illustrations. 

so  R  A  N  D  O  L  P 

his  dramatic  pieces,  the  <^  Mmes^  Looking-glass*'  is, the 
most  generally,  admired;  in  it  there  is  great  variety. of 
characters  of  the  passions  and  vices,  drawn  with  mii<(h 
truth,  'and  interspersed  with  many  strokes  of  natural  hu^ 
moun  A  late  critic  thinks  he  has  discovered  in  it  the 
ground-work  of  the  <*  Rehearsal/' and  similar  satires.  '^The' 
Looking-Glass"  was  about  fifty  years  ago  revived  at  Co*^ 
vent-garden  theatre,  and  is  reprinted  in  Dodsley's  Collec*' 
tion  of  Old  Plays.  Had  Randolph  lived,  it  is  thought  be 
<woiuld  have  produced  mdny  more  valuable  pieces ;  but,  as 
(Aiitony  Wood  says,  being  somewhat  addicted  to  libertine 
indulgences,  in  consequence  of  keeping  too  much  com- 
pany, and  running  into  fashionable  excesses  with  greater 
freedom  than  his  constitution  could  bear,  be  assisted'  iti 
shortening  his  own  days,  and  died  Mafch  17,  1634,  be- 
fore he  bad  completed .  the  age  of  twenty-nifie  years,  at 
-the  bouse  of  William  Stafibrd,  esq.  of  Blatberwyke  la 
Northamptonshire.  He  was  buried,  with  the  ancestor^  of 
the  family  of  Staflbrd,iD  an  aile  adjoining  to  the  church  of 
that  place,  soon  after  whtch  a  monument  of  white  marble 
was  erected  over  his  grave,  at  the  charge  of.  sir  Christo- 
pher (afterwards  lord)  Hatton,  ofKirby,  with  an  inscrip- 
tion upon  it,  in  Latin  and  English  verse,  written  by  our 
anther's  intimate  fri^d  Peter  Hausted.^ 

RANDOLPH  (Thomas),  archdeaoon  of  Osford,  ^nd 
president  of  Corpus  Christi  college,  the  son  of  Herbert 
^Randolph,  esq.  recorder  of  the  city  of  Canterbury,  was 
bom  August  30,  1701.  He  received  his  school  education 
at  the  king's  school  in  Canterbury,  then  in  great  repute, 
under  the  rev.  Mr.  Jones.  At  the  early'  ageof  fourteen, 
being  then  a  good  proficient  in  classical  learning,  be  vas 
^elected  into  a  county  8cholaa*ship  in  Corpus  Chrisli  col- 
lege,. Oxford.  There  he  entered  upon  a  course  of  aba- 
fdemical  studies  under  the  tuition  of  the,  rev.  Mr.  Smith,  in 
.which,  as  well  in  his  whole  conduct,  he  acquitted  hims^f 
to  the  great  satisfaction  of  those  who  were  set  over  him  ; 
rhaving  in  view  throughout  the  sacred  profession,  to  which 
he  had  been  destined  from  his  early  youth.  He  proceeded 
regularly  through  the  degree  of  B.  A.  to  that  of  M.  A.  fbe 
latter  in  1722.  In  1724  he  was  ordained  deacon,  and  in 
the  following  year  priest.    At  the  same  time  be  entered 

1  Biog.  Bri^.  and  Dram. — CibUer's  Lives. — EUJs's  Specimeni.— A|;b»  Oic  toL  I. 
—Gens  Lit.  vol.  L — Europ.  Mag.  Jap.  1803,  p.  17. 


upon  the  duty  of  his  profession,  and  undertook  a  cure  at 
such  a  moderate  distance^ from  the  universityi  as  .that  he 
might  discharge  the  duties  pf  it,  and  not  be  obliged  to 
give  up  his  residence,  and  the  farther-  prosecution  of.  his 
studies  there.  This  course  of  life  he  continued  for  a  few 
years j  and  then  returned  to  a  more  strict  residence  in  the 
university ;  nor  was  he  intent  on  his  oxrn  improvement 
only,  but  occasionally  took  part  in  the  education  of  others, 
and  in  the  government  of  his  college^  in  which  he  succeed* 
ed  to  a  fellowship  in  1723.  He  took  the  degree  of  B.  D. 
in  1730,  and  that  of  D.  D.  in  1735.  In  the  mean  time  hi» 
reputation  as  an  able  divine  introduced  him  to  the  notice 
of  Dr,  Potter,  then  bisbpp  of  Oxford,  who  soon  after  his 
translation  to  Canterbury,  collated  him  t  to  the  united 
vicarages  of  Perbam  and  Waltbam  in  Kent.  He  also 
shortly  after  recommended  him  to  Dr.  Rye,  regius  pro- 
fessor of  divinity,  as  a  person  fit  to  act  as  bis  deputy,  who 
appointed  him  accordingly.  This  appointment  will  appear 
the  more  honourable,  as  the  divinity  disputations  ar^  es* 
teemed  a  trial  of  the^ skill  and  learning  of  the  senior  part 
of  the  university ;  and  Dr.  Randolph  acquitted  himself  in 
suob  a  manner,  that  on*  a  vacancy  for  the  professorship  in 
1741,  his  friends  thought- him  amply  qualified  to  succeed ; 
but  on  this  occasion  the  superior :  interest  of  Dr.  Fansbaw 
carried  the  election  ;  and^ J)r-  Randolph  retired  to  his  liv- 
ing of  Perham. 

About  this  time  several  bold  and  artful  attacks  were  made 
upon  the  Christian  religion,  which  drew  forth  many  able 
answers  from  •  the  divinea  of  the  church  of  England. 
Amongst  other  works  published  in  favour  of  deism  and  in- 
.fidelity,  was  that  entitled  *^  Christianity  not  founded  on 
Argument ;''  which,  from  the  singularity  of  its  positions^ 
attracted  much  notice.  Dr.  Randolph  was  encouraged  by 
bis  patron,  jirchbisbop  >  Potter,  to  try  bis  strength  in  con- 
troversy ia»  aoswer  to  this  plausible  writer ;  nor.  was  the 
archbishop  disappointed  in  the  hopes  he  might  form  :  Df. 
Randolph's  answer,  entitled  '^  The  Christian's  Faith  a  ra- 
tidnal  assent,"  1744,  was  considered  as  a  truly  valuable 
acquisition,  and  met  with  a  most  favourable  reception. 

The  arcbbishap,'  still  continuing  his  patronage  to  Dr. 
Randolph,  collated  him,  in  1746^  to  the  rectory  of  Salt- 
wood,  with  the  chapel  of  Hythe  annexed ;  bis  residence, 
however,  stiil. continued  at  Perbam,  until  be  was  elected, 
without  his  knowledge,  or  any  communication  with  the 

32  R  A  N  D  O  L  P  a 

deetors,  pr^sidentofCorpos  CbrUti  college.  Tbis 
election,  ;wbicb  took  place  April  23,  1748,  enabled  him  to 
devote  the  remainder  of  bis  life  to  tbe  place  of  bis  edocar. 
tion,  aiid  tbe  s6ene  of  bis  growing  reputation.  Oxford  be- 
came now  the  principal  place  of  his  residence ;  and  tbe. 
government  of  his  college,  and  a  share  in  that  of  tbe  uoi^ 
versity,  bis  chief  employment  and  concern.  Yet  haviiog 
naturally  an  active  mind,  and  being  ever  vigilant  and  at<», 
tentive  to  all  the  duties  of  his  station,  much  of  bis  time  was 
still  devoted  to  religious  studies,  which  he  considered  as 
included  in  tbe  proper  duties  of  bis  station,  ^nd  as  their 
highest  aim.  Many  of  his  sermons  preached  before  the 
university  were  printed  by  request,  and  his  larger  work 
upon  "  The  Doctrine  of  the  Trinity,"  in  answer  to  "  The 
Essay  on  Spirit,'*  was  publisbed  iu  1753,  and  1754.  From 
1756  to  1759  beheld  the  office  of  vice-chancellor,  in  whi<fh 
he  wa^  allowed  on  all  hands  to  have  conducted  himself  with 
temper  and  ability,  at  a  time  when  disputes  ran  high,  and. 
tbe  business  of  tbe  university  was  more  than  common;  the 
Vinerian  statutes  having  been  settled,  and  the  delegacy  of 
the  press  reformed,  during  that  period.  Theseseveral  la** 
hours  were  so  well  received  by  the  universityi  that  in  176S 
he  was  unanimously  elected  to  the  Margaret  professonsbip 
of  divinity  on  tbe  death  of  Dr.  Jenner.  In  the  preceding 
year  be  bad  been  promoted  to  tbe  archdeaconry  of  Oxford 
on  tbe  resignation  of  Dr.  Potter :  which  promotion  took 
place  by  the  recommendation  of  archbishop  Seeker,  ac- 
cepted and  confirmed  by  bishop  Lowth,  then  bishop  of 
Oxford  ;  and  may  be  considered  as  a  testimony  borne  by 
those  eminent  prelates  to  bis  merit  and  character.  From 
this  time  to  that,  of  his  death  be  was  again  frequently  en-> 
gaged  in  controversy,  'i'be  questions  now  agisted  were 
ehiefly,  that  of  subscription  to  articles  of  faith,  and  that. of 
the  doctrine  of  tbe  Trinity  revived  by  Mr.  Lindsay,  end  his 
followers.  On  these  he  published  several  tracts,  and  ajso 
occasionally  gave  bis  assistance  to  others  engaged  in  the 
same  cause.  Bodily  infirmities  be  was  subject  to  for  many 
years  before  his  death,  but  tbe  facul^es  of  his  mind  were 
sound  and  unimpaired  to  the  very  last.  Within  tbe  last 
year  of  bis  life  be  finished  and  publisbed  a  work,  which  he 
had  prepared  some  time  before,  on  the  ^^  Citations  frook 
tbe  Old  Testament  in  the  New.''  Repeated  attacks  at 
length  brought  Jaim  to  a  state  of  weakness,  under  which 
belaboured  for  three  months,  and  died  March  24,  ltS5; 


Me  waa  budfd  in, Corpus  Christi  ploister^  y^k9xe^,  V^oout- 
meni^  1$.  erected  tp  his  .men^ory. 

Pr.  H^odolpb^s  v^bple  attention  wi^s  cppfin.qd  to  bU  pro- 
fession, 4nd  his  statiion  in  the  uiiiyersity.    Beiqg  convince^ 
that  th/e  province  allotted  |to.  bioi,  if  its  duties  were  faitb- 
fully  discharged,  .was  suffiqient  for  hi^  own  epiployment^ 
and  for  .the  rendering  him  s^n  useful  mi^inber  of  .society,  h^ 
was.  not  disposed  to  wander  beyond  ^t.     He  wa^  a  zqalpu/i 
supporter  of  the  doctrine^  of  the  church  of  England,  from 
a  conviction  that  they  were  thojie  of  the  religion  of  Christ. 
It  has  sometimes  been  invidiously  urged  by  the  enemies  of 
our  religious  establishment,  who  wi^h  great  pi^ofessions  of 
liberality  are  by  no  means  scrupulous  of  the  terms  in  wbicb 
th^y  speak  of  the  doctrines,  discipline,  or  members  of  ou|r 
cj^urcb,.  that  its  supporters  act  from  interested  views.    lu 
ana^wer  to  this  charge  thrown  outagainst  himself  in  commoa 
with  others,  Dr.  Randplph  says,  in  a  preface  to  an  inte^de^ 
<Work,  ^^  One  of  tbede  writers  is  now  near  fourscore  yqars  of 
^ge*  who  neither  hopes  for,  nor  will  solicit  for  any  thing 
farther  in  this  world  :  he  fights  under  no  banner  but  that 
of  bis  Lord  and  Saviour,  from  whom  alone  he  expects  hip 

Dr.  Randolph  married  Miss  Thomasina  Honywoody 
daughtcfr  of  William  Honywood,  esq.  of  Cheriton,  one  of 
the  family  of  Honywood  in  Kent.  By  this  lady,  who  died 
in  Dec.  1783,  he  had  three  sons  and  three  daughters,  of 
whom  there  survived  him,  the  three  sons,  Thomas,  Her- 
bert, and  John  ;  and  one  daughter,  Thomasina. 

In  1784^  a  collection  pf  the  most  valuable  of  Dr.  Ran- 
dolph's works  was  published,  under  the  title  of  ^^  A  View 
of  our  blessed  Saviour's  Ministry,  and  the  proofs  of  his 
(divine  mission  arising  from  thence ;  together  with  a  charge, 
dissertations,  sermons,  and  theological  lectures,''  2  vols. 
Bvo.  To  this  is  prefixed  an  account  of  his  life,  of  which 
we  have  availed  ourselves  in  the  present  sketch.' 

RA^fDOLPH  (John),  the  late  bishop  of  London,  wa$ 
•  the  younger  son  of  the  preceding,  and  was  bonr  July  6, 
1749.  He  became  a  student  of  Corpus  Christi  college, 
Oxford,  and  took  his  degrees  at  the  usual  periods ;  that  of  1774;B.  D.  in  1782;  D.D.  by  diploma,  in  1783. 
In  1776  be  was  appointed  prtelectorofpoptry,  and  in  1782 
regius  professor  of  Greek.    In  the  same  year  he  was  pre*^ 

1  Life  as  above. 

Vot.  XXVI.  D 


sented  to  a  prebend  of '  Salisbury ;  and  in  178S  became 
canon  of  Christ  cburcb,  regias  professor  of  divinity,  and 
Tector  of  Evrelme.  In  tbe  year  1799  be  was  elevated  to 
the  bishopric  of  Oxford  ;  translated  to  that  of  Bangor  in 
1807;  and  thence  to  London  in  1809.  He  was  elected 
F.  R.  S.  in  181 1.  He  passed  a  great  part  of  bis  life  in  the 
universi^  of  Oxford,  and  it  was  generally  believed  thit 
when  he  was  raised  to  tbe  see  of  Oxford,  tbe  university 
was  complimented  with  the  nomination  by  tbe  crown.  His 
lordship  was  author  of  many  single  sermons,  and  charges 
delivered  on  different  occasions  :  also  of  ^'  De  Greecse  Lin- 
guae Studio  Preslectio  habita  in  Scboli  Linguarum,"  1783, 
and  '^  Concio  ad  Clerum  in  Synodo  Provinciali  Cantua* 
riensis  Provincise  ad  D,  Pauli,"  1790.  One  of  his  last 
works  was  a  report  of  the  progress  made  by  the  National 
School  Society,  to  which  the  general  committee  referred 
in  terms  of  gratitude,  at  their  first  meeting  after  bis  lord- 
ship^s  decease.     They  notice  his  lordship  as  one  *'  whose 

.  latest  employment  bad  been  to  state,  for  tbe  information 
of  the  public,  the  progress  of  a  work  to  which  he  bad  con- 
tributed bis .  time,  his  labour,  and  bis  counsels.  The 
committee  therefore  could  not  fail  to  entertain  a  common 
sentiment  of  profound  regret  for  the  loss  which  they  have 
sustained,  and  to  cherish  in  their  minds  the  liveliest  re- 
collection of  the  service  which  has  been  so  successfully  ful- 
filled by  him  in  this  second  report.  They  wish,  therefore^ 
to  add  to  this  document,  designed  for  general  circulation, 
their  sense  of  what  is  due  from  the  public,  and  themselves, 
to  the  memory  of  one  who  was  a  constant  and  assiduous 
promoter  of  this  salutary  institution,  from  its  first  esta- 

^  blishment  to  the  last  hour  of  his  life.  Tbe  committee  trust, 
that  this  testimony,  though  limited  to  a  single  object  in 
the  large  field  of  pastoral  duty  in  which  he  was  incessantly 
engaged,  may  serve  to  denote  the  benefits  which  have  re- 
sulted from  his  prompt,  unwearied,  and  effectual  exer- 
tions.'' The  following  ir  the  character  drawn  of  bim  by 
Mr.  archdeacon  Jefferson,  and  which  alludes  to  his  zeal  for 
the  church,  of  which  he  was  an  active  member  :  *^  Fearless 
now  of  being  censured  for  mercenary  adulation,  or  re- 
proved by  unconscious  merit,  a  just  tribute  may  be  paid  to 
the  character  of  that  departed  and  exalted  prelate,  who  is, 
and  will  be,  most  lamented  where  he  was  best  and  most 
entirely  known.  This  opportunity,  therefore,  is  willingly 
embraced  of  offering  a  heartfelt  condolence  to  the  ministry 



of  the  diocese  on  the  affecting  and  important  loss,  which, 
in  these  perilous  times  of  contending  sects  *and  unsettled 
opinion,  has  arisen  to  tl^em,  and  to  the  church  : — -To  them, 
in  the  premature  privation  of  a  diocesan,  firm  in  his  sup- 
port of  ecclesiastical  authority,  but  considerate  in  its  ap- 
plication ;  eminently  versed  in  the  letter  of  ecclesiastical 
law,  but  liberal  in  its  practical  construction,  reluctant  in 
interference,  but  determined  in  duty,  slow  in  the  profest- 
sion  of  service,  but  prompt  ini  its  execution  $  disinterested 
in ' p2U;ronage,  unwavering  in  measures,  correct  in  judg- 
ment, attentive  in  council,  and  kind  and  compassionate  to 
distress: — ^To  the  church,  in  the  premature  privation  of  a 
father,  diligent  in  her  rites  and  services,  but  unosteittatibus 
in  piety  and  devotion ;  sound  and  unrelaxing  in  her  doci- 
trines  and  faith,  but  discreet  in  zeal,  and  comprehensive 
in  charity ;  ever  vigilant  in  defending  her  interests,  ever 
forward  in  asserting  her  privileges,  and  ever  able  in  the 
assertion'  and  the  defence."  This  high  character,  how- 
ever, has  been,  thought  capable  of  abatement  It  waa 
perhaps  unfortunate  that  he  succeeded  a  prelate  of  the 
mild  and  conciliating  temper  of  Dr.  Porteus,  and  that  be 
undertook  the  government  of  a  diocese,^  which,  above  all 
others,  requires  such  a  temper.  It  was,  perhaps,  not  less 
unfortunate  that  in  his  first  charge  to  the  clergy  of  th}S 
diocese,  he  betrayed  no  little  ignorance  of  the  state  of 
teligious  opinions,  and  the  creeds  of  those  sectaries  against 
whom  he.  wished  to  warn  his  clergy. 

Bishop  Randolph  died  suddenly  on  the  28th  of  July, 
1 81 3.  He  was  one  of  the  governors  of  the  Charter-house ; 
trustee  of  the  British  Museum  ;  dean  of  the  Chapel  roi^^l ; 
visitor  of  Sion  colleoe;  and  provincial  dean'of  Canierbury.^ 

RAPHAFX,  or  RAFFAELLO,  whose  family  name  was 
Sanzio,  was  born  in  the  city  of  Urbino,  March  2S,  1483» 
He  was  the  only  child  of  John  Sanzio,  a  painter,  who, 
though  of  no  great  professional  celebrity,  encouraged  bis 
sop^s  inclination  for  the  art,  and  after  having  taught  him 
what  he  could,  had  the  good  sense  and  diffidence  in  his 
own  talents,  to  place  him  under  the  caire  of  Peter  Peru- 
gino,  when  in  his  thirteenth  year.  Perugino,  who,  from 
his  style  of  design,  pronoiinced  that  he  a  great 
man,  regarded'  him  with  peculiar  affection,  -and  Raphael, 
4uripg  the  three  years  that  he  remained  with  this  iartist,  so 

1  Gent.  Ma^  toU.  iXXXIII.  and  LXKXIV. 


88  H  A  P  B  A  E  L. 

perfeetly  adopted  bis  mauoer,  that  bis  works  wer^  not  to 
be  distioguisbed  from  those  of  bis  master ;  which  was  so  far 
from  creating  any  jealousy  in  the  mind  of  the  latter^  that 
on  the  return  of  Raphael  to  Perugia,  after  his  visit  to  Flo*» 
rence,  he  was  the  first  to  admire  Iiis  works  and  proclaim 
bis  improTemeot 

In  1499,  at  the  age  of  sixteen,  Raphael  left  Perugia, 
and  went  with  Pinjturtcchio  to  Siena,  to  assist  him  in  paint-f 
ing  for  the  library  of  the  cathedral,  the  history  of  Pius  II. 
which  was  executed  in  ten  large  pictures,  of  which  Ra« 
phael  made  the  greater  part,  if  not  all  the  designs,  and 
Insisted  in  painting  them.  Before  this  work  was  com** 
pleted,  he  left  Siena,  probably  about  15Q2,  to  pursue  his 
studies  at  Flprence,  where  the  great  names  of  Leonardo 
da  Vinci  and  Michael  Angelo  flourished  with  rival  pre-emi-» 
oence,  and  where  h^  immediately  became  conscious  of  the 
iofieriority  of  the  style  wbich  he  bad  been  taught  and  prac- 
tised. Here  be  acquired  the  esteem  of  some  persons  of 
eminence,  and  pursued  his  studies  with  avidity  until  1504, 
nrhen  be  Vj^^a  obliged  lo  vi»t  Urbino  to  arrange  some 
domestic  affairs,  and  at  intervals  painted  four  small  pic-* 
iaires  for  ^e  duke  of  Urbino,  which  were  much  esteem-* 
ed.  He  then  went  to  Perugia  to  paint  several  pictures  for 
the  convents,  which  were  all  so  much  admired,  that  com-* 
missions  pressed  upon  him  ;  but  his  desire  to  return  to  Fio« 
renc^  made  him  leave  one  which  was  begun  in  fresco  for 
the  monastery  of  St.  Severo,  to  be  terminated  by  bis  old 
piaster  Perugino. 

In  Florence  he  again  pursued  his  studies  with  unremit- 
ting assiduity ;  and  the  Brancacci  and  Corsiui  chapels  in 
the  church  of  the  Carmelites,  painted  by  Masaccio,  were 
bis  favourite  school  ^  but  of  living  artists  there  was  no  one 
to  whom  be  was  sq  much  attached  as  Fra.  Bartolo^ieo,  by 
whose  instruction  and  example  be  improved  himself  ia 
eolouring,  and  the  principles  of  chiaroscuro ;  and  in  return 
be  gave  his  fiiend  som^  information  in  perspective.  The 
work  to  which  his  mind  was  at  this  time  particularly  directs 
ed,  was  a  cartoon  for  a  picture,  which,  when  b^  left  Peru^ 
gia,  he  engaged  to  paint  foe  the  church  of  St.  Francis* 
This  picture,  which  represents  the  body  of  Christ  borne  to 
the  sepulchre,,  he  afterwards  painted  in  Perugia,  and  it 
obtained  so  much  credit,  that  his  professional  rank  was 
from  that  time  decidedly  established.  It  shewed  the  ad- 
yantages  he  had  acq[uired  by  study,  and  the  benefit  he 


derived  from  the  friendship  of  Fra.  Bartolomeo ;  f<>r  this  woi 
the  first  step  he  had  taken  to  overcome  the  restraints  of  hti 
previous  education.  When  the  picture  was  finished  he 
again  returned  to  Florence;  was  much  sought  after  by 
men  of  taste,  and  with  accumulated  reputation  his  fiatme 
soon  extended  itself  to  the  Vatican.  Julius  II.  was  theik 
pope,  a  great  patron  of  the  arts,  and  having  heard  of  Ra- 
phael, invited  him  to  Roine  in  1508,  and  received  him 
with  the  most  flattering  maAs  of  distinction.  Here  being 
immediately  commissioned  to  paint  one  of  the  state  cham- 
ber^ of  the  Vatican,  which  the  pope  was  then  ornamenting 
with  great  taste  and  splendour,  Raphael  eMouted  bis 
>'  School  ^f  Athens,"  which  gave  such  entire  satisfaction  to 
^be  pope,  that  all  the  pictures  by  the  various  masters  already 
painted  in  the  different  rooms,  were  ordered  to  be  effaced^ 
and  the  walls  prepared  to  transmit  to  posterity  bis  own  uti«- 
rivalled  genius.  The  only  work  preserved  from  this  j^ene- 
ral  destruction  was  the  ceiling  of  one  of  these  rooms,  the 
fourth  in  the  suite,  which  had  been  painted  by  Perugino, 
and  was  saved  at  RaphaePs  intercession.  So  amiable  a 
trait  of  character  ought  not  to  be  forgotten. 

This  extensive  undertaking,  which  it  was  for  Raphael 
alone  to  plan  and  execute,  he  appears  to  have  formed  into 
one  general  design  to  shew  the  triumph  of  the  Christian 
religion  (in  the  catholic. form),  its  divine  authority,  ^nd 
the  dependence  of  human  laws  on  its  pervading  infltienc^. 
But  whether  in  this  arrangement  there  was  any  refined 
system  of  metaphysics,  intending  to  conduct  maii  from  it 
^savage  state  by  the  paths  of  religion  and  philosophy  to  a 
more  intimate  union  with  the  great  first  cause,  must  now 
be  left  to  fanciful  theorists,  as  neitber  the  painter  nor  his 
contemporaries  have  left  us  any  written  data  for  specula- 
tion. Of  these  rooms,  which,  in  honour  of  his  nanij^,  are 
called  the  Stanze  of  Raphael,  the  first  is  a  grand  salooh 
dedici^ted  to  the  emperor  Constantine,  in  which  are  repre^ 
sented  four  principal  events  in  his  reigo.  The  secobd 
stanza  exhibits  four  extraordinary  miracles,  two  front  sa- 
cred history,  and  two  from  the  legends  of  the  churclh. 
The  third  stanza  is  dediicsited  to  those  branchei)  of  know- 
ledge that  serve  most  to  elevate  the  human  mind,  and  dig- 
nify our  nature  in  the  rank  of  created  beings,  of  idiich  the 
-principal  subjects  are  poetry,  philosophy,  jurisprudence^ 
andr theology.  The  subjects  of  the  fourth  stanSa^re  tifip 
4ustorioa^  from  the  life  of  Leo  III. ;  9nd  ti^  Mivmi»i»m, 


firom  the  life  of  Liso  IV.  These  ar^  all  supposed  to  have 
been  executed  before  1517,  and,  with  saialier  pictures  on 
the  ceilings  of  the  second  and  third  stanza,  are  all  designed 
by  Raphael,  and  painted  in  fresco  by  himself,  his  scholars 
and  assistants ;  and  three  centuries  of  unsuccessful  emula-* 
tion  have  already  made  their  eulogium. 

Although  we  see  in  these  the  aggregate  of  his  powers  in 
poetical  conception  and  execution,  this  extraordinary  ex- 
hibition of  talent  is  not  likely  at  the  first  view  to  be  impres* 
sive  to  a  general  observer.  Even  sir  Joshua  Reynolds  has 
recorded  his  disappointment,  and  the  causes  of  it,  but  he  alsd 
records  the  way  in  which  his  prejudices  were  at  length  re- 
moved, and  himself  compelled  to  acknowledge  that  he  had 
originally  formed  a  false  opinion  of  the  perfection  of  art, 
and  that  this  great  painter  was  well  entitled  to  the  high 
rank  which  he  holds  in  the  estimation  of  the  world. 

On  the. death  of  Julius  II.  in  1513,  Raphael  was  ho* 
noured  with  the  same  favour  and  esteem  by  his  successor 
Leo  X.  under  whose  patronage  he  continued  the  great 
work  of  the  stanze.  He  painted  also  in  the  Vatican  in 
chiaroscuro  twelve  whole-length  6gures  of  the  apostles, 
but  which,  from  various  causes,  have  been  since  destroyed  ; 
and  he  made  designs  to  ornament  one  of  the  arcades  in  the 
grand  cprttle  of  the  palace,  now  called  the  loggia^  consist- 
ing of  fifty-two  historical  subjects  from  the  Bible,  aud  ara- 
besque decorations,  which  were  all  painted  by  his  scholars, 
or  with  exceptions  too  doubtful  and  uncertain  to  identify 
any  particular  part  to  be  of  his  own  hand.  For  this  pontiiF 
he  also  made  a  series  of  large  historical  cartoons  from  the 
•acred  writings,  representing  in  thirteen  compositions  the 
origin  and  progress  of  the  Christian  religion,  to  be  executed 
in  tapestry,  intended  as  an  additional  decoration  for  the  hall 
of  Constantine.  Seveii  of  these  cartoons,  from  the  con- 
currence of  fortunate  circumstances,  are  now  in  the  col- 
lection of  his  Britannic  majesty;  but  the  others  were  most 
probably  mutilated  of  lost,  and  the  tapestries  themselves 
were  dispersed  when  the  Vatican  palace  was  sacked  by  the 
French  in  1798. 

Raphael,  though  possessing  pre-eininent  powers  as  a 
4>ainter,  had  not  suffered  that  profession  alone  to  absorb 
bis 'mind;  he  had  studied  architecture  under  Bramante, 
find  in  chastity  of  design  was  not  inferior  to  that  distin- 
.guisbed  artist,  who  in  full  confidence  of  his  abilities,  re- 
commended him  sus  his  successor,  to  conduct  the  great  work 

R  A  P  H  A  ]§  L.  89 

«f  St  Petered,  to  which  recommendation  his  holiness  paid 
due  attention.  According  to  the  popeU  brief  on  this  occa* 
sion,  dated  August  1515,  his  salary  was  fixed  at  three  bun« 
dred  golden  crowns,  or  150/.  per  annum.  For  so  impor- 
tant an  undertaking  this  sum  would  seem  to  be  a  very  ina* 
dequate  remuneration  ;  but,  as  bis  biographer  observes,  in 
our  own  country,  one  hundred  and  sixty  years  subsequent 
to  this  period,  sir  Christopher  Wren  did  not  receive  more 
than  200/.  per  annum,  for  the  building  of  St.  PauPs,  which 
included  draughts,  models,  making  estimates  and  con- 
tracts, examining  and  adjusting  all  bills  and  accounts,  with 
constant  personal  superintendance,  and  giving  instructions 
to  the  artificers  in  every  department.  St.  Peter's,  which 
cost  more  than  a  century  to  complete,  underwent  so  many 
changes  by  the  various  architects  employed,  that  it  would 
be  now  extremely  difficult  to  particularize  with  any  degree 
of  certainty  the  different  parts  of  it  which  were  executed 
by  Raplmel.  It^appears,  however,  that  it  is  to  him  we  are 
indebted  for  the  general  plan  of  the  church  as  it  now  exists* 
Jn  1515,  Raphael  went  with  the  pope  to  Florence,  and 
made  a  design  for  the  fagade  of  the  church  of  St.  Lorenzo  : 
and,  according  to  Vasari,  he  was  also  the  architect  of  a 
magnificent  house  for  the  bishop  of  Troja,  which  still 
exists  in  the  street  of  St.  Gallo  in  that  city  i  but  of  the 
different  buildings  designed  or  executed  by  Raphael,  that 
on  which  bis  reputation  as  an  artist  is  thought  principally 
to  rest*  is  the  CafFarelli  palace  at  Rome.  The  other  build* 
ings  of  Raphael  still  existing  are,  a  palf^ce  for  M.  Giovauni 
fiaptista  deir  Aquila,  opposite  to  the  church  of  S.  Maria 
della  Vallicella,  in  Rome;  a  villa  for  cardinal  Julius  de 
Medici,  afterwards  pope  Clement  VII. ;  and  for  the  prince^ 
Ghigi  be  built  a  set  of  stables  in  the  Longara,  and  a  chapel 
in  the  church  of  S.  Maria  del  Popolo.  This  prince  was 
a  distinguished  patron  of  Raphael,  and  much  employed 
him.  For  him  he  painted  in  fresco,  in  one  of  the  rooms 
of  his  Casino  in  the  Longara,  now  called  the  Farnesina,  a 
picture  of  Galatea  drawn  by  dolphins,  and  surrounded  with 
tritons,  &c.  which  would  appear  to  have  been  much  ad? 
mired  and  praised  by  his  friend  count  Castiglione,  from  a 
tetter  still  existing  by  Raphael  to  that  nobleman,  which 
the  reader  may  see  in  our  principal  authority.  For  prince 
Ghigi  he  painted  in  fresco,  on  the  spandrels  pf  an  arch  in 
fron^  of  the  Ghigi  chapel  in  the  church  of  S.  Maria  della 
Pace,  a  large  allegorical  subject  of  Sibyls  delirering  their 

40  R  A  PH  A  E  L- 

prpfibiBlbtes  fbr  the  confirmation  of  the  reirealed  religion; 
This  work  was  highly  esteemed  when  finished  ;  but  is  noW 
unfortunately  mucii  ibjured,  and  parts  aris  entirely  effiiced. 
For  his  Casino  in  the  Longara,  Raphael  made  a  •series  of 
designs  from  Apuleius^s  history  of  Cupid  and  Psyche, 
which  were  painted  by  himself  and  his  scholars  on  a  ceiling 
df  a  spacious  hail.  What  part  was  painted  by  himself  it 
Would  not  be  easy  ^t  this  time  to  ascertain^  as  the  work 
has  suffered  much  by  being  originally  exposed  to  the  open 
air,  as  the  loggia  of  the  Vatican  is  at  present,  and  by  be-* 
ing  irepainted  and  repaired. 

-  In  the  church  of  St.  Aiigustin,  Raphael  painted  in  fresco, 
6n  one  of  its  piers,  the  prophet  Isaiah,  intended  as  the 
commencement  of  a  series  of  pictures  to  ornament  that 
ehiirrch,  but  some  dispute  arising  concerning  the  expence^ 
the  fathers  relinquished  their  design  ;  a  loss  much  to  be 
regretted,  as  the  style  of  this  picture  is  ^ equal  to  his  best  * 
Works.  This  dispute  concerning  the  price  is  said  to  have 
beeii  referred  to  Michael  Angelo  to  adjust,  who  settled  ii 
in  6ne  Word,  by  telling  the  fathers  that  the  knee  alone  was 
worth  more  money.  Raphael  also  decorated  his  own  villa 
in  Rome,  which  now  belongs  to  the  cardinal  Doria,  with 
arabesque  ornaments,  a  group  of  figures  shooting  at  a 
target,  and  a  small  historical  subject,  called  the  Marriage 
of  Roxana. 

Raphael  was  not  only  eminent  As  a  painter  and  an  archi- 
tect, but  he  was  desirous  to  emulate  the  reputation  of  his 
great  contemporary,  Michael  Angelo,  in  being  a  sculptor 
also.  We  are  informed  that,  with  his  own  hand  he  exe- 
cuted some  statues,  but  one  only  is  referred  to  by  the 
anonymous  author  of  the  Milan  MS.  which  was  the  statue 
of  a  child,  then  in  the  possession  of  Julio  Romano ;  and 
of  this  statue  there  can  be  no  doubt,  as  it  is  also  recognized 
by  count  Castiglione,  in  a  letter  of  the  year  1523-;  but 
what  became  of  it  is  not  known.  There  is,  however,  in 
the  Ghigi  chapel  in  the  church  of  8.  Maria  del  Popolo,  'a 
statue  X)f ' Jdnah  from  bis  own  •  model,  and  executed  in 
marble,  under  bis  immediate  direction,  by  Lorenzetto, 
which  remains  an  extraordinary  instance  of  the  versatility 
of  his  powers,  as  this  specimen  of  sculpture  may  fairly 
rank  With  the  best  productions  of  modern  Rome. 

In  the  midst  of  his  professional  reputation,  Raphael  was 
equally  caressed  by  the  learned  and  the  great,  many  in- 
Itaoc^  of  which  are  given  by  his  late  biographer^  Mr, 

RAP  HA  EL.  41 

DupiXfty  wlinse  elaborate  narraitre  we  principally  follonr. 
Leo^X^  regarded  Raphael  with  the  highest  esteem ;  he  wal 
mu^  dboat  his  ptirson,  was  made  groom  of  the  chamber^ 
and  is  even  said  to  have  had  reason  to  expect  the  honours 
of  th^  purple,  which  is  the  alleged  cause  for  his  not  marry- 
ing tire  niece  of  cardinal  di  Bibbienai  who  was  desirous  of 
the  alliance; 

In  the  meridian  of  Kfe,  and  in  the  full  possession  of  its 
enjoyonents,  Raphael  became  an  unfortunate  victim  to  the 
barbarous  state  of  the  qaedical  knowledge  of  his  time  ;  and 
from  the  unscientific  manner  in  which  his  death  has  been 
reported,  the  grossest  misapprehensions  have  arisen  as  to 
the  cuuse  of  it,  and  in  particular  it  has  been  attributed  to 
sensual  irregularities,  for  which  there  seems  no  foundation 
in  fact.  He  became  early  attached  to  a  young  woman, 
the  daugbter  of  a  baker  at  Rome,  and  thence  called  by 
way  of  distinction  La  Bella  Fornarina,  and  she  became  his 
mistress.  To  her  he  appears  to  have  been  solely  and  con- 
stantly  attached,  and  left  her  by  his  will  in  a  state  of  inde*- 
pendence.  His  constitution,  however,  was  delicate,  and 
his  labours  in*his  profession  so  great,  as  probably  to  add  to 
that  delicacy ;  and  when  he  was  seized  with  a  violent  fever^ 
for  which  ibis  itijudicious  physicians  prescribed  copious 
bleeding,  we  are  not  to  wonder  that  his  constitution  sunk 
under  such  treatment.  He  became  indeed  so  rapidly  re- 
duced, that  he  had  o^ily  time  to  make  his  will,  and  conform 
to  the  lal^t  offices  of  religion,  before  his  death,  which  took 
place  April  7,  1520,  in  the  thirty-seventh  year  of  his  age. 
Thus,  says  his  biographer,  terminated  the  life  of  the  most 
illustrious  painter  of  modern  times ;  and,  for  any  data  we 
have  to  the  contrary,  perhaps  the  most  eminent  that  ever 
lived  at  any  period  of  the  world. 

In  bis  will,  after  leaving  to  his  mistress  a  sufficiency  to 
live  independent,  he  bequeathed  the  rest  of  his  property 
to  a  relation  at  Urbino,  and  to  two  of  his  scholars,  Julio 
Romano,  and  Francesco  Penni;  appoiilKng  an  intimate 
friend  Turini  da  Pescia  his  executor.  His  body  lay  in 
state  in  the  hall  of  his  own  house,  and  the  celebi^ted  -pic- 
ture of  the  Transfiguration,  which  he  had  just  finished. 
Was  placed  at  the  head  of  the  room.  His  remains  were 
)after<vards  removed  with  great  funeral  pomp  to  the  Pan- 
theon, where  the  last  ceremonies  were  performed,  and  at 
the  request  of  Leo  X.  cardinal  Bembo  wrote  an  inscription, 
to  honour  bis  memory,  and  mark  the  place  of  his  interment. 

42  RAPHAEL.  • 

These  particulars  we  have  selected  from  ibe  best  ]\fe  of 
this  great  artist  that  has  appeared  in  this  country,  %^ritien 
by  R.  Duppa,  esq,  and  prefixed  to  his  splendid  publicatioa 
of  ^*  Hefads  from  the  Fresco  pictures  of  RafEaello  in  the 
Vatican,"  1802,  as  a  companion  to  bis  *^  Heads  of  Michael 
Angelo."  Mr.  Duppa  concludes  with  a  critical  essay  on 
the  merits  of  Raphael,  too  long  for  our  limits,  ami  too 
valuable  to  be  injured  by  abridgment.  In  Sir  Joshua 
Reynolds^  lectures  are  many  interesting  and  important 
observations  on  the  same  subject,  which  in:  truth  must 
enter  deeply  into  every  discussion  on  the  art.  We  might 
refer  likewise  to  Opie!s  lectures,  Barry's  works,  and  other 
authors  who  have  professedly  or  incidentally  treated  of 
Raphael.  The  present  prpfessor  of  painting  has  a  note  on 
the  subject  which  may  not  form  an  improper  conclusion  to 
our  article,  as  he  appears  to  have  on  this  occasion  exerted 
hi$  highest  powers  of  discriminative  criticism.      / 

'^  The  general  opinion/'  says  Mr.  Fuseli,  **  has  placed 
Raphael  at  the  bead  of  his  art,  not  because  he  possessed  a 
decided  superiority  overevery  other  painter  in  every  branch, 
but  because  no  other  artist  ever  arrived  at  uiliting  with  his 
own  peculiar  e.xcelli?nce  all  the  other  parts  of  the  art  in  an 
equal  degree  with  him.  The  drama,  or  in  other  words  the 
representation  of  character  in  conflict  with  passion,  was 
h\$  sphere ;,  to  represent  this,  his  invention  in  the  choice  of 
the  moment,  his  composition  in  the  arrangement  of  his 
actors,  and  his  expression  in  the  delineation  of  tlieir  emo- 
tions, were,  and  are,  and  perhaps  will  be  uurivall,ed.  And 
to  this  he  added  a  style  of  design  dictated  by  the  subject 
itself,  a  colour  suited  to  the  subject,  all  the  grace  which 
propriety  permitted,  or  sentiment  suggested,  and  as  much 
chiaroscuro  as  was  compatible  with  his  supreme  desire  of 
perspicuity  and  evidence.  It  is  therefore  only  when  he 
forsook  the  drama,  to  make  ex:cursions  into  the  pure  epic 
or  sublime,  that  his  forms  become  inadequate,  and  were 
inferior  to  those  of  M.  Angelo :  it  is  only  in  subjects  where 
cplour  from  a  vehicle  becomes  the  ruling  principle,  that  he 
is  excelled  by  T'itian;  he  yields  to  Correggio  only  in  that 
grace  and  that  chiaroscuro  which  is  less  the  minister  of 
propriety  and  seirtiment,  than  its  charming  abuse  or  volup- 
tuous  excess ;  and  sacrifices  to  the  eye  what  was  claimed 
in  vain  by  the  mind. 

**  Michael  Angelo  appears  to  have  had  no  infancy;  if 
he  had,  we  are  not  acquainted  with  it :  his  earliest  works 

R  A  P  H  A  E  L.  43 

equal  in  principle  and  elements  of  style  the  vigorous  off* 
springs  of  his  virility :  Raphael  we  see  in  Uis  cradle^  we  bear 
bim  stammer ;  but  propriety  rocked  the  cradle,  and  cha- 
racter formed  bis  lips.  Even  in  the  trammels  of  Pietro 
Perugino,  dry  and  servile  in  bis  style  of  design,  formal 
and  gothic  in  his  composition,  he  traced  what  was  essential, 
and  separated  it  from  what  was  accidental,  in  figure  and 
subject.  The  works  of  Lionardo,  and  the  cartoon  of  Pisa, 
invigorated  his  eye,  but  it  was  the  antique  that  completed 
the  system  which  be  had  begun  to  establish  on  nature* 
From  the  antique  be  learned  discrimination  and  propriety 
of  form.  He  found  that  in  the  construction  of  the  body, 
the  articulation  of  the  bones  was  the  true  cause  of  ease  and 
grace  in  the  action  of  the  limbs,  and  that  the  knowledge  of 
this  was  the  true  cause  of  the  superiority  of  the  ancients. 
He  discovered  that  certain  features,  were  fittest  for  certain 
expressions  and  peculiar  to  certain  characters  ;  that  such  a 
liead,  such  hands,  and  such  feet,  are  the  stamen  or  the 
growth  of  such  a  body;  and  on  physiognomy  established 
uniformity  of  parts.  When  he  designed,  his  attention  was 
immediately. directed  to  the  primary  intention  and  motive 
of  his  figure,  next  to  its  general  nieasure,  then  to  the  bones 
and  their  articulation,  from  them  to  the  principal  muscles 
or  the  muscles  eminently  wanted,  to  their  attendant  nerves, 
and  at  last,  to  the  more  or  less  essential  minutiss ;  but  the 
characteristic  part  of  the  subject  is  infallibly  the  characteris- 
tic part  of  his  design,  whether  it  be  a  rapid  sketch,  or  a 
more  finished  drawing.  The  strokes  of  his  pen  or  pencil 
themselves  are  characteristic:  they  follow  the  direction  and 
texture  of  the  part;  flesh  in  their  rounding,  tendons  in 
straight,  bones  in  angjjiar  lines. 

**  Such  was  the  felicity  and  propriety  of  Raphael  when 
employed  in  the  dramatic  evolutions  of  character  I  both 
suffered  when  he  attempted  to  abstract  the  forms  of  subli- 
mity and  beauty;  the  painter  of  humanity  not  often  wielded 
with  success  superhuman  weapons.  His  gods  never  rose 
above  prophetic  or  patriarchal  forms  ;  if  the  finjjer  of  Mi- 
chael Angelo  impressed  the  divine  countenance  oftener  with 
sternness  than  awe,  the  gods  of  Raphael  are  sometimes  too 
affable  and  mild,  like  him  who  speaks  to  Jacob  in  a  ceiling 
of  the  Vatican  ;  or  too  violent,  like  him  who  separates  light 
from  darkness  in  the  Loggia  of  the  same  place.  But  though, 
to  speak  with  Mcmgs,  he  was  chiefiy  made  to  walk  with 
dignity  on  earth,  he  soared  above  it  in  the  c^)nception  of 


•  r  •  •  •  •        • 

Christ  on  Tabor^  and  still  more  in  the  frown  of  the  sngelic 
coantenance  that  withers  the  strength  of  Heiiodorus. 

*^  Of  ideal  female  beauty,  though  he  himself  in  his  letter 
to  count  Castiglione  tells  us,  that  from  its  scarcity  in  life, 
he  made  attempts  to  reach  it  by  an  idea  formed  in  his  own 
mind,  he  certainly  wanted  that  standard  whiph  guided  him 
in  character ;  his  goddesses  and  my thologic  females  are  no 
more  than  aggravations  of  the  generic  forms  of  Michael 
Angelo.  Roundness,  mildness,  sanctimony,  and  insipidity, 
compose  in  general  the  features  and  airs  of  his  Madonnas, 
transcripts  of  the  nursery  or  some  favourite  face. .  The 
*'  Madonna  del  Impanato,*  the  ^  Madonna  della  Sedia,* 
the  ^  Madonna  bella,^  share  more  or  less  of  this  insipidity, 
which  arises  chiefly  from  the  high,  rounded,  smooth  fore- 
head, the  shaven  vacuity  betweei)  the  arched  semicircular 
eyebrows,  their  elevation  above  the  eyes,  and  the  ungrace- 
ful division  and  scanty  growth  of  hair.  This  indeed  might 
be  the  result  of  his  desire  not  to  stain  the  virgin  character 
of  sanctity  with  the  most  distant  hint  of  coquetry  or  mere- 
tricious charms ;  for  in  his  Magdalens  be  throws  the  hair 
with  luxuriaht  profusion^  and  surrounds  the  breast  and 
shoulders  with  undulating  waves  and  plaids  of  gold.  The 
character  of  Mary  Magdalen  met  his,  it  was  the  character 
of  a  passion.  It  is  evident  from  every  picture  or  design, 
at  every  period  of  his  art,  in  which  she  had  a  part,  that  be 
supposed  her  enamoured.  When  she  follows  the  body  of 
the  Saviour  to  the  tomb,  or  throws  herself  dishevelled  over 
bis  feet,  or  ^addresses  hini  when  he  bears  his  cross,  the  cast 
of  her  features,  her  mode,  her  action,  are  the  character  of 
love  in  agony.  ^  When  the  drama  inspired  Raphael,  his 
women  became  definitions  of  grace  and  pathos  at  once. 
Such  is  the  exquisite  line  and  turn  of  the  averted  half- 
kneeling  female  with  two  children,  among  the  spectators 
of  the  punishment  inflicted  on  Heiiodorus;  Iter  attitude, 
the  turn  of  her  neck,  supplies  all  face,  and  intimates  more 
|han  he  ever  expressed  by  features.**  ^ 

RAPHELENGIUS  (Francis),  a  learned  writer  of  the 
^16th  century,  and  professor  of  Oriental  languages  at  Leyden, 
N«ras  born  February  27, 1539,  at  Lanoy,  in  French  Flanders. 
lie  began  his  studies  at  Ghent,  and  after  some  interruption 
lirom  the  death  of  bis  father,  resumed  them  at  Nuremberg 
and  Paris,  where  he  applied  with  great  assiduity  to~  the 

*  Life  by  Mr.  J)Bppa.— Pilkington  by  Faieli.— Sir  J.  Reynolds**  Workt.    See 
index,  fcc» 

R  A  P  H  E  L  EN  G  I  U  S.  4S 

Greek  and  Hebrew  langotges,  under  the  tbtest  masters, 
Qntil  the  civilwars  obliged  hun  to/go  into  England,  where 
he  taught  Greek  at  Cambridge.  After  some  time  he  re- 
turned to  the  Netherlands,  and,  in  1565,  married  a  daughter 
of  Christopher  Plan^n,  the  celebrated  printer.  Rapbelen* 
gius  assisted  his  father-in-law  in  eorrecting  his  books,  which 
he  also  enriched  with  notes  and  prefaces,  and  was  particu- 
larfy  engaged  in  the  Polyglot  Bible  of  Antwerp,  printed 
in  1571,  by  order  of  Philip  II.  king  of  Spain.  In  1585  he 
settled  at  Leyden,  where  Plantin  had  a  printing»office ;  ]a«> 
boored  there  with  bis  usual  assiduity,  and  was  chosen,  for 
bis  learning,  to  be  professor  of  Hebrew  and  Arabic  in  that 
university.  He  died  July  20,  1597,  aged  fifty <^eigbt,  leav* 
ing,  ^'Remarks  and  correctignson  the  Chaldee  Paraphrase  ;'* 
8  ^<  Hebrew  Grammar;**  a  *<  Chaldee  Dictionary,"  in  the 
Dictionary  to  the  Polyglot  of  Antwerp;  an  ^*  Arabic  Lexi- 
con,*'  1613,  4to;  and  other  works*  One  of  his  sons,  of 
the  same  name,  published  notes  on  Seneca's  Tragedies, 
and  ^*  £t6gia  carmine  elegiaco  in  imagines  50  dootorum 
firorum,**  Ant.  1587,  fol.* 

RAPIN  (Nicholas),  a  French  poet,  was  bom  atFdnteU 
nai-le-comte,  in  Poitou,  in  1535.  He  was  rice-seneschal 
of  his  native  province,  and  went  afterwards  to  Paris,  where 
Henry  III.  made  him  provost  of  the  high-constable*s  juris«* 
diction,  which  office  b^  held  till  1598.  In  his  old  age  he 
determined  to  retire  to  Fontenai-le^Comte,  and  ^  died  at 
Poitiers,  February  15,  1609,  aged  seven ty-four,  leaving  a 
family.  Hrs  biographers  differ  veryjnuch  in  their  character 
of  this  author,  as  may  be  seen  by  comparing  our  authori- 
ties. A  considerable  part  of  his  Latin  poems  may  be  found 
in  tomk  IILof  *^  Les  D^lices  des  Poetes  Latins  Franks;** 
and  his  Epigrams  are  particulariy  admired  :  the  beat  amcmg 
hitf  French  ones  are,  *^  Les  Plaisirsdu  Gentilbomme  Cham- 
p6tre,"  printed  in  1583  ;  and  those  which  he  wrote  on  ma» 
demoiselle  de  Roche's  Flea,  which  are  inserted  in  the' col* 
lection  of  poems  on  that  foolish  subject,  printed  at  Parts, 
in  1 582,  4^0.  Rapin  also  attempted  to  write  French  blank, 
verse,  in  the  manner  of  Greek  aind  Latin  verse ;  but  soe<- 
eeeded  no  b^ter  than  Ba'ff,  who  had  made  the  same  trial 
before  him.  He  was  one  of  those  concerned  in  the  famous 
Satire  *^  Menipp^e.  Ail  his  works  wer«  printed  at  Paris^ 
1610,  4to.» 

1  Niceron,,yo1.  XXXVL^-Foppen,  Bibl.  Belgw-xQeii.  Diet.— BulUrt't  Acv 
demie  dei  Sciences,  ^  Niceron,  toI.  XXV.— Gen.  Diet— Moreri. 

45  R  A  P  1  N. 

.  RAPIN  (BERATtJSy  or  Rene),  a  Fi'ench  Jesuit,  atid  an 
able  classical  scholar,  was  bom  at  Touri,  in  162],.aod 
entered  into  the  society  in  1639.  He  taught  polite  lite- 
rature .for  nine  years,  and  published  various  works  both 
on  that  subject  and  on  religion,  which  made  him  say  to 
the  abbs  de  la  Chambre  that  he  served  God  and  the 
world  by  turns.  To  Latin  he  was  particularly  partial,  and 
wrote  with  great  facility  and  elegance  in  that  language, 
both  in  prose  and  verse.  Of  the  latter,  he  e:iLbibi.ted 
many  specimens  which  were  unrivalled  in  his  time,  parti- 
cularly his  ^'  Hortorum.  libri  quatuor;"  a  work,  which  has 
been,  much  admired  and  applauded..  It  was  first  printed 
at  Paris,  in  1663,  and  afterwards  re-printed  with  alteration^ 
and  corrections  by  the  author.  In  1780,  Brotier  edited  an 
edition  at  the  Barbou  press.  An  English  version  of  it  was 
published  at  London,  in  1673,  8vo,  by  the  celebrated  Eve- 
lyn; and  again,  in  1706,  by  Mr..  James  Gardmer  of  Jesus 
wliegGf  in  Cambridge.  All  his  Latin  poems,  consisting 
of  odes,  epitaphs,  sacred  eclogues,  and  these  four  books 
upon  gardens,  were  collected  and  published  at  Paris,  in 
Jl 681,  in;  2  vols.  12mo.  In  French,  which  be  alM>  wrote 
with  elegance,  be  published  several  treatises  pn  polite  lite* 
rature,,  at  varipus  timea,  which  were,  printed  collectively  in 
168.4,  .2  vols.  4to,  Paris;  and  at  Amsterdam,  in  2  vols. 
Huo^  and  translated  into  English  by  Basil  Kenn^t  and  others, 
in  1705,  in  2  vpls.  8vo,  under  the  title  of  *^  The  Critical 
Works  of  Mons.  Rapin.**  The  first  volume  contains  a 
comparison  between  Dej[nosthenes  and  Cicero  for  eloquence. 
Homer  and  Virgil  for  poetry,  Thucydides  and  Livy  for 
history,  Plato  and  Aristotle  for  philosophy:  the  second, 
refiectious  on  eloquence,  on  Aristptle's  poetry,  on  hi8<» 
toiy,  on  philosophy.  Rapines  general  design  in  this  work 
was,  as  he  tells  us  himself,  to  restore  good  taste,  which 
had  been  somewhat  corrupted  by  a  spirit  of  profound  eru* 
dition,  that  had  reigned  in  the  preceding;  age :  but,  although 
(there  are  many  just  observations  in  his  work,  it  isaiot  that 
on.  which  it  would  be  safe  for  a  student  to  rely ;  nor  is  his 
•{Keference  of  the  Roman  to  the  Greek  writers  to  be. justi- 
fied. Some  of  his  •  arguments  on  this  part  of  hk  subject 
Are  .childish. 

He  died  at  Paris,  Oct.  27,  1687;  and  in  his  euiogium, 
written  by  father  Bouhours,  he  is  represented,  there  is 
reason  to  think  deservedly,  as  possessed  of  all  the  qualities 
that  can  adorn  a  man  of  probity.     Zeal  for  the  honour  of 

R  A  P  I  N.  4T 

his  society  made  him  undertake  an  <*  History  of  Jansenism^** 
against  which  he  had  published  a  Latin  work,  in  1658^ 
under  the  title  of  **  Dissertatio  de  nova  doctrina,  sea  £van* 
gelium  Jansenistarum.*'  He  had  also  a  contest  with  father 
Vavassor,  who  wrote  against  his  ^*  Reflections  on  Aristotle^s 
Poetics/*  yet  pretended  to  be  ignorant,  as  there  was  no 
name  to  them,  that  Rapin  was  the  author.'    «^ 

RAPIN  DE  TuoYRAS  (Paiil),  an  eminent  historian,  was 
born  at  Castresio  Languedoc,March  25,166  L.  Hisfamily  was 
originally  from  Savoy,  and  is  supposed  to  have  removed  into 
France  upon  embracing  the  Protestant  religion.  Philibert 
de  llapin,  his  great-grandfather,  who  was  of  that  persua- 
sion,  himself  so  much  to  the  indignation  of  the 
Roman  catholics,  and  particularly  to  that  of  the  parliament 
of  Toulouse,  that  his  head  was  struck  off  in.  1568  by  a 
sentence  of  theirs,  at  the  very  time  that  he  came,  by  the 
king's  order,  to  have  the  treaty  of  peace  registered  there. 
Daniel  the  historian  passes  over  this  fact  in  silence ;  and 
his  reason  is  supposed  to  have  been,  that  he  might  exag* 
gerate  the  disturbances  raised  by  the  Huguenots  after* 
wards  in  the  country  about  Toulouse.  What  then  happened 
appears  to  have  been  the  popular  revenge  for  Philibert's 
death,  as  the  soldiers  wrote  on  the  ruins  of  the  houses  they 
bad  burned,  **  Vengeance  for  Rapines  death.*'  James  de 
Rapin,  lord  of  Thoyras,  was  our  author's  father.  He  ap* 
plied  himself  to  the  study  of  the  law,  and  was  an  advocate 
in  the  chamber  of  the  edict  of  Nantes  above  fifty  years. 
These  chambers  were  courts  of  judicature  erected  in  seve* 
ral  towns  of  France,  in  behalf  of  the  Huguenots,  or  Pro- 
testants ;  the  judges  of  which  were  half  of  the  Reformed, 
and  half  of  the  Roman  catholic  religion.  Jane  de  Pelisson, 
his  wife,  was  daughter  to  a  counsellor  of  the  chamber  of 
Castres,  and  sister  to  George  and  Paul  Pelisson ;  which 
lady,  after  having  been  confined  for  some  time  in  a  con* 
vent,  was  at  last  sent,  by  the  king's  order,  to  Geneva, 
where  she  died  in  1705. 

Rapin  was  their  youngest  son.  He  was  educated  at  first 
under  a  tutor  in  his  father's  house,  and  afterwards  sent  to 
Puylaurens,  and  thence  to  Saumur.  la  1679^  he  returned 
to  his  father,  with  a  design  to  apply  himself  closely  to  the 
law.;  but,  before  he  had  made  any  great  progress,  he  was 
obliged,  with  other  young  gentlemen,  to  commence  ad- 
vocate, upon  report  of  an  edict  soon  after  published,  in 

1  Gen.  Diet— Niceron,  XXXIL— Moi«ri. 

♦8  R  A  P  I  N. 

which  it  was  ordered,  that  no  man  should  have  a  doctor'^ 
degree  without  having  studied  five  years  in  some  utiiversity* 
The  same  year,  the  chamber  of  the  edict  of  Nantes  was 
suppressed,  which  obliged  Rapin's  family  to  remove  to 
Toulouse :  and  the  state  of  the  Reformed  growing  every 
day  worse,  with  his  father^s  leave  he  quired  the  profes^ioa 
of  advocate  for  that  of  arms*  He  had  before  given  what 
bis  biographer  calls  proofs  of  a  military  disposition ;  for  he 
bad  fought  a  duel  pr  two,  in  which  he  had  acquitted  Ium<^ 
self  very  gallantly.  His  father  at  first  did  not  grant  his 
request,  but  gave  him  such  an  answer,  as  served  to  prolong 
the  time.  Rapin,  however,  advanced  so  far  in  his  ll3gai 
prpgress  as  to  plead  one  cause,  and  one  only ;  and  thett 
applied  himself  diligently  to  mathematics  and  musics,  ia 
both  whi(ji  be  became  a  good  proficient. 

In  i685,   his  father  died;   and  two  months  after^  the 
edict  of  Nantes  being  revoked,  Rapin  with  his  mother  and 
brothers  retired  to  a  country-hpuse;  and,  as  the  persecution 
jn  a  short  time  was  carried  to  the  greatest  height,  be  and 
his  youngest  brother,  in  16S6,  departed  for  England.    He 
was  not  long  in  London,  before  he  was  visited  by  a  French 
|ibb6  of  distinguished  quality,  a  friend  of  his  uncl^  Pelis- 
soi^,  who  introduced  hipi  to  Barrillon,  the  French  ambassa- 
dor.    These  gentlemen  persuaded  him  to  go  to  dburt,  as#> 
curing  him  of  a  favourable  reception  from  the  kin/g ;  but  be 
declined  this  honour,  not  knowing  what  the  cor^sequeucet 
inight  be  in  that  very  critical  state  of  affairs.     His  situation 
indeed  was  not  at  all  agreeable  to  him  ;  for  he  svas  perpe- 
tually pressed,  upon  the  subject  of  religion,  by  (he  French 
Catholics  then  in  London;  and  especially  by  the  abb^, 
wboj  tb(^ugh  he  treated  him  with  the  utmost  cojmplaisance| 
always  turned  the  discourse  to  controversy.     Having  np 
bppes  of  any  settlement  in  England  at  that  time,  he  went 
pyer  to  Holland,  and  enlisted  in  a  company  of  French  vo^ 
luqteer%  then  at  Utrecht,  under  the  command  of  Mr.  Ra- 
pin, his  cousin-german.  Pelisson,  the  same  year,  published  • 
his  ^^  Reflections  on  the  difference  of  Religions,*'  which 
jbje  sent  to  his  nephew  Rapin,  with  a  strict  charge  to  give 
him  bis  opinion  impartially  of  the  work^  which  it  is  said  he 
did,  although  nothing  of  this  kind  was  found  among  his  pa-> 
pers,  nor  was  he  influenced  by  bis  uncle's  arguments.  .  He 
remained  with  his  company,  till  he  followed  the  prince 
of  Orange  into  England;  where,  in  1689,  he  was  made 
an  ensign.     In  that  rank  he  went  to  Ireland,  and  'distin- 

R  A  P  I  N.  49 

gti)^hed  bioiself  so  bravely  i^t  the  siege  of  Carrick-fergus, 
that  he  was  the  same  year  promoted  to  a  lieutenancy.  He 
was  also  present  at  the  battle,  of  the  Boyne ;  and,  at  the  . 
siege  of  Limerick,  was  shot  through  the  shoulder  with  > 
a  musket-ball.  This  wound,  which  was  cured  very  slowly, 
proved  very  detriment£(l  to  his  interest ;  as  it  prevented  him 
from  attending  general  Douglas  into  Flanders,  who  was 
very  desirous  of  having  bim,  and  could  have  done  him 
considerable  service :  be  had,  however,  a  company  given 

In  tb^  end  of  1693,  be  was  ordered  for  England  without 
any  reason  assigned ;  but  a  letter  informed  bim^  that  he  was 
to  be  governor  to  the  earl  of  Portland's  son.  Having  never 
had  any  thoughts  of  this  kind  of .  employment,  he  could 
not  imagine  to  whom  he  owed  the  recommendation ;  but  at 
last  found  it  to  be  lord  Galway.  He  immediately  went  to 
London,  and  entered  upon  this  charge,  losing,  however, 
with  it  those  preferments  in  the  army  which  several  of  his 
fellow-officers  soon  after  attained.  All  the  favour  shown 
him  was,  that  he  had  leave  to  resign  his  commission  to  his 
younger  brother^  who  died  in  1719,  after  having  been 
m^de  Iieutenant*colonel  in  a  regiment  of  English  dragoons* 
Indeed  the  king  gave  him  a  pension  of  100/.  per  annum, 
<<  till  such  tim^  as  he  should  prpvide  for  him  better  ;'* 
vrhich  time  never  came :  and  after  enjoying  this  pension 
during  the  king's  life^  a^  post  of  small  value  was  given  him 
in  its  stead. 

While  the  earl  of  Portland  was  ^imbassador  in  France, 
Rapin  was  obliged  to  be  sometimes  in  that  kingdom,  some- 
times in  England,  and  often  in  Holland :  but  at  length  be 
settled  at  the  Hague,  were  the  young  lord  Portland  was 
learning  his  exercises.  While  he  resided  here,  in  1699, 
he  married ;  but  this  marriage  neither  abated  his  care  of 
his  pupil,  nor  hindered  him  from  accompanying  him  in  his 
travels.  They  began  with  a  tour  thr<>ugh  Germany,  where 
they  made  some  stay  at  Vienna :  hence  went  into  Italy  by 
the  way  of  Tirolj  where  the  marshal  de  Villeroy,  at  that 
time  prisoner,  gave  Rapin  a  letter  for  the  cardinal  d'Etr^es, 
when  at  Venice.  Their  travels  being  finished,  which  put 
an  end  to  his  employment,  he  returned  to  his  family  at  the 
Hague,  where  he  continued  some  years ;  but,  as  he  found 
i%  increase,  he.  resolved  to  remove  to  some  cheap  country ; 
and  accordingly  retired,  in  1707,  to  Wesel,  in  the  duchy 
of  Cleves  in  Gern^my^  ■,  where  he  employed  the  remaining 

Vol.  XXVI.  E 

50  R  A  P  I  N. 

years  of  bi^  life  in  writitig  ^e  '^  History  of  Eogtend." 
Though  his  constitution  wiis  strong,  yet  seventeen  yeirs 
appIicatioD  {for  so  long  he  was  in  compOsiilg  this  history) 
entirely  ruined  it.  Aboot  tbr6e  years  before  his  death,  b^ 
found  himself  esthansted,  and  ofifen  fek  great  pains  in 
the  stomach  :  and  at  teiigth  a  fever,  with  atl  oppression  ia 
his  breast,  carried  him  off,  after  a  week*s  illness.  May  10^ 
1725.  He  left  one  son  and  silc  dstughters.  He  was  M- 
turally  of  a  serious  temper,  although  no  enemy  to  mirth : 
he  loved  music,  and  was  skilled,  as  we  have  said,  in  n^a^ 
thematics,  especially  in  tbd  art  of  fortification.  He  was 
master  of  the  Italian,  Sp&nlBb,  and  English  languages  ^ 
atld  had  ako  a  very  coi^petieiit  knowledge  of  the  Greek 
and  Latin.  ,  He  spent  all  his  leisure  hours  in  reading  and 
conversing  with  men  of  learning  and  informatibn. 

He  lived  tb  publish  the  etghth  volume  of  his  history, 
which  ends  with  the  death  of  Charles  I.  The  two  remraitiw 
ing  volumes,  which  bring  the  history  down  to  the  procla* 
»  mation  of  WUliam  and  Mary,  canie  out  in  1724.  They 
were  printed  ait  the  Hdgne  in  quarto ;  and  h&ve  twice  hetti 
translated  into  English ;  by  the  Rev.  Nicholas  Tindal,  M.A.^ 
first  in  octavo,  then,  much  itafproved  in  style,  in  foiio; 
and  by  John  KeNy  of  the  Intier  Templ6,  esq.  in  two  vols, 
folio.  Tindal  has  given  a  Continuation  of  Rapines  history 
to  1760,  and  added  useful  notes  to  the  wbdle.  When" 
Rapin  first  set  about  this  work,  it  was  not  his  intention' 
to  write  a  complete  history  of  England  ;  but  curiosity  and 
mu^^h  leisure  ied  him  on  ttom  one  ^tep  to  liiidtber^  tfll  he 
came  to  the  reign  of  tlenryll. ;  and  then,  when  he  was 
u^n  the  point  of  stopping,  an  ikiexpected  assii^tanc^^ 
came  forth,  whi^h  not  Only  induced  bim  to  i^ohtifttiie  his 
history,  but  to  do  it  in  a  more  full  and  parti<^ufor  tiianner 
than  at  first  he  intended.  This  Wias  Ry therms  ^  F(federa,*^ 
or  ^<  Collection  of  Public  Acts,''  whioh  began  to  be  pub^ 
lifidhed  ai  the  estpe^co  of  goterhmett€  tthott  1706.  Iti 
170S,  dix  volutnes  in  folio  w^re  completed,  which  werci 
afterwards  ili'ereased  to  sevtoCeen,  and  th^n  to  twenty. 
Lord  Halifax,  &  great  promoter  Of  this  tioble  work,  stf^t 
the  volumes^  as  they  came  out,  to  L^  Clefc,  who  gto6-* 
rously  lent  them  to  onr  i^thor  ae  long  Bti  be  h^  oc^ilsion' 
for  them.  That  be  did  actually  tst  this  colti^dttoti,  appears 
from  the  pains  be  took  to  abridge  the  WhOl€  ij^veiHeen  vo« 
ItfAies,  ex(^6pt  the  first,  which  WAsdoAe  by  Lei  Ctete :  itt 
Which  abridgment  we  bavO  att  the  imp^atit  a6ts  p6i6te^ 

R  A  P  I  N.  51 


•uty  a  well-connected  series  of  events  to  whicb  they  relate^ 
and  the  use  to  be  ma(le  of  them  in  clearing  up  the  his- 
tory of  England.  This  abstract  lies  scattered  up  and  down 
in  the  several  volumes  of  Le  Clerc*s  *'  Bibliotheque  Choi* 
sie  ;**  and  was  thence  translated  and  published  in  English, 
in  1727,  in  four  volumes  octavo,  with  portraits.  Rapin 
also,  to  let  us  see  what  a  thorough  knowledge  he  had  of  our 
parties  and  factions  in  England,  published,  in  1717,  a  little 
treatise,  eptitled  *<  A  Dissertation  on  the  Whigs  and  the 
Tories ;''  which  is  subjoined  to  his  history,  and  has  like- 
wise been  translated  and  published  in  English. 

Voltaire  has  observed,  that  *'  England  is  indebted  to  Ra- 
pin for  the  best  history  of  itself  which  has  yet  appeared  ; 
and  the  only  impartial  one  of  a  nation,  wherein  few  write 
without  being  actuated  by  the  spirit  of  party.*'  This  cha- 
racter, however,  is  not  strictly  just.  Rapin  was  not  with- 
out his  partialities,  although  his  general  moderation  is 
to  be  praised  ;  and  although  it  was  easy  to  excel  preceding 
English  historians,  he  labonred  under  the  disadvantage  of 
being  remote  from  all  those  records  and  sources  of  intelli* 
gence  which  are  to  be  found  in  England  only.  Carte,  iifi 
his  proposals  for  his  history  ofEngland,  has  specified  the 
errors  into  which  Rapin  fell  upon  this  account,  and  his  ne- 
glect of  original  authorities.  Tindal,  however,  and  Morant, 
have  supplied  some  of  his  defects,  and  rectified  his  errors ; 
and  upon  the  whole  as  an  ample,  though  somewhat  tedious 
narrative  of  facts.  Rapines  history  has  not  acquired  more 
popularity  than  it  deserved,  and  which,  in  some  degree, 
it  stilt  retains  \  for,  of  late  years,  the  folio  edition  has  risen 
to  a  very  high  price.  * 

RASTALL,  or  RASTELL  (John),  one  of  our  early 
printers,  is  said  by  Bale  to  have  been  a  citizen  of  London, 
and  by  Pits  a  native  of  that  city.  Wood  says  he  was  edu- 
cated in  grammar  and  philosophy  at  Oxford,  and  that  re- 
tlirning  to  London*  he  set  up  the  trade  of  printing,  which 
was  then^  as  Wood  adds,  **  esteemed  a  profession  fit  for 
any  scholar  or  ingenious  roan.*'  By  whom  he  was  taught  the 
art,  or  whether  he  was  at  first  employed  only  as  a  corrector,, 
does  not  appear.  His  residence  was  at  the  sign  of  the 
Mermaid  '^  at  Fowl's  g^te,"  next  Cheapside.  He  married 
Elizabeth,  sister  to  sir  Thomas  More,  with  whom  he  be- 

1  Biog;  Brk.  Sopplemcnt. — Gm.  Diet— Life  preftxtd  to  Um  History,  and 
added  to  th^  ^  Acta  Regia.'' 


52  R  A  S  T  A  L  L. 

came  intimate,  according  to  Wood,  by  bis  piety  aad  learn- 
ing. Bale  and  Pits  assign  different  causes  for  this  inti- 
macy ;  the  one,  because  he  was  a  bold  champion  for 
popery,  which  the  other  terms  his  great  zeal  for  the  glory 
of  God.  Herbert  thinks  it  was  most  likely  that  he  was  at 
first  introduced  to  his  acquaintance  by  means  of  printing 
sir  Thomases  ^^  Dialogues,*'  and  that  his  acquaintance  was 
afterwards  cemented  into  friendship,  as  was  natural,  by 
their  mutual  principles  and  opinions.  The  date,  therefore^ 
of  this  acquaintance  may  be  1523  or  1529.  Wood  says 
that  Rastall,  by  frequent  conferences  with  sir  Thomas,  im- 
proved his  knowledge  in  various  sorts  of  learning,  which  is 
probable ;  but  he  omits  to  notice  what  is  more  important^ 
that  Rastall  became  a  convert  to  the  reformed  religion  by 
means  of  a  controversy  with  John  Frith.  Rastall  published 
^'  Three  Dialogues,'*  the  last  of  which  treats  on  purgatory, 
and  was  answered  by  Frith.  On  this  Rastall  wrote  his 
*^  Apology  against  John  Frith,'*  which  the  latter  answered 
with  such  strength  of  argument  as  to  make  a  convert  of  his 
opponent.  Rastall  also  wrote  a  book  called  <^  The  Church 
of  John  Rastall/'  which  being  in  the  list  of  prohibited  books 
published  by  bishop  Bonner,  annexed  to  his  injunctions  in 
1542^  is  supposed  to  have  contained  some  retraction  of  his 
former  opinions,  at  least  of  what  he  had  written  concerning 
purgatory.  Herbert  questions  whether  this  book  be  not 
the  same  which  Bale  mentions  by  the  title  of  <^  Abrasio 
Papismi."  Both  Bale  and  Pits  attribute  other  works  to 
Rastall,  not  now  known,  except  his  ^^  Anglorum  regnum 
Chronicon,  or  Pastime  of  the  People,"  printed  by  him  in 
1529.  This  having  lately  been  reprinted  (1811)  among 
the  rest  of  the  English  Chronicles,  by  a  select  number  of 
the  booksellers  of  London,  it  is  not  necessary  to  describe 
its  contents.  The  original  edition  is  so  scarce  that  one  per- 
fect copy  only  is  known,  which  formerly  belouged  to  lord 
Orford,  who  gave  it  to  James  West,  esq.  and  is  now  in  thei 
king's  library;  and  of  imperfect  copies,  bibliographers 
mention  only  three  or  four. 

Rastall  is  sometimes  called  a  lawyer,  and  besides  being 
printer,  certainly  had  a  considerable  hand  in  composing  or 
compiling  some  law  books.  In  1517,  he  printed  and  pub* 
lished  his  "  Tables  to  Fitzherbert's  Abridgment,"  in  folio, 
which  in  1565  were  reprinted  by  R.  Tottel.  According  to 
Herbert,  he  also  had  some  concern  in  ifirst  printing  Fitz-> 
herbert's  Abridgment,    and  he  composed  a  table  to  tb# 

R  A  S  T  A  L  L.  S3 

*'  Book  of  Assizes/*  which  is  printed  with  the  latter  editions 
of  the  work.     In  1527,  we  find  *^  An  Exposition  of  Law 
Terms  and  the  Nature  of  Writs^  with  divers  cases  and  rules 
of  the  Lawy  collected  as  well  from  books  of  Master  Little«- 
ton,  as  other  Law  Books/'  printed   in  small  octavo  by  J. 
Rastall,  and  again  by  him  in  French/and  English,  folio, 
without  date.  This  appears  to  have  been  originally  composed 
as  well  as  printed  by  Rastall,  both  in  French  and  English, 
notwithstanding  the  conjecture  that  has  been  formed  in 
favour  of  his  son  William,  by  lord  Coke  and  others,  as  au- 
thor or  translator  of  it.     John  RastalPs  other  publications 
appear  to  have  been,  **  Tables  of  the  Years  of  our  Lord 
God,  and  of  the  Kings,  in  opposite  columns,"  printed  by 
Walley  in  1558,  and  again  in   1563,  by  William  Rastail  in 
1563,  and  often  reprinted  by  others  ;  and  in  1566  '^  Entries 
of  Declarations,  Bars,  Replications,"  &c.  folio,  commonly 
called  *^  RastalPs  Entries,"  and  sometimes  quoted  as  the 
*^  New  Book  of  Entries."     The  author,  in  his  preface,  tells 
the  reader  that  his  collection  is   chiefly  compiled   from 
l.The  old  Book  of  Entries:    2,  A  Book  of  Precedents 
written  by  Master  Edward  Stubbes,  one  of  the  Prothoho- 
taries  in  the  Common  Pleas :  3.  A  Book  of  Precedents  ga- 
thered by  John  Lucas,  secondary  to  Master  William  Roper, 
prothonotarie  of  the  King's  Bench:    4.  A  Book  of  good 
Precedents  of  his  grandfather  sir  John  More  (father  of  sir 
Thomas  More),  one  of  the  justices  of  the  King's  BencI), 
but  not  of  his  collection  ;  all  which  he  had  incorporated  in 
this  volume. 

John  Rastail  died  at  London  in  1536,  leaving  two  sons, 
William  and  John.    William  was  born  in  London  in  1508, 
and  about  1525  was  sent  to  Oxford,  which  he  left  without 
taking  a  degree,  and  entered  of  Lincoln's  Inn  for  the  study 
of  law.     In  the  first  of  Edward  YI.  he  became  autumn  or 
summer  reader  of  that  house  ;  but  on  the  change  of  reli- 
"  gion  he  retired  with  his  wife  to  Louvain^  whence  he  re- 
turned on  the  accession  of  queen  Mary.     In  1554  he  was 
made  a  serjeant  at  law,  one  of  the  commissioners  for  the 
prosecution  of  heretics,  and  a  little  before  Mary^s  death, 
'■  one  of  the  justices  of  the  eommon  pleas*    Queen  Elizabeth 
•renewed  his  patent  as  justice,  but  he  preferred  retiring  to 
Louvain,  where  he  died  Aug.  27,  1565,  and  was  buried  in 
the  church  of  St.  Peter,  on  the  north  side  of  the  altar  of  the 
Virgin  Mary.     His  wife,  who  died  in  1553,  on  their  first 
going  to  Louvain,  at  the  age  of  twenty-six,  was  the  daugh- 

54  R  A  S  T  A  L  L. 

r'  \ 

ter  of  Dr.  John  Clement^  one  of  the  physicians  sent  by 
Henry  VIII.  to  Cardinal  Wolsey  during  his  last  illness.  She 
was  a  lady  of  considerable  learning,  and  well  acquainted 
with  Greek  and  Latin. 

iflerbert  ascribes  some  law  poblioations  to  William  RaS"* 
tall,  but  doubtfully.  He  carried  on  the  printing  business 
from  1530  to  1534.  When  Tta^iicd  Rastall  be  published 
'<  A  collection  (abridged)  of  the  Statutes  in  force  and  use/' 
in  1S57,  often  reprinted.  It  contains  copies  of  statutes 
not  elsewhere  extant,  and  in  some  instances  more  com- 
plete transcripts  of  several  acts  than  are  commonly  printed 
in  the  Statutes  at  large ;  and  it  seems  to  be  a  republication 
9nd  enlargement  of  the  abridgment  which  was  printed  by 
bis  father  in  1519. — The  other  son,  John,  was  commonly, 
but  improperly  called  Mr.  Justice  Rastall,  from  having 
b^en  a  justice  of  the  peace.  Some  works,  in  controversy 
with  bishop  Jewell,  have  been  attributed  to  William  Ras* 
tall,  but  were  written  by  a  John  Rastall,  no  relation,  as  far 
as  we  know,  of  this  family,  who  became  a  Jesuit,  and  died 
abroad  in  1600.' 

RATCLIFFE  (Thomas),  Earl  of  Sussex,  a  statesman 
of  the  sixteenth  century,  was  the  eldest  son  of  Henry  Rat- 
clifie,  the  second  earl  of  Sussex,  by  Elizabeth,  one  of  the 
daughters  of  Thomas  Howard,  second  duke  6f  Norfolk. 
His  first  public  service  was  in  an  honourable  embassy  to 
the  emperor  Charles  the  Fifth,  to  treat  of  the  projected 
marriage  of  Queen  Mary  to  Philip,  which  he  afterwards  ra^ 
tified  with  the  latter  in  Spain.  Upon  his  return  he  was  ap- 
pointed lord  deputy  of  Ireland,  and  chief  justice  of  the 
forests  north  of  Trent.  The  order  of  the  garter,  and  the 
office  of  captain  of  the  pensioners,  were  likewise  conferred 
on  him  in  that  reign,  a  little  before  the  conclusion  of  which 
he  succeeded  to  his  father^s  honours.  Elizabeth  continued 
him  for  a  while  in  the  post  of  lord  deputy,  and  recalled  him 
to  assume  that  of  the  president  of  the  North,  a  situation 
rendered  infinitely  difficult  by  the  delicacy  of  her  affiiirs 
with  Scotland,  and  the  rebellious  spirit  of  the  border  eoun- 
ties.  The  latter,  howeveV,  was  subdued  by  his  prudence 
and  bravery  in  1569  ;  and  the  assiduity  and  acuteness  with 
which  he  studied  the  former,  will  appear  from  his  own 
pen.  The  unfortunate  affair  of  the  duke  of  Norfolk,  to 
whom  he  was  most  firmly  attached,  fell  out  in  the  course 

>  Aoiei  by  Herbert. — Ath.  Ox.  vo),  I.  new  edit.— Dodd's  Ch.  Hut.— -7^9nner» 
Balei  and  Pili.— Bridgman*!  Lfgal  Bibliograjihy. 

B  A  T  C  L  I  F  F  E.  .        $i 

qC  that  ymr,  md  would  bav^  end^d  b^ppUy  $^d.  bpnour^l^y 
if  th#  duke  had  fi>Uj[>we4  bis  advice.  Tba^nobleoi^t^'s  last 
requ^^at  wm>  that  his»  cbaini  and  gfLTter^  might 
be  givea  to  my  lord  of  ^sse:^.  He  was  the  pri||\|^  negoci- 
ator  i9  tbofte  twpfaoaous  tre^^ies  of  marriage  with  the  sM^ch- 
doke  Charles  and  the  duke  of  Alen^pa,  £li?abe^h>s  real 
ijBieirtiops  io  which  have  been  ^o  frequently  the  s^bjQct  of 
biftoriQal  dUquisitiou.  In  1572^  he  retired  fromth^  severer 
labours  of  the  pilbUc  service,  in  which  be  had  wasted  his 
hoakb,  to.  tbie  boDourable  oSce  of  lord  chambejrlain»  and 
the  duties  of  a  cabinet  minister;  and  died  ii.t  hip.  bouse  in 
Bfsnnoodseyv  June  9,  158$,  leaving  little  to  his.  heirs  bvit 
the  brig^  example  of  a  charac^r  truly  noble«  The  .^^l 
of  Sussex  was  twice  married ;  first,  to  Elizabeth)  daughter 
pf  Thomas  Wriotbesley,  earl  of  Sloutbamptou,  by  whon^  be 
bad  Iwo  sons,  Henry  and  Thomas,  who  died  young ;  se: 
condly,  to  Frances,  daughter  of  sir  William  Sydney,  after*: 
wards  the.  celebrated  foundjiess  of  Syduey-Susse^i;  ^pllf^^ 
in  Cambridge ;  by  whom  having  no  children,  he  w^s  suct 
oeeded  by  Heary,  his  nest  brother. 

**  This  great  man's  conduct,",  says  Mr.  Lodge^  *^  ynjted 
all  tha  splendid  qualities  of  those  eminent  persons  who 
jointly  rendered  Elisabeth's  couj^t  ^n  object  of  admiration 
to  £iifope,  and  was  perfectly  free  from  their  faults*.  Wise 
and  loyal  as..  BmsgtUey»  withont  his  blind  attachment  to 
the  ivojuurch ; .  vjgiianit  as  Walsimgbaint  but  disdaining  hi9 
low  euimiiig ;  ma^ificeot  as  i^eater,  bu^  incapable  of 
Jl^ypoerisy ;  and  biave.asRalegb,  with  the  piiaty  of  a  primi* 
ttve  Ckiistiao;  he  seemed  s^ioj^e  tbejcommon  objects  of 
byuman  ambition,  and. wanted,  if  the  expression  may  be  al* 
lowed,  thoAe  diirk  ahades  of  obaracter  which  make  men  the 
heroes  of  history.  Hence  it  is,  probably,  that.  our.  wdter$ 
bav^  bestowed  so  litUe  attention  on  this  admirable  person^ 
wko  in  bnt  slightly  mentioned  in  most  historical  collections« 
Uinl^sa  with  regasd  to  his  disputes  with  Leicester,  whom  he 
Ivtted  almost  to  a  fault."  Mr.  Lodge  justly  esteems  him*- 
aeilf  peculiarly  fortunate  in  having  been  the  instrnmeot  of  dis^ 
islosing  the  ead  of  Sussex's  letters  to.  the  public.  They  form 
a  very  valjuable  part  of  the  '^  Historical  Illustrations,"  and^ 
a  small  number  excepted,  are  the  only  ones  to  be  met  with 
in  print.  Tbeae  letters  display  both  bis  intjegrity  and  abi^ 
lity  in  a  very  stciiking  Hght,  and  are  written  in  a  clear  and 
manly  sty  la  Four  cMf  them  are  particnlarly  curious ;  two  te 
Ihe  queen,  on  the.  treaty  of  marriage  with  the  arohduke  of 

W  R  A  T  C  L  I  F  F  E. 

Austria ;  one  to  sir  Wiiliam  C^il,  on  the  state  of  pditie^ 
in  Scotland ;  and  one  to  her  Majesty,  concerning  the  duke  of 
Alengon.  The  letter  on  the  aflPairs  of  Scotland  is  considered 
by  Mr.  Lodge  as  an  inestimable  ^curiosity.  Farther  light 
will  be  thrown  on  the  earl  of  Sussex's  character,  by  trans** 
cribing  the  manly  language  in  which  he  complains  that 
his  services  were  neglected,  and  declares  his  purpose 
of  retiring  to  private  life.  It  is  in  a  letter  to  sir  Wil* 
liam  Cecil.  ^' I  was  firste  a  LieutenUe;  [  was  after 
little  better  than  a  Marshal ;  I  had  then  nothing  left  to  me 
but  to  direct  hanging  matters  (in  the  meane  tyme  all  was 
disposed  that  was  w^^iu  my  comission),  and  no  we  I  ame 
offered  to  be  made  a  Shreif 's  Bayly  to  deliver  over  posses- 
sions. Blame  me  not,  good  Mr.  Secretarie,  though  my 
pen  utter  somewhat  of  that  swell  in  my  stomake,  for  I  see 
I  ame  kepte  but  for  a  brome,  and  when  I  have  done  my 
office  to  be  throwen  out  of  the  dore.  I  ame  the  first  nobel 
man  bathe  been  thus  used.  Trewe  service  deserveth  honor 
and  credite,  and  not  reproche  and  open  defaming;  but, 
seeing  the  one  is  ever  delivered  to  me  in  the  stede  of  the 
Other,  I  must  leave  to  sei^ve,  or  lose  my  honor ;  w^h,  being 
continewed  so  long  in  my  bowse,  I  wolde  be  lothe  shoolde 
take  blemishe  wth  me.  These  matters  I  knowe  procede  not 
from  lacke  of  good  and  honorable  meaning  in  the  QC  ma^ 
towards  me,  nor  from  lacke  of  dewte'  and  trewthe  in  me 
towards  her,  which  grevethe  me  the  more ;  and,  therefore^ 
seing  I  shall  be  still  a  camelyon,  afid  yelde'no  other  shewe 
then  as  it  shall  please  others  to  give  the  couUer,  I  will  con- 
tent my  self  to  live  a  private  lyfe«  God  send  her  Mate  others 
that  meane  as  well  as  I  have  done ;  and  so  I  comitt  you  to 
th*  Almightie.*'  From  the  next  letter  it  appears  that  the 
queen  had  too  much  wisdoip  to  part  with  so  faithful  a  coun- 
sellor and  servant.  The  earl  of  Sussex  had  a  high  regard 
and  esteem  for  Lord  Burgbley.  In  one  of  his  letters, 
dated  June  28,  1580,  he  expresses  himself,  to  that  great 
'Statesman,  in  the  following  terms:  ^'The  trewe  fere  of 
'God  wch  ygv  actyons  have  alwayes  shewed  to  be  in  yo"^  harte, 
the  grete  and  deepe  care  wch  you  have  always  had  for  the 
honor  and  salfty  of  the  Q'.  Mat^s .  most  worthy  p'son ;  the 
continual  troubell  w^^^you  have  of  long  tyme  taken  for  the 
benefyting  of  the  com'on-weltbe ;  and  the  uprygbt  course 
^ch  jQ  have  alwaye's  taken,  re$pectying  the  mattr  and  not 
the  p'son,  in  all  causes  ;  (wch  be  the  necessary  trusts  of  him^ 
that  feretbe  God  trewly,  s'rveth  his  Soverayne  faythfuUj, 

R  A  T  C  L  IF  F  E.  57 

und  lovethe  his  countrey  derely)  have  tyed  me  to  yo'  L.  itt 
^at  kiiotte  vr^^  no  worldly  fraylty  can  break ;  aiid,  therfor, 
I  wyll  never  forbere  to  runne  anfy  fortune  that  may  8*rve 
you,  and  further  you'  godly  actyons.  And  so,  my  good  L. 
fprberyng  to  entrobell  you  w^*^  words,  I  end;  and  wysb 
unto  you  as  to  my  self/  and  better,  yf  I  may/' ' 

.  RATHERIUS,  one  of  the  very  few  learned  prelates  in 
the  tenth  century,  was  born  at  Libya,  and  embraced  a  mo«' 
nastic  life  at  the  abbey  of  Lobbes,  or  Laubes,  in  Flanders. 
Here  he  distinguished  himself  by  his  abilities  and  acquire-* 
ments.  In  the  year  928,  after  Hilduin  had  been  driven  out 
of  the  see  of  Liege,  he  accompanied  him  into  Italy  ;  and  in 
931  he  was,  by  the  express  order  of  the  pope,  put  in  pos- 
session of  the  see  of  Verona ;  and  with  this  promotion  he 
c««nmenCed  a  life  of  vicissitudes  and  persecutions,  an  ac- 
count of  which  here  would  perhaps  be  uninteresting,  but 
may  be  found  amply  detailed  in  the  edition  of  his  works 
printed  by  the  brothers  Ballerini  in  1767.  He  died  at 
Namur,  about  the  year  973.  His  works  are  numerous,  and 
divided  into  three  parts ;  the  first  contain  his  *<  Prologues,*' 
in  six  books;  which  form  a  treatise  on  the  duties  of  all 
classes  of  men,  expressing  also  their  vices  and  irregulari- 
ties ;  the  second  is  a  collection  of  letters ;  and  the  third  con- 
jiiflts  of  sermons.' 

RATRAMN,  RATRAM,  or  BERTRAMN,  a  celebrated 
monk,  und  priest  of  the  abbey  of  Corby,  flourished  in  the 
9th  century,  in  the  reign  of  Charles  the  Bald.  He  appears 
to  have  bjeen  well  acquainted  with  the  Greek  and  Latin 
classics,  and  with  the  Holy  Scriptures.  Of  all  Ratramn -s 
works,  his  treatise  ^^On  the  Body  and  Blood  of  Christ*' 
made  the  most  noise.  This  treatise  was  written  in  answer 
to  Paschasiiis  Rstdbert,  and  so  much  appeared  to  favour  the 
protestant  opinion  respecting  the  real  presence  in  the  Eu- 
charist, that  many  learned  catholics  considered  it  either  as 
heretical  or  spurious;  but  its  authenticity  was  clearly- 
proved  afterwards  by  Mabillon,  M.  Boileau,  and  a  doctor  of 
the  Sorbonne,  who  published  an  excellent  edition  in  Latin 
and  French,  1686,  12mo,  reprinted  with  a  defence  in 
Latin  only,  1712, 12mo,  and  according  to  catholic  writers, 
has  also  shewn  the  work  to  be  orthodoTC.  But  this  is  ably 
controverted  in  the  English  translation  published  in  Dub- 

1  Juodge's  lUustratioQS.-— Biog.  Brit,  new  ecli\  art.  Robeit  Dublby,  p.  465. 
*  Tirabofchi.— CaTe.— Dupio. 


5&  B  A  T  R  A  M  N. 


lin  in  1753.  His  other  works,  whicb  are  lett  interesting, 
are  mostly  inserted  in  D'Acberi's  Spicilegiufn.  The  tune 
of  his  death  is  not  known.  ^ 

RATTE  (St£Fhen  Hyacinth  de),  a  French  madieina* 
tician  and  astronomer,  was  born  at  MoNtpeliier,  Sept.  1, 
1722,  and  from  his  earliest  years  became  attached  to  the 
study  of  the  sciences,  particularly  mathematics.  When 
very  young,  be  was  appointed  secretary  to  the  Montpellier 
academy  of  sciences,  which  office  be  held  uotil  ail  acade- 
mies in  France  were  dissolved.  In  the  course  of  bis  office, 
he  published  two  volumes  of  their  **  Me9ioirs,*'  and  was 
preparing  a  third  at  the  time  of  the  resolution.  He  als(> 
contributed  imany  valuable  papers  himself  on  philosophical 
and  mathematical  subjects,  and  furnished  some  articles  for 
the  **  Dictionnaice  Encyelopedique.*'  The  comet  of  1759, 
the  subject  of  so  much  predicjtion  and  expectation,  so  far 
altered  his  pursui|ts  as  to  make  them  afterwards  eentr6  in 
astronomy.  He  was  for  a  long  time  considered  a3  the  only 
good  astronomer  at  Montpellier,  and  made  many  useful 
observations,  particularly  on  the  famous  transit  of  Venus 
in  1761.  Such  was  his  zeal,  that  when  old  age  prevented 
him  from  making  observations  with  his  usual  aecumey,  he 
maintained  a  persoq  for  that  purpose  at  his  own  ^epenee  as 
keeper  of  the  observatory  at  Montpellier.  On  the  death 
of  his  father,  in  1770,  he  became  counsellor  of  the  eourt 
of  aids,  and  was  often  the  organ  of  that  cooppany  on  re- 
markable occasions.  In  1798,  when  such  numbers  of  the 
old  academy  as  had  escaped  the  murderous  perio(|  of  ih^ 
revolution  attempted  to  revive  it  under  the  name  <^  ^^  So*:* 
ciet6  Libre  des  sciences  et  belies  lettres  de  Montpeiiier,^ 
De  ilatte  was  chosen  president.  Some  volumes  of  their 
transacttons  have  been  published  under  the  4itie  of  **  Bulle- 
tins.*' When  the  nationad  institute  was  formed,  De  Ratte 
was  phosen  an  associate,  and  also  a  membet  of  other  learned 
societies  in  France,  and  at  last  one  of  the  legion  of  honour. 
He  died  Aug.  1 5,  1 805,  aged  eighty-three.  His  astroiiot- 
mical  observaitions  have  been  collected  for  publication  by 
M.  De  Flaugergues,  an  astronomer  of  Viviers;  but  our 
authority  does  not  mention  whether  they  have  yet  ap- 
peared. * 

RAULIN  (John),  a  French  djvine,  was  born  at  Tout 
in  1443,  of  a  good  family.     He  studied  at  Paris,  and  re- 

«Oopiii Mosheim'8  £ccl.  Hist  •  Diet.  Hist. 

R  A  U  L  I  N-  59 

ceived  the  degree  of  doctor  of  diviDity  in  1479,  having^ 
before  giveo  prqof  of  bis  learning  and  talents,  by  a  com* 
meptary  on  the  logic  of  Aristotle ;  and  his  polpit  oratory. 
In  1491  be  was  chosen  grand  master  of  the  college  of  Na<» 
varre,  and  performed  the  duties  of  that  office  in  a  manner 
which  procured  bioi  universal  esteem.  In  1497  be  fancied 
be  had  a  special  call  to  leave  the  world,  and  therefore  re« 
tired  to  ihe  abbey  of  Cluny,  the  order  of  which^  be  was 
qoBimissioned  to  reform  by  cardinal  D'Amboise  ;  and  here 
too  he  was  a  very  frequent  preacher.  He  died  Feb.  6,1514, 
in  his  seventy-first  year.  Major  mentions  an  anecdote  much 
to  the  credit  of  Raulin.  When  he  was  only  a  licentiate, 
some  ecclesiastics  who  were  filling  their  pockets  by  the  sale 
of  indulgences,  offered  to  pay  all  the  expences  of  taking 
his  doctor's  degree,  if  he  would  join  them  and  preach  up 
their  trade,  which  he  rejected  with  indignation.  Many 
large  volumes  of  Raulin's  sermons  were  printed  after  his 
death,  composed  in  a  miserably  bad  taste,  which,  however^ 
was  the  taste  of  his  age.  It  is  perhaps  a  sufficient  character 
of  tbem,  that  Rabelais  took  some  of  bis  ludicrous  stories 
from  tbem.  The  only  useful  publication  of  Raulin  is  his 
volume  of  correspondence,  '<  Epistols,"  Paris,  1529,  4to, 
which,  like  most  collections  of  the  kind,  throws  some  light 
on  the  literature  of  the  age.^ 

RAUWOLF  (Leonard),  a  skilful  botanist,  was  a  native 
of  Augsburg,  and  a  pupil  of  Rondelet.  He  sailed  from 
Marseilles,  in  1573,  for  the  Levant,  and  performed  a  labo- 
rious and  dangerous  journey  through  Syria,  Mesopotamia, 
Palestine,  and  Egypt ;  of  which  he  has  left  an  account  in 
German,  full  of  curious  information  relative  to  medical  and 
other  rare  plants,  with  several  wooden  cuts.  He  died  physi- 
cian to  the  Austrian  army,  atHatVany,  in  Hungary,  in  1606, 
according  to  Dryander,  Bibl.  Banks,  v.  395,  though  Haller 
says  1  596a  The  latter  writer  mentions  his  being  obliged  to 
quit  hiis  country,  on  account  of  his  religion,  which  was  pro- 
testant  His  splendid  herbarium,  once  the  property  of 
t}ueen  Christina,  and  of  Isaac  Vossius,  is  preserved  in  the 
university  of  Leyden.  From  it  Gronovius  composed  his 
**  Flora  Orientalis.'* — ^An  English  translation  of  bis  journey 
was  published  by  Staphorst  in  1693,  8vo.* 

RAVENET  (Simon  Francis),  an  engraver,  was  a  na- 
tive of  France,  but  came  to   England  about    1750,  and 

1  NiceroD,  vol.  XI. — Chanfepie.  <  Haller,  Bibl,  Bot.«-Rees's  Cyclopaedia. 


60  R  A  V  E  N  E  T. 

settled  in  London.     In  the  latter  part  of  his  life  he  resided 
at  Mother  Red  Cap*s,  near  Kentish  Town,  where  he  died 
in  1774.     He  was  of  eln  amiable  disposition  and  much  re- 
spected, and  had  the  honour  of  instructing  both  Ryland  and  , 
Hall  in  the  art  of  engraving. 

The  shadows  in  his  engravings  are  deep  toned,  end  his 
style  both  of  drawing  and  engraving  vigorous,  though 
somewhat  mannered.  Beside  what  he  produced  after  Ho- 
garth, the  following  are  esteemed  among  bis  best  prints : 
"  The  Prodigal  Son,"  (a  large  upright)  from  Sal.  Rosa ; 
^*  Lucretia  deploring  her  Misfortune,"  from  A.  Casali ; 
"  The  Manifestation  of  the  Innbcence  of  the  Princess  Gun- 
helda,"  (its  companion)  from  the  same;  "The  Death  of 
Seneca,"  (a  large  plate)  from  Lucca  Giordano ;  "  The 
Arcadian  Shepherds,"  from  N.  Poussin;  **The  portrait  of 
Lord  Camden,"  from  sir  Joshua  Reynolds.  He  is  also  the 
author  of  a  considerable  number  of  vignettes,  book  plates, 
and  small  portraits.^ 

•  RAVENSCROFT  (Thomas),  an  active  English  musician 
and  publisher,  who  flourished  from  the  beginning  of  the 
17th  century  to  1635,  was  the  editor  and  composer  of  the 
best  collection  of  psalm  tunes  in  four  parts,  which  had  till 
then  appeared  in  England.  He  was  a  bachelor  of  music, 
and  a  professor  not  only  well  acquainted  with  the  practice 
of  the  art,  but  seems  to  have  bestowed  much  time  in  the 
perusal  of  the  best  authors,  and  in  meditation  on  the  the- 
ory. This  book,  published  in  small  octavo,  1621  and  1633, 
eontains  a  melody  for  every  one  of  the  hundred  and  6fty 
psalms,  many  of  them  by  the  editor  himself,  of  which  a 
considerable  number  is  still  in  u>e;  as  Windsor,  St.  David's, 
Southwell,  and  Canterbury.  There  are  others,  likewise, 
which  are  sung  by  the  German,  Netherlandish,  and  French 
Protestants.  To  these  the  base,  tenor,  and  counter-tenor 
parts  have  been  composed  by  twenty-oneEnglish  musicians: 
among  whom  we  find  the  names  of  Tallis,  Dowland,  Mof- 
ley,  Bennet,  Stubbs,  Farnaby,  and  John  Milton,  the  fa- 
ther of  our  great  poet.  The  tunes  which  are  peculiar  to 
the  measure  of  the  lOOdth  psalm,  the  ll3tb,  and  119th, 
were  originally  Lutheran,  or  perhaps  of  still  higher  anti- 
quity. And  though  Ravenscroft  has  affixed  the  name  of 
Dr.  John  Dowland  to  the  parts  which  have  been  s^et  to  the 
lOOdth  psalm,  yet,  in  the  index,  he  has  ranked  the  melody 

>  Str«lt»8  Diet.     . 


itself  with  the  French  tunes ;  perhaps  from  having  seen  it. 
among  the  melodies  that  were  set  to  the  French  version  of 
Clement  Marot  and  Theodore  Beza^s  Psalms,  by  Goudimel 
and  Claude  le  Jeune.  Ravenscroft,  in  imitation  of  these^ 
harmonists,  always,  gives  the  principal 'melody,  or,  as  he 
calls  hy  the  playn-^ong,  to  the  tenor.  His  publication  is,. 
in  some  measure,  historical :  for  he  tells  us  not  only  who 
composed  the  parts  to  old  melodies,  but  who  increased  the, 
common  stock,  by  the  addition  of  new  tunes;,  as. well  as 
which,  of  them  were  originally  English,  Welch,  Scots,  Ger- 
man, Dutch,  Italian,  French,  and  imitations  of  these. 

No  tunes  of  triple  time  occur  in  Claude  le  Jeune,  and 
but  five  in  Ravenscroft :  tl>e  principal  of  which  are  Cam- 
bridge, Martyrs,  Manchester,  and  the  81st.  This  last  is 
still  much  used,  and  often  played  by  chimes  :  it  is  called 
an  imitation  of  a  foreign  tune,  and  has  the  name  of  Richard 
Allison  prefixed  to  it.  Muller^s  German  edition  of  the 
psalm  tunes  at  Frankfort  is  exactly  that  of  Claude  le  Jeune, 
in  two  parts  only ;  except  that  he  has  transposed  some  of 
the  melodies,  and  inserted  easy  leading  and  coimective 
notes,  to  assist,  not  only  the  singer,  but  sometimes  the 
tunes  themselves;  whipb,  without  them,  would  now  be 
very  bald  and  uncouth.  Many  of  these  old  melodies  aret 
still  sung  to  German  hymns  as  well  as  psalms. 

In  1614  Ravenscroft  published  *' A  briefe  Discourse  of 
the  true,  but  neglected,  Use  of  chamcterizing  the  Degrees 
by  their  perfection,  imperfection,  and  diminution,  in  mea- 
surable Musicke,  against  the  common  practice  and  custome 
of  the  times,'^  4to.  He  had  been  educated  in  St.  Paul's, 
cl^oir,  under  Mr.  Edward  Pierce,  and  was  particularly  con- 
versant with  old  authors ;  he,  therefore,  wished  to  revive 
the  use  of  those  proportions  in  time,  which,  on,  account 
of  their  intricacy,  bad  been  long  discontinued.  He  practised 
these  exploded  doctrines  ineffectually,  though  to  his  dis- 
Qourse  he  added  examples  to  illustrate  his  precepts,  ex- 
pressed in  the  harmony  of  four  voices,  concerning  the  plea- 
sure of  the  five  usual  recreations  of  hunting,  hawking, 
4anciug,,  drinking,  ^md  enamouring.  H^  was  not  always 
yery  successful  in  his  attempts  at  imitative  harmony ;  and 
melody  was  then  sb  crude  and  uncoiith  throughout  Europe,^ 
as  to  afford  little  assistance  in  imitative  strains.  Ravens-, 
^roft  was  also  the  author  of  a  collection  of  songs,  entitled 
^'  Melcimata,  Musical  Fhancies,  fitting  the  Court,  City, 

ei  R  A  V  I  S. 

and  Country  Humours,  in  Ibrde^  four,  and  five  Voyces,'* 
published  in  the  y^ar  16]  1.^ 

RAVIS,  RAVIUS,  or  RAVE  (CitRisTiAN),  a  learned 
orientalist,  was  born  nt  Berlin,  in  1613,  and  after  studying- 
ibr  eight  years  at  Rostoek  and  other  foreign  schools,  be 
came  to  Oxford  in  1638,  about  which  time  he  addressed  a 
letter  to  archbishop  Usher,  who,  conceiving  a  high  opinion 
6f  him,  gave  him  an  invitation  to  Dublin,  with  offers  of 
preferment.  In  the  mean  time  becoming  likewise  known 
to  Grotius,  the  latter,  unknown  to  archbishop  Usher,  in-* 
troduced  him  to  cardinal  Richelieu^  who  offered  to  employ 
llim  ad  his  agent  in  the  ea^t.  Ravi  us,  however,  pleaded 
bis  pre-etigagement  to  the  Englii^h  nation,  and  especially 
to  Usher ;  and  the  cardinal/  with  great  liberality,  admitted 
his  motive,  and  dismissed  him  with  a  handsoine  present, 
H^  then,  under  the  patronage^  of  Usher,  began  his  travels 
in  the  East,  but  fortunately  for  himself,  arrived  at  Constan- 
tinople with  a  strong  tecommendsltion  from  archbishop 
Laud ;  for,  according  to  Dr.  Pocock's  account,  who  was 
then  in  that  city,  Ravins  *'  came  thither,  without  either 
cloaths  befitting  him  (of  Which  he  said  he  had  been  robbed 
in  France)  or  money,  bv  letters  of  credit  to  any  merchant. 
He  had  letters  of  recommendation  from  some  of  the  states 
to  the  Dutch  ambassador,  who  was  departed  before  his 
arriVak  Sir  Sackville  Crow,  the  English  ambassador,  find* 
ing  that'he  brought  the  archbishop^s  recommendation,  ge- 
nerously took' him  into  his  house  and  protection,  and  gave 
him  all  du^  furtherance  ;  requiring  of  him  that,  if  occasion 
so  present  itself,  England  may  enjoy  the  benefit  of  what 
titn^  he  ^hall  here  employ  in  the  study  of  the  eastern  tongues* 
His  desire,"  Dr.  Pbcock  adds,  "  seems  to  be,  to  be  em- 
ployed in  setting  forth  books  in  the  Arabic  language,  and  t6 
t>e  overseer  of  the  press  in  that  kind,  for  which  be  would 
be  very  fiuing." 

In  1639,  archbishop  Usher  wrote  a  Latin  letter  to  him, 
with  a  promise  of  «£24.  a-year  towards  bis  support ;  and  dii 
bis  return  with  a  large  treasure  of  MSS.  to  the  number  of 
three  hundred.  Usher  rewarded  and  supported  him  with 
great  liberality.  RaviuS  now  settled  in  England,  and  iii 
1642  resided  at  Gresbam  college,  and  afterwards  at  Lon^ 
don  house,  Aldersgate-street,  and  in  both  places  taught 
the  Eastern  languages.    During  the  following  year  he  went 

1  Hawkins  and  BuToefs  Hist,  of  Music,  and  the  latter  in  Keei*s  Cyclopaedia* 

R  A  V  1  ».  es 

t6  Holland,  ftiid  was  appointed  profiMsOr  of  the  oriental 
Jteguitges  at  Utrecht,  which  has  procured  him  a  place 
among  the  learned  taen  of  Utrecht  in  Burman^s  <*  Trajeo- 
ttim  Ertiditum/'  In  1648,  we  find  him  again  in  England^ 
where,  in  compliance  with  the  ruling  powers,  he  took  the 
covenant,  and  even  became  a  rival  to  Dr.  PoCock  in  the 
Arabic  professorship,  but  failed  in  thb  detlign.  He  then 
went  to  Swedeh,  and  became  professor  of  oriental  litera« 
tlire  at  Upsal ;  but  a  large  family  and  the  scanty  salaty  of 
bis  professorship  obliged  him  to  go  to  Kiel  in  Germanyi 
where  be  lived  comfortabiy  until  his  death  in  1677. 

The  writings  of  this  learned  scholar  were  M«  "  Panegy-^ 
ricsB  orationes  du8B  de  lingais  Orientalib'tts,''  Utrecht,  1643, 
4to.  2.  *^  Obtestatio  ad  universam  Eorapam  pro  disoendia 
rebus  et  Unguis  orietitalibns,"  ibid.  1644,  fol.  3*  ^  OrC0« 
graphic^  et  analogiae,  vulgo  etytnbiogiek,  Ebraicas  delinea*' 
tia,  &o."  Amst.  1646,  foL  4.  ^<A  Grammar  of  the  Hebre«^, 
Chaldaie,  Syriac,  Arabic,  and  Samaritati,''  Loiid.  1648^ 
8vo.  5.  <'  De  Dddaifm  Rubefiis  dlSsertatio  philologica," 
Upsaf,  1655,  8vo.  6.  <*  Annotationes  iA  versus  postremOS 
Geneseos  capitis  XXX,'*  ibid,  1655,  8vOi  7.  '^  Apolloniu4 
Pergseus  ex  versione  Ariibica,  Laiine,*'  Koloti.  1661,  8vo. 
8.  <^  Versio  nova  in  caput  quanutn  GfeiieseOs,"  ibid.  1664^ 
8vo.  §.  '<  Versio  Latina  ex  Hebrso  sex  prtorum  capitum 
Geneseos,  &&'*  ibid.  1665,  8vo.  10.  "  Chrdnologim  in- 
fallibilis  de  anhis  Christi,  &c.  demonstrationes,'*  ibid.  1669^ 
re})rinted  1670,  fol.  ll.  *<  Synopsis  Chronologias  Bibli-^ 
c»,"  Berliri,  1670,  fol.  12.  "  Orbis  Hieraticus  Levita- 
rum,  &c.''  ibid.  1670,  fol.  13.  <*  Excussio  discUs^iom^ 
ih^pts  Abrahaml  Calovli,''  Upsal,  1671,  fol.  14»  <<  Dis*< 
putatio  Cbrdriblogica  de  plenitudihe-^temporis  Christi  ib 
ca^ne  a  priori  deducta,**  Frantifort,  1673,  4ta.  15.  "Tri- 
gitit^  arcana  Bibiica  cotitieitiintia  ssram  Ghristi  anno  mundl 
4041,  non  4000  ul  Callovios  docet,'*  ibid,  1675,  fol. 

He  had  a  brother,  JohK  RaviuSj  who  was  professor  of 
philoBopby  at  Rostock,  and  the  author  of  a  commentary 
oti  Cornelius  N^po^,  and  kome  other  works.  ^ 


HAWLEY  (William),  a  learned  English  diving,  and 
editor  of  lord  Bacon's  works,  was  bofn  at  NorWii^b-  about 
1588.    He  was  admitted  a  Bible-clerk  in  BeneU  cdllege, 

\  Ath.  Ox.  iroL  iL^Twellfl'f  Life  of  Pocock,  p.  li.--Boni»n'i  Tri^*  Brud.— > 
Usher's  Dfe  and  LetUn. 

«4  RAW  L  E  Y. 

Caiiibrtdge»  under  the  taidou  of  Mr.  Cbapqiafiy  oo  di«< 
22d  of  January,  1660,  aod  took  b^^tb  tbe  degrees  in  arts 
before  tbe  19tb  of  IVbrcb,  1609,  when  be  was  elected  a 
fellow  of  tbe  bouse. .   Upon  tbis  be  comaieoced  tutor,  9jad 
was  ordained  deacon  by  tbe  bisbop  of  Ely,  at  Downbam^. 
September  22,  1611 ;  not  long  after  wbicb,  be  was  pre* 
sented  by  tbe  university  of  Cambridge  to  tbe  rectory  of 
Bowthorpe  in  Norfolk,  and  was  instituted  to  it  Dec.  10, 
1612.     In  1616,  by  tbe  favour  of  sir  Francis  Bacon,  wbo 
procured  tbe  living  for  bim  of  tbe  college,  he  obtained  tbe 
rectory  of  Landbeach..   He  had  commenced  B.  I),  tbe  year 
before,  and  upon  bis  patron^s  being  made  lord-keeper  of 
the  great  seal,  was  ;4>pointed  bis  domestic  chaplain.  While 
Mr.  Rawtey.was  in  this  situation,  he  proceeded  D..D.  in 
1621.    'He  was  of  great  use  to  bis  master,  in  writing  down, 
compiling,  digesting,  and  publishing  his  works ;  to  many 
of  which  be  wrote  prefaces  aad  dedications,   as  well  as 
translated  several  of  them  into  Latin.     These,  with  some, 
other  pieces  committed  to  his  care,  he  collected  together, 
and  printed^  after  bis  lordship^s  decease,  London,  1638, 
folio,  with  a  dedication  to  king  Charles,   one  of  whose 
chaplains  be  then  was.     In  1657,  be  published  at  London, 
ii\^ folio,  upder  the  title  of  ^^  Resuscitatio,'*  several  others, 
of  lord  Bacon^s  tracts ;  to  which  at  the  request  of  many^ 
foreigners,  and  natives  of  the  kingdom,  be  prefixed  some 
account  of  his  patron^s  life.     This,  which  is  thought  to  be 
drawn  up  iii  a  clear  and  manly  style,  shews  Dr.  Rawley  to. 
have  been  an  able  writer.     It  was  likewise  translated  into 
Latin,  and  placed  before  the  ^*  Opuscula  varia  Posthuma,*' 
printed  in  8vo  the  y^ar  following,  which,  he  tells  us,  were 
the  last  things  he  had  in  his  hands.     However,  he  repub-. 
lished  the  ^^  Resuscitatio,''  with  some  additions,  in  1661 ; 
at  which  time  he  was  chaplain  in  ordinary  to  bis  majesty 
king  Charles  II.     He  was  so  great  a  favourite  with  lord. 
Baeon,  that,  after  his  resignation  of  the  seals,  he  recom- 
mended Dr.  Rawley  to  his  successor,  bishop  Williams,  for 
farther  preferment    This  the  bishop  promised,  and  de-^ 
sired  lord  Bacon  to  point  out  in  what  he  would  wish  him  to 
promote  Dr.  Rawley ;  but  his  lordship  modestly  declining 
this,  and  referring  the   choice  to  the  lord-keeper,  Dr  , 
Rawley  appears  to  have  derived  no  advantage  from  hi» 
friend's  recommendation.     Lord  Verulam,  besides  the  care 
of  his  writings,  left  the  doctor  by  will,  as  a  farther  testi- 
mony of  his  regard,  one  hundred  pounds,  with  the  king  of 

k  AW  t  E  V,  65 

SiNttii's'-Pidygtot'^i  M^r'tba  pifbUcftlira  j  of  bi«  mttttec's 
works)  in'  4.6^8,  On  Bawrleyr  rfesid/eid  u^qU  bis  reQtory  at 
Laoidbeacb*  He  married  Bwrbarfti' tbe  diMighter  of  Mn 
Jobn  W4ehsl^d>  aldernmn  of  Cambridgei  by  vvbom  be  luid 
twocbildreii*  Hia  daughter,  Maiy,  diedi  in  bear  iDfancy  | 
but  Us  iM)ni  WiUtam,  <  bmame  follow  of  Corpus  Cbristi 
6o]legcf>  and  «irai3>  baried  at  Luddboapby  «<>ii  the  Sd  of  July, 
]:66r6i  Dr.  Rawley  tost  his. sm,  bi^  wifei^:  and  his  sefvante^ 
aU  ill  the  sameyeaivef  tbe.plague ;  rwbich  probably  afFecfeed 
him  so  much  as'  ta'  bring  doimn.  his*'  grey  hairs  with  sorrow 
fo  the  gra^^e.  He  died  on  the  18 tb  of  June^  1667^  in  the 
seventy*ninth  yearof  his  age,,  after  having  been  pastor  at 
Landbeach  fifty  yeans,  and  ihroMghout  .the  whole  of  the 
tronbles;  Hi&  remains. were  deposited  .near  the  CommU'* 
i^tenv table,  in  the  obaocel.  of  his  owe.  ohurcb^  under  a  blaet 
marble,  with  a  Latih  imoriptian  to  his  /memory.  Dr.  Raw^ 
ley  was  proctor  in  eonvoeaiidnifor  the  cletgy  of  the  dioc^e 
of  Ely,  in  1661,  and  as  such  subscribed  to  the  Book  .ofi 
Common-Prayer,  upon  its  revisaU  -  He  had  the  appella^ 
tion  of  the  lord  BsLcon's^  learned  chaplain ;  and  that  this 
title  was  justly  bestowed  'upon  him',  td  evident  from  the 
testimonies  of  several  considerable  men,  both  at  hpme  and 
abroad;  He  presented  ^ofd  Bacoti^s  ^orks,  as  he  published 
tbera,  to  the  library  of  Corpus  Cbristi  college,  Cambridge; 
and  bequeathed  to  it  ^*  Camden^s  firitatinia/'  with  <>  Cice«- 
ronis  Opera,'*  in  2  vols,  and  Plato,  in  3  vols,  folio.  These 
books  were 'delivered  by»hkiexeo4itor  Mr;  John  Rawley,  to 
whose  care  we  are  indebted  for  those  Remains  of  lord  Bacon 
which  were  jpublished  by  Dr.  Tenisoti.^ 

RAWJ.INSON  (CBfRlSTOPHE'E),  of  Carkhall  in  Lanca- 
shire^ esq.  an  ablle  Satcon- scholar,  the  only  son  of  Curwen 
R^wlidson' of  tbe^ same  places  wbo^died  in  1689,  and  de-« 
scended  from  a  family  of  long  standing  in  High  Fumess, 
and  very  numerous  in  ther  parish  of  Hawkshead  ^d  Colrv 
ton,  was  coHateraily  related  'to  the  subjects  of  the  three 
following  airticleis.  '  He  was  born  in  1677,  educated  at 
Queen's  college,  Oxfordy  made  uppertoommoner  May  10^. 
1695,  and  eminently  distinguishied  for  his  application  to 
Saxon  ind  Northern  literature*  He,  published,  whilst  at 
Queen's  college,  a  biteutifullsditionof  kiivg  Alfred's  Sax^n 
translation  of  "  Bciethius  de  CorisolatiQne  PbilosophisB,'* ' 
Oxon.  1698,  8 vo>  from  a  transcript,  by  Franeisciis  Janios, 

>  M Oten's  Hist  of  C.  C.  C.  C. 

Vol.  XXVI.  F 

R  A  W  L  I  N  S  O  N, 

of  a  very  ancient  MS.  in  the  Bodleian  library,  collated  Wit& 
one  in  the  Gotton  lifaraty.  The  ^*  Gramtnatica  Anglo-Sax* 
ooica,  ex  Hickesiano  Thesanro  excerpta,'*  printed  at  Ox- 
ford in  171 1,  1^  dedicated  to  this  gentleman,  in  the  follow^ 
ing  words  r  **  Viro  eximio  Christpphoro  Rawltnson  Armi* 
gero,  Ltteraturas  Saxonicae  Fautori  egregio,  hasce  brevi«> 
cuhts  Institirtiones  Graonmaticas  dicat,  dedicat,  Editor.'^ 
He  left  behind  hinv  a  large  collection  of  MSS.  among  which 
are  many  relating  to  Westmorland  and  Cumberland,  of 
which  copies  are  at  sir  Michael  le  Fleming^s  at  Rydal.  He 
ordered  his  under-coffin  to  be  heart  of  o^k,  and  covered 
with  red  leather;  and  died  January  8,  1732-3,  aged  fifty- 
fire.  At  the  rrorth  end  of  the  north  transept  of  the  abbey- 
chorcb  of  St.  Alban's  iis  a  white  marble  sarcophagus,^  witb 
8  figure  of  History  sitting  on  it,  reclining  on  her  left  arm,^ 
holding  in  her  hand  a  pen,  with  which  she  writes  in  a  book, 
while  two  other  books  lie  under  her  feet.  Bek)w  is  thb 

To-  the  tnem:>ry  of 

€bri«topfaer  Rav1io90ii»  of  Carli-haH  io  Cartmel,  in  the  county  of 

liSDcaster,  .etq.  whose  remains  arte  deposited  in  a  vault  near  this  place. 

He  was  son  of  Curwen  Itawlinson,  member  of  parliameat  for  the  town 

of  Lancaster,  and  Elizabeth  Monk,  daughter  and  co-heir  of  the  loyat 

Nicholas  Monk,  lord  bishop  of  Hereford,  brother  to  Gen.  Monk 

*l(uke  of  Albemarle.    The  said  Christopher  was  of  Queen's  college,  in  Oxford, 

and.  published  the  Saxon  version  of  **  Boetbius  de  Consolatiooe 

Phikwophias"  in  the  Saxon  language.     He  was  bom  in  the  parish  of 

Spriogfteld  in  Essex,  June  !<},  1677,  and  died  in  Jan.  1733. 

This  aioauriient  was  erected  pursuant  to  the  will  of  bis  cousin  and 

.    co»heires»  Mrs.  Mary  ftlalte^  youngest  dttughter  of  Roger  Mdre, 

of  Kirkby  Lonsdale,,  hi  the  county  of  Westmoreland,  seijeant  at  law,^ 

and  Catharine  Ravlinson,  sister  of  the  said  Curwen  Rawlinson. 

Sor  this  gentleman's  pedigree,  see  **  Sandford's  Oeneerlo- 
gical  History  of  the  Kings  and  Queens  of  England^'  1707;'^ 
where  also  is  a  print ^  of  <  the  monument  erected  by  binv>k> 

'  *  This  print  is  engraved  by  Nut* 
tiOg*  ansd  inscribed  at  bottom,  as  fol- 
lows: <*Viro  oobiti.  fc  omatitsimo, 
literanim  patrono,  Cbristophoro  Raw- 
litosoo;  de  Cark,  in  coihitatu  Lancas- 
tciMr  armigero ;  qui  oe  dulcis  memo^ 
rla  ayt  sui  bonorabilis  et  matris  cha- 
^issimse  pereat,monumentum  hocseter- 
nitati-  sacrum  esse  volutt,*'  In  thecen- 
ter  of  this  inscription  is  a  shield,  quar- 
fering  the  arms  of  Rawlinson,  Planta- 
getfe^  Curwen,  and  Monk;  with  the 
n^tto  of  the  Rawlinsons  'affixed.  The 
epitaph  runs  thus :  **  Near  this  place 
lyeth  the  body  of  that  mo^t  learned 
W  boaeil  coomellor  at  law^  Robert 

Eawlinson,  of  Cark'Hall  in  Cartmetl 
in  Lancashire,  and  of  Gray's  Inn  ia*' 
Middlesex,  esq. .  His  great  integrity, 
joined  with  a  profound  knowledge  of 
ihe  law,  made  him  esteemed  and  atf. 
mired  by  all  that  knew  him.  Htr  was 
justice  of  Ihe  peace,  of  Quorum,  and  of 
Oyer  and  Terminer,  for  the  countiea 
Palatine  of  Lancaster  and  Chester  to 
king  Charles' 11. ;  a  great  sufferer  for 
his  loyalty  to  king  Charles  I.  vice- 
chamberlain  of  the  city  and  county  of 
Chester  to  Charles  earl  of  Darby.  U^ 
lived  beloved  of  all,  and  so  he  died 
lamented)  Oct  21,  1665,  aged  55,  He 
married    the    prudent  Jane  Wii^on- 



bis  grandfather  and  mother,  in  the  church  of  St,  Mary,  at 
Ciirtiiiel,  in  Lancashire.  There  are  two  engraving9  of 
him;  one  in  a  wig  and  night-gown,  iu  a  frame  of  oak« 
leaves,  engraved  by  Nutting,  with  his  initials  in  a  cyphec 
at  the  corners,  and  his  arms  quartering  a  chevron  betweeu 
3  lions'  heads,  and  Ar.  fretty  Gu,  a  chief  A z.  Another^ 
by  Nutting  also  (mentioned  in  Granger),  in  the  same  plate 
with  fouir  others,  \it.  Kobert,  his  grandfather;  Curwen, 
bis  father  i  Elizabeth,  his  mother,  atid  t)r.  Nicholas  MoDk« 
bishop  of  Hereford,  his  mother's  father.  There  is  like- 
wise a  mezzotinto  half-sheet,  by  Smith,  represeiiting  him 
younger,  and  of  a  mote  comely  person,  than  either  of  the 
engravings.     It  is  dated  "  Anno  Christi  1701,  attatis  siise 

RAWLINSON  (TflOMAs),  knt.  eldest  surviving  son  of 
Daniel  Rawlinson^,  citizen  and  wine-merchant  of  Loh- 
don,  descended  from  the  ancient  family  of  that  name  at 
Graisdale,  in  the  county  of  Lancaster,  was  born  in  the 
parish  of  St.  DionisBackchurch,  in  F'eochurch-street,  Lon<» 

(eldest  daagfater  of  Tilomas  Wilsob 
of  HaTersham  Hall  ia  WesUDoreland, 
ciq.)  who  died  1686,  aged  60;  and 
was  buried  iu  the  same  grave  With 
bim ;  by  whom  be  left  Canred  Raw- 
linson,  esq.  bis  eldest  and  only  son, 
#ho  married.  He  was  d  most  accom- 
plisbed  ^sd  iogenioiM  geotlenan,  and 
a  true  patriot;  so  succeeded  bis  father 
in  the  setrice  and  love  of  his  country, 
and  died  in  it  1689,  aged  48,  bein^ 
burgess  for  Lancaster  in  the  parlia- 
ment convened  1688^  Jan.  ^2,  and  waa 
buried  in  the  chancel  of  St^  Mary*s, 

•Next  Robert  Rawlinson  lyeth  the 
remains  of  the  truly  pious  and  religious 
Elixabetb  RawKnson,  wife  of  Curwen 
Rawlinion  of  Lark*  esq.  (daughter  and 
co-heir  of  the  loyal  t)r.  Nicholas  Monk, 
1^  bisbop  of  Hereford)  a  f^reat  as- 
sistant in  the  Restoration  to  bis  bro- 
thfr>.  the  most  noble  Oeoige  Monk 
duke  of  AlbemaHe,  and  son  of  sir 
Tboim  Monk  of  Potheridge  in  Oe«> 
vopshire,  knt.  ,  She  ^s^s  a  most  dutiful 
daughter  of  the  Church  of  England,  as 
i#ell  as  of  a  prelate  of  it;  being  a  sob- 
lime  pattern  of  holy  piety,  a. true  cba* 
lily,  a  Christian  humility^  a  faithful 
friendship,    a  religious    dre  of  her 

1  Drawn  Dp  by  Mr.  Goug^  for  (be 
fionary,  vol.  il«  art.  Kawlinson. 


children,  and  t  divine  patience  ndder 
the  torture  of  the  stone,  and  with  which 
she  resigned  her  heavenly  soul,  Sept. 
81,  I69i.  aged  forty-three,  lea«io^ 
two  sons}  Monk  Rawlinson,  who  died 
K95,  aged  21,  and  lyeth  buried  by 
ber;  and  Christopher  Rawlinion,  esq; 
now  living,  bom  in  Esseic,  1617,  who« 
in  memory  of  hie  grandfather,  and 
most  dearly  beloved  and  good  mother, 
erected  this  tnoAument,  Adccv.'*  Th€ 
abov«  is  toa  exact  copy  of  Uie  platei 

*  Daniel  Rawlinson  has  a  monu- 
ment in  St.  Dionis  Backchurch,  witb 
his  wife  Margaret,  his  eldest  sod  Da^ 
niel,  his  daughters  Elizabeth,  add 
Mary,  wife  of  Mazine,  esq.  Strype's 
Survey  of  London,  B<  II.  p.  154.  It 
appears  by  the  printed  wiH  of  Dr.  Hi-*' 
chard  RawUusoq,  that  Daniel  left  bia& 
a  fee^fartn  rent  of  42/.  per  mmurn,  is- 
suing o«t  of  the  rectory  and  parish- 
chureb  of  Ulverston,  and  other  tith^« 
in  the  county  of  Lancaster,  and  lis^ 
also  out  of  the  tetiements,  and  12 
acres  of  glebe  of  the  said  rectory,  and 
61.  out  of  Pennington  rectory  and  other 
rents,  &<i.  amounting  in  the  whole  to. 
upwards  of  95L  per  annum,  which  be 
left  in  trust,  as  beceftfter  stated. 

e'diUon  1784  of  this  Diet.— Collier's  Die- 

63  R  A  W  L  I  N  S  O  N.- 

don,  March  1647 ;  appointed  sheriff  of  London  by  James  II; 
1687,  colonel  of  the  white  regiment  of  trained  bands,  and 
governor  of  Biridewell  and  Bethlem  hospitals,  1705;  and* 
in  1706,  lord  mayor  of  London,  when  be  beautified  apd 
repaired' Guildhall,  as  appears  by  an  inscription  in  tbi^ 
^reat  porch.  He  married  Mary,  eldest  daughter  of  Richard 
Taylor,' esq.  of  Turnham- green,  with  whom  he  lived  87 
years,  and  by  whom  he  had  15  children*  She  died' at 
Chelsea,  Feb.  21,  17^4-5,  aged  sixty-three.  He  died  in 
his  own  parish,  November  2,  17o/,  and  was  buried  with  8 
his  father,  who  died  in  1679,  aged  sixty-six.  Of  his  chil- 
dren, four  daughters,  Anne-Maria,  Mary«  Margaret,  Susan;- 
and  two  sons,  both  named  Daniel,  died  before  him.  Wil- 
liam died'in  1732,  and  was  buried  at  Antwerp.  John,  of 
Little  Leigh  in  Cheshire^  esq.  died<  January  9,  1753. 
l^empest,  the  youngest  son,  by  profession  a  dry*salter,  died 
January  1,  17^7.  Sir  Thomas  Rawlinson,  it  maybe  added,, 
had  been  foreman  of  the  grand  jury  at  the  trial  of  alderman 
Cornish ';  and  was  elected  sheriff  by  royal  mandate.— Hi» 
eldest  son,  Thomas,  for  whom  Mr.  Addison  is  said  to  have 
intended  bis  character  of  Tom  FoliOi  inthe  Tatler,  No.  1 58, 
but  with  in(init<ely  tbo  satirickl  ^  vein,  was  a  great  collector 
of  books ;  and  himself  a  mafk  of  learning,  as  well  as  patron- 
of  learned  men.  Mattaire  has  dedicated  to  him  his  edition 
of  Juvend;  and  Hearne^s  publication,  entitled '^  AluredL 
Bererlacensis  Annales,  &c."  was  printed  from  the  original 
MS.  in  this  gentleftian*s  p'Ossessibn.  Very  numerous  indeed 
were  the  communications  that  editor  received  from  Mn 
Thomas  Rawlinson,  for  ail  which  be  tKketf  every  opportu-* 
nity  of  expresising  his  g^ratitude.  While  Mr.  Rawlinson 
lived  in  Gray's  inn,  be  had  four  chambers  so  completely 
filled  with  books,  that  hi9' bed  was  removed  out  into  tbe^ 
passagie.'  He  afterwards  removed  to  London-house,  the 
-lincient  palace  of  the  bishops  of  London,  in  Aldersgate- 
street,  where  1osb  died  August  6,  1725,  aged  forty*four^ 
and  was  buried  ini  the  church  of  St.  Botolph  Aldersgate» 
In  Lbtid6n-hoQse  his  Kbr^ry  was  sold  after  his  decease; 
and  there  also  lived  and  died  his  brother  Richard,  who  left 
a  portrait  of  his  brother  Thomas  in  crayons,  another  of 
himself,  and  another  bf  Nicolas  Salmop,  LL.  D.  thenoti- 
quary,  to  the  Society *of  Antiquaries,  aU  afterwards  revoked. 
His  MSS.took  sixteen  days  to  sell,  from  March  4,  1733-4. 
The  catalogue  of  his  library  consists  of  nine  parts.  The 
amount  of  the  five  first  parts  was  2409/.    Mr.  Charles: 

R  A  W  L  I  N  S  O  N.  69 

M^b,  late  bookseller  at  Chariiig-cross,  used  to  say, 
that  the  sale  of  Mr.  Thomas  Rawliqson^s  Kbrary  was  one  of 
the  first  eveots  he  remembered  upon  engaging  in  business ; 
and  that  it  was  the  larg^  collection  at'that  tim^  known  toi 
have  been  offered  to  the  public' 

RA'WLINSON  (Richard),  an  eminent  antiquary,  and 
great  benefactor  to  the  university  of  Oxford,  was  the  fotirtli 
son  of  sir  Thomas ; .  and  was  educated  at  St.  John's  college, 
Oxford,  wJbere  he  was  admitted  gentleman  commoner^  and 
proceeded  M.  A.,  and  grand  compounder  in  1713,  and  was 
£idmitted  to  the  degree  of  doctor  of  civil  law  by  diploma^ 
in  1719,  He  was  F.  R.  S.  and  became  F.  S.  A.  May  10, 
1727.  He  wa3  greatly  accessary  to  the  bringibgtb  light 
many  descriptions  of  counties  ;  and,  intending  one  of  Ox* 
fordshire,  had  collected  materials  from  Wood's  papers,  &c. 
bad  many  plates  engraved,  and  circulated  printed  queries, 
hot  received  accounts  only  of  two  parishes,  which  in  some 
degree  answered  the  design,  and  eucouraged  him  to  pursue 
it;  In  this  work  were  to  be  included  the  antiquities  of  the 
gbity  of  Oxford,  which  Wood  promised  when  the  English 
popy  of  his  ''  Historia  &  Antiquitates  Oxon."  was  to  be 
published,  and  which  have  since  been  f&ithfally  transcribed 
from  his  papei^,  by  Mr.  Gutcb,  and  much  enlarged  and 
corrected  from  ancient  original  authorities.  All  Dr.  Raw- 
linson^s  collections  for  the  county,  chiefly  <?ulled  from 
Wood,  or  picked  up  from  information,  and  disposed  by 
Iiumlreds  in  set)arate  books,  in  each  of  which  several  pa- 
rishes are  omitted,  would  make  but  one  8vo  voluine.  But 
be  made  large  collections  for  the  continuation  of  Wood's 
'<  Athena  Oxdnienses"  atid  *^  Histqrjr  of  Oxford,'Vapd  for 
^n  account  of  ^  NoQ-compliers"  at  the  Revolution ;  which, 
together  with  sonie  edllections  of  Htorh^'s,  find  note-books 
6f  his  own  trav£l)l,  be  bequeathed  by  bis  will  tp  the  univer- 
sity pf  Okford,  The  Life  of  Mr.  Anthony  Wood,  hisio- 
riograpber  of  the  most  famdUs  university  of  Oxfdrd,  with 
art  liccoont  of  bis  nativity,  education,  works,  file,  collected 
and  coQiposed  from  iMSS.  by  Richard  Rilwlinson,  gent. 
comniioiier  of  St.  John*^  college,  Oxon.  was  printed  art  Lon- 
don in  1711.  A  copy  of  this  lile,  with  MS  additions  by 
the  author,  is  in  die  Bodleian  library.  He  published  pro- 
posals for  an  *f  History  of  Eton  College,**  1717;  and,  in 
4728,    ^^  Petri  Abaelarai  Abbati%  Ruyensis    ^   Heloisseer 

1  By  Mr.  Goagb,  for  the  edition  of  this  Dictiooiry  of  1784. 

70  R  A  W  I.  I  N  S  O  N. 


Ab1>ati8S8B  Paracletensis  Epistolte/*  Svo,  dedicated  to  Df. 
IVIead.  The  books,  the  publication  of  which  he  promoted^are 
supposed  to  be  the  **  History  and  Antiquities  of  Wincbes-t 
ter,"  1715,  8vo,  ^*  History  and  Antiquities  of  Hereford," 
1717,  8vo.  *^  History  and  Antiquities  of  Rochester,'*  1717, 
1723,  8vo,  *^  Inscriptions  on, tombs  in  Bunhili-fields,'' 
1717,  8vo.  ^^  History  and  Antiquities  of  the  Churches  of 
Salisbury  and  Bath,"  1719,  1733,  Svo.  «  Aubrey's  History 
of  Surrey,"  1719,  5  vols.  Bvo.  **  Norden's  Delineation  of 
Jlortbamptonshire,"  1 720,  8vo.  "  History  and  Antiquities 
of  Glastonbury,"  Oxford,  1722,  8vo.  In  1728,  he  trans- 
lated and  printed  Fresnoy's  /'  New  Method  of  studying 
History,  with  a  Catalogue  of  the  chief  Historians,'*  2  vols. 
Svo.     But  his  principal  work  was  **  The  English  Topo<v 

frapber,  or,  an  Historical  Account  of  all  the  Pieces  that 
ave  been  written  relating  to  the  antient  Natural  History 
or  Topographical  Description  of  any  Part  of  England,"  1 720jt 
8vo,  the  plan  of  which  has  been  so  much  augmented  and 
improved  in  Mr.^  Cough's  two  editions  of  the  ^^  British  To- 
pography." In  1750,  he  gave,  by  indenture,  the  yearly 
sum  of  87/.  16^.  Sd.  being  the  rents  and  profits  of  various 
estates  which  he  inherited  under  the  will  of  his  grandfather 
DaDiel  Rawlinson  to  the  university  of  Oxford,  for  tbe 
maintenance  and  support  of  an  Anglo-Saxon  lecture  or 
professorship  for  ever.  To  the  Society  of  Antiquaries,  be 
gave,  by  will,  a  small  freehold  and  copyhold  estate  at  Ful- 
ham,  on  condition  that  they  did  not,  upon  any  terms,  or 
by  any  stratagem,  art,  means,  or  contrivance  howsoever,, 
increase  of  add  to  their  (then)  number  of  150  members^ 
honorary  members  only  excepted.  He  also  made  them  a 
considerable  bequest  of  dies  and  matrices  of  English  seals 
^nd  medals,  all  his  collection  of  seals  ^,  charters,  drawings 
by  Vertqe  and  other  artists,  and  other  antiquities ;  ten^ 
wa) put- tree  book-cases,  which  had  been  given  to  his  lat^ 
l^rother  Thomas  by  the  then  earl  of  Peoibroke,  and  fou^ 
mahogany*  presses,  all  marked  P,  all  his  English  prints  p^ 
which  they  had  not  duplicates,  and  a  quit-rent  of  5Lp^i^. 
annum,  in  Norfolk,  for  a  gop4  meilal  for  the  best  des.crip* 

*  See  hit  teals  enumerated  m  the  141,  150,  164,  166,  237,  295,  309, 

British  Topography,  vol.  I.  465»4S3,  381,  474,  416,  689,  709.  715. 

vol  II.  40,  96i,  13^,  177,  891.  Drawings  and  MSS.  ?oKl.  188,  337,, 

His  plates,  vol.  I.    390,  419,  454,  339,  431,  499,   510,  529,  534,  609^ 

464,  492,  494,  508,   515,   537,   544,  615.— Vol.  H.  59,   75,  ^5,  95^^    \^ 

552,  5i^,  64a,  717.— Vol.  H.  50,  89,  155,  9S6,  468,  761. 

HAW  L  I  N  S  O  N.  7i 

tion  pn  any  Eogliih,  Saxon,  Roman,  or  Greels/coini  or 
•other  antiquity  not  before  treated  of  or  in  print ;  but,  re* 
seating  some  sqpposed  want  of  deference  to  his  singularities 
and  dictatorial  spirit,  and  some  reflections  on  bis  own  and 
bis  friend's  honour,  in  an  imputation  of  libelling  the  So^ 
ciety  in  th^e  public  papers,  he,  by  a  codicil  made  and 
signed  at  their  house  in  Chancery  lane,  revoked  the 
whole*,  and  excluded  all  fellows  of  this  or  the  Royal  So* 
ciety  from  any  benefit  from  his  benefactions  at  Oxford^ 
which,  besides  his  Anglo-Saxon  endowment,  were  ex^ 
tremely  considerable ;  including,  besides  a  number  of 
books  with  and  without  MS  notea,  all  his  seals,  English 
and  foreign,  his  antique  marbles,  and  other  curiosities; 
bis  copper^plates  relative  to  several  counties,  his  ancient 
Oreek  and  Roman  coins  and  medals,  part  of  his  collection 
of  English  medals,  his  series  of  medals  of  Louis  XIV»  and 
XV.  a  series  of  medals  of  the  popes,  which  Dr.  Rawlinson 
supposed  to  be  one  of  the  most  complete  collections  in 
Europe;  and  a  great  number  of  valuable  MSS.  which  be 
ordered  to  be  safely  locked  up,  and  not  to  be  opened  till 
seven  years  after  his  decease  f.  His  music,  MS.  and  printi 
ed,  he  gave  to  the'  music^scbool  at  Oxford*  He  died  afe 
Islington,  April  6, 1755  ;  and  in  the  same  year  was  printed 
<'The  Deed  of  Trust  and  Will  of  Richard  Rawlinson,  of 
St.  John  the  Baptist  college,  Oxford,  doctor  of  laws ;  con- 
cerning his  endowment  of  an  Anglo-'Saxon  lecture,  and 
other  benefactions  to  the  college  and  university/*  He 
left  to  Hertford  college  the  estate  in  Fulham  before  ment 
tioned,  and  to  the  college  of  St.  John  the  Baptist  the  bulk 
of  his  estate,  amounting  to  niear  700/.  a  year,  a  plate  of 
archbishop   Laud,    thirty-one  volumes  of  parliamentary 

journals  and  debates;  a.  set  of  the  '^  Foedera,*'  .all  his 

•  •   '  -    ■  '  } 

*  One  reasoDt  among  othert,  wl^icb  Salisbary*    by  whom  it  wai  sent  to 

he  give  for  thit,  was,  that  their  then  se- ,  Cambridge.    Dr.  Tay  Ipr's  insinuatioi^ 

cretary,  Mr.  Gordon, -was  a  Sootcbman,  however,  was  #iihoat  foundation,  faS 

f  Br.  Taylor  was  persuaded  that  no  such  MS.,  was  found  in  Dr.  Rawlinn 

ibis  precaution  was  taken  by  the  doc-  son's  collection ;'  and  the  papers  which 

tor  to  prevent  the  right  owners'  reco-  Dr.  Rawlinson.  desired   might  not  b«? 

▼ering  tbeir  own.    He  supposed  that  made  puhUc  Aill  after  his  dieath,  were 

Dr.  RawHnsen   made   no   scruple    of  his  collectienafor  ajcoipitinaatinnof  the 

buying  all  that  wAs  brought  to  him  ;  **  Athense  Oxontenses/^  with  Hearne's 

and  that,  am«ng  the  test,  the  MS.  and  Diaries,    and  utq  other  M^.    Ybe 

printed  copy  of  Demosthenes,  whicln.  whole  ar^  now  open  for  any  one  who 

was  lost  on  the  road,  and  the  detainer  wishes   to  consult  .them.—  Historical^ 

«if  which  ho>had  cursed  very  classically,  passages  collected  by  him  from  Wobdi 

^o^ld  be  found  among  the  spoil.    The  were  .printed    as    a    lupplemept    tor 

MS/belonged  to  James  Harris,  esq.  of,  Woo^^s  Life,  Oxf^  1772,  vol,  U,  p,  24?.* 

.  .  .  !  .  ._.  '-4.  ...-•* 

T«  B  A  W  t  I  N  S  O  K. 


Gr^ekt  Boman,  «nd  Englkb,  coins  not  given  to  the  Bod<» 
leian  libr^ry^  ^1^  ^^  plates  engraved  at  tbe  expencOi  of  <tie 
&>ciety  of  Antiquariefl,  with  the  annuity  for  the  prize- 
medaly  and  another  to  the  best  orator.  The  produce  of 
certain  rents  bequeathed  to  St.  Jean's  college  was^  after 
fiO  years*  accumuJationi  to  b^  la^d  out  in  purchase  of  an 
IB8tate»  whose  profits  were  to  be  a  salary  to  a  keeper  of  the 
Ashmolean  Museum,  being  a  master  of  arts,  or  bachelor  in 
pivil  law ;  and  all  legacies,  refused  by  the  university  or 
others,  to  c^snter  in  this  college.  To  the  hospitals  of  Bride- 
weU  and  Bethlehem,  for  the  use  of  the  incurables  of  the  latter 
Ii^  }ef^  2po/.  and  ten  guineas  as  an  equivalent  for  the 
inonthly  coffee  which  he  had.  received  in  Bethlehem  ^coiiw 
snon  room :  but,  if  they  did  nor  giiv  up  the  picture  of  his 
father  hanging  in  their  hall,  in  order  to  its  being  put  up  in 
the  Mansion-hduse,  they  were  to  forfeit  the  larger  snm^ 
pnd  receive  only  the  smaHen  This  picture,  after  it  bad 
hung  up  at  the  Mansion-hoase  for  some  years,  Orithout  any 
companion,  in  a  forlorn,  neglected  state^  and  received 
eonsiderable  damage,  the  late  sir  Walter  Rawlinson  olM 
gained  leave  of  the  court  of  aldermen  (being  then  himself 
|t  member  of  that  body,  i^nd  president  of  those  hospitals) 
io  Eestore  to  Bridewell.  It  is  bne  of  sir  Godfrey  Kneller^s 
best  performances,  and  well  engraved  by  Vcrttte^^-^ON- 
STANTIKE,  another  iirother^  ^s  mentioned  'by  Richatd  Raw* 
linson's  will,  as  then  Tesidlngat^V^iice,  where  he  died  in 
1779.  To  hitnfae  '|pive  tbexqpper-{>late  of  his  fatbier'^ 
porltait,  and  ^all  &mily •'pictures,  except  his  fatber^s^  por^ 
trait  by  Kneller,  which  twaa  given  to  'the  Vifntners'  com-^ 

Eany,  qf  which  bir  fkther  waa  'aviember.  He  Idft  him  also 
is  Tents  in  PaulVfaread  eoart»  Fenchurchostreet,  jeiint\y 
with  his  sisters^  Itllary^RawUnlrm,  a^d'Anne  Andrews,  for. 
life.  In  the  same  will  is  mentioned  another  brother,  Johk, 
to  whom  he  left  estates  in  Devonshire-street,  London ;  and 
ft  nephew  Thomas.  To  St  John>  college  he  bequeathed 
also  bis  diplpma,  f^nd  his  he^rt,  which  is  placed  in  a  bea^'- 
^ful  mafble  urn  against  the  chapel-wall,  inscribed  : 

''Ubi  tliesaurus,  ibi  cor. 
'.'  l^if .  JUwLiNsoN,  LU  Dl  ^  ANTp.  S.  S,    . 
^'  QMin  huyus  jCoUegii  superioris.oidinis  OonHtteDsati^. 
'*  ObSt  VI  Apr.  MDCCLT." 

m^  b^dy  was  buried  in  a  vault,  purchased  by  him  in  the 
north  aile  of  St.  Giles's  church,  Oxford,  of  which  he  h^  i| 
plate  engn^ved  in  liis  life»^ime|  with  this  inscription : 



''  Twk  ^voMt-^'^^Vdat  in  Speculuwu 
Maaei  omuM  aim  noi^r— NoQ  moriar  oaintt« 
,.{  UocI^oraHtoriuin.Sped.  lat.  Spedlof^. 

A  parodiift  D.  Egidi  Oxon.  concess.  25  Febr.  et 
Facult  £»isc.  coofiroiat.  5  Mali  J.  L.  Arm.  et 
A&ign.  A.  D.  M,DCC,L1V. 
Pallida  mors  sequo  pulsat  pede. 
>  Bemel  «st  oatcanda  via  letM. 
Ultima  Thule. 
f^  RAWI.IN80H,  LL.D.  R.  &  A,  SS. 
OHm  Coik^  S.  Joaonis  Bapt.  Oxon* 
Superioris  Ordinis  Commensalls, 
Obiit  vj  Apr.  mdcclv.  aet.  lxv." 

^  »  ' 

.  Wteo  tbe  be9d  ^f  cpmiseUor  Layer,  who  was  executed 
lor  b^Mig  c^n4^ued  in  the  plot  of  1792  *,  and  Bxed  oa 
Templo^bfl^r^  m9tk  blown  off>  and  t^k^n  up  by  Mr.  Joba 
Pearcesi  s^n  emitoet  utiornev  of  Tooke'st^courty  and  ageixt 
for  the  npejuriog  pivrty»  Dr.  R^wUnson  purchased  it  of 
him  fit  9  )^gb|Mrice^  preserved  it  as  a  valuable  retic,  and 
dire($ted  tb4t  il;  abould  be  buried  in  his  right  band.  It  is 
said,  however)  that  he  was  imposed  upon,  find  that  a  bead 
w^ts.^old  to  hiq»  which  was  not  Layer^s. 
.  Hi^  librfiry  of  printed  books  -and  books  of  prints  was  sold 
by  aiiaionMa  1756;. the  sale  lasted. 50  days,  and  pro<* 
duced  liai/.  Theirs  was  a  second  sale  of  upwards  of 
20,000  p^Q^pblets,  reduced  into  lots  under  proper  beads» 
T|?itb  bis  most  uncommon,  rare^  and  odd,  books,  in. the  fol- 
lowing year,  during  ten  days ;  which  was  immediately 
succeeded  by  a.  sale  of  the  doctor^s  single  prints,  books  of 
prints,  -nod  dravyings^  whieh  lasted  eight  daya  ^ 
.  KAY  (li£N,FAMiN),  an.  ingenious  and  worthy  man,  who 
is  d^crihed  as  possessed  of  learning,  but  ignorant  of  the 
.lyorldi  indolent  and  thoughtless,  and  Often  very  absent; 
9lis  a  native  of .  Spalding,  where  he  was  educated  under 
Pr*  Neve^  and  afterwards  admitted  of  St.  John's  college. 

*  Christopber  Layer,  a  young 
^craissellor  of  the  Temple,  was  appre- 
)wQdk4  in  Um»  iiiiddkft  of  flepL  11SS, 
and,  attempting  bis  escap*  next  ^ay, 
was  overtaken,  and  codimitted  to  the 
Tower.  He  was  ezamfned  Sept^  31, 
l^efore  tbc  jMrivy  nou^il ;  a«»d,  after  a 
trial  of  )8  hours,  in  the  kiog^s  bench, 
m  an  mdictment  for  inlisting  men  in 
Sisez  for4he  Pretendcr's'Mrviee,  and 
corratpondipg  w|(b  them)  was  oonYiot- 
jSd,   and  received  ^sentence  of  death. 

But,  being  reprieved  from  time  to, 
time,  the  House  of  Commons  appointed 
a  coouaitlee  to  evaounc  him  in  reU- 
tiou  to  the  conspiracy.  He  dedined 
making  any  discovery  ;  and  was-exe- 
cuted  at  Tyburn  May  17,  17S2(  and 
his  head  lined  upon  Temple-bar.  Ia. 
a  short  speech  he  justi6ed  what  he  ha4 
done,  and  recommended  the  interest 
Sf  the  Pretender.  His  trial  wai  print* 
ed  some  lime  before  his  executioo* 
llndaPs  Contiu.  of  Kapin,  IV.  666, 

By  Mr.  Cough,  drawn  up  originally  (or  Nichols*!  Bo'wyef.' 

74  RAY. 

Cambridge.  He  wAs  perpetual  curate  of  Surfleet,  of 
vrfaich  he  gave  an  acicount  to  the  Spalding  Society ;  and 
curate  of  Covbiit,  which  is  a  chapel  to  Spalding,  in  the 
gift  of  trosjtees.  His  hermitage  of  osiers  and  willows  there 
«vas  celebrated,  by  William  Jackson  of  Boston,  in  a  MS 
heroic  poem.  He  communicated  to  the  Royal  Society  an 
account  of  a  water-spout  raised  off  the  land  in  Deeping 
fen,  printed  in  their  "  Transactions,'*  vol.  XLVIL  p.  447, 
and  of  an  ancient  coin,  to  "  Gent.  Maig.  1744."  There 
are  several  dissertations  by  him  in  that  miscellany.  He 
was  secretary  to  the  Spalding  society  in  1735.  Mr.  Pegge, 
about  1758,  had  a  consultation  with  Dr.  Taylor,  residen- 
tiary of  St.  Paul's,  and  a  friend  of  Ray*«,  to  get  him  re- 
moved to  a  better  situation,  and  the  doctor  was  inclined  to 
4o  it ;  but,  on  better  information  and  mature  consideration^ 
U  was  thought  then  too  late  to  transplant  him.  He  died  a 
bachelor  at  Spalding  in  1760.  S^e  his  communications  tp 
the  society,  in  the  Reliquiae  Galeanae,  pp.  57,  $B,  6S.^ 
He  also  communicated,  in  MS.  ^  The  Truth  of  the  Chris- 
tian Religion  demonstrated  from  the  Report  that  was  pro- 
pagated throughout  the  Gentile  World  about  the  Birth  of 
Christ,  that  a  Messiah  was  expected,  and  from  the  Autho- 
rity of  Heathef)  Writers,  and  from  the  Coins  of  the  Ro- 
man £mperors  to  the  beginning  of  the  second  general  per- 
secution under  Domittan,"  in  ten  sections,  never  printed.* 
Also  a  MS  catalogue  of  household  goods,  furniture,  and 
ten  pictures,  removed  out  of  the  presence-chamber,  26 
Charles  11.  14  Dec.  1668,  from  Mr.  Brown,  and  ,of  others 
taken  out  of  the  cupboard  in  the  chamber,  25  Dec.  1668, 
by  Mr.  Church.  These  were  in  number  69.  (Percy 
Church,  esq.  was  some  time  page  of  honour  and  equerry 
to  the  queen -mother  Henrietta  Maria.)  A  MS  catalogue 
of  Italian  princes,  palaces,  and  paintings,  17S5,  now  i«' 
the  Society's  Museum.  In  1740,  a  large  and  welUwritten 
history  of  the  life  and  writings  of  the  gre^t  botanist,  his 
namesake,  by  Mr.  Dale,  which  was  read,  and  approved^ 
John  Ray's  account  of  Cuba,  where  he  was  on  shore  some 
months.  Mr.  Johnson  call^  him  bis  kinsman^  and  says,  in 
honour  of  him,  he  finds  an  inscription  On  the  lower  ledge 
of  an  altar-tomb,  on  which  lies  a  mutilated  alabasterknignt 
Jn  armour  and  mail  in  Gosberkirke,  alias  Gosberton  chapel^ 
BOW  a  school  at  Surfleet,  to  belong  to  Nicolas  Rte,  who 
was  sheriff  of  Lincolnshire  5  and  6  Edw.  I.  1278/  and  diec{ 

1279  or  80.* 

•  Nichols's  Bowyer. 

RAY.  75 

RAT,  or  WRA^V  (John),  an  eminieiit  English  natural 
philosopher,  was  the  son  of  a  black^muh  at  Black  Notley^ 
l^ear  Braintree,  in  E»Be:^  i^ud  was  born  there  Nov,  29tb, 
1628.  He  was  bred,  a  schQla^r  at  Braintree  school ;  and 
sent  thence,  in  1644,  to  Catharine^hall  in  Cambridge* 
Here  he  continued  about  tv^o  years,  and  then  removed, 
for  some  reason  or  otb^r,  to  Trinity-college ;  with  which, 
says  Derham,  he  was  afterwi^rds  muph  pleased,  because 
in  CatharineTball  they  chiefly  addicted  themselves  to  dis* 
putations,  while  in  Trinity  the  politer  arts  and  sciences 
were  principally  cultivated.  In  Sept.  1649  he  was  chosen 
a  minor  fellow  along  with  his  ingenious  friend  Isaac  Bar* 
row,  and  was  chosen  major  fellow,  when  he  bad  completed 
bis  master's  degreie.  The  learned  Duport,  famous  for  his 
skill  in  Greek,  who^  had  been  his  tutor,  used  to  say,  that 
the  chief  of  all  his  pupils,  i^nd  to  whom  he  esteemed  none 
of  the  rest  comparable,  were  Mr.  Ray  and  Dr.  Barrow^ 
In  165  J,  ]V^r.  Ray  was  chosen  the  Greek  lecturer  of  the 
jt^oU^ge ;  in  1653,  tbe  mathematical  lecturer;  in  1655, 
humanity-readers  which  three  appointments  shew  the  re^ 
putation  he  bad  acquired,  in  that  early  period  of  his  life,  for 
bis  skill  in  languages,  polite  literature,  and  the  sciences. 
After  he  had  been  of  greater  standing,  he  was  chosen  into 
the  respective  offices  of  the  college,  as  prslector  primarius, 
in  1657  ;  junior  dean  in  1658  ;  and  twice  college^steward, 
in  1659  and  1660r 

During  his  continuance  in  the  university,  be  acquitted 
himself  honourably  as  a  tutor  and  a  preacher;  for,  preach-* 
ing  and  common  placing,  ];>oth  in  the  college  and  in  the 
university*churcb,  were  then  usually  performed  by  per^ 
so|)s  ^  not  ordained.  Dr.  Tenison  informed  bis  biogra-* 
prher  that  Mr.  Ray  was  much  celebrated  in  his  time  for 
his  preaching  solid  and  useful  divinity,  instead  of  that 
^thusiastic  st$iff  which  the  serpnons  of  that  time  were, 
generally  BUed  with.  His  favourite  study,  and  what  in-, 
deed  made  the  chief  business  of  his  life,  was  the  history  of 
naturae,  and  the  works  of  God :  and  in  this  he  acquired 
very  ejctensive  knowledge.  He  published,  in  1660,  a 
**  Catalogue  of  the  Cambridge  Plants,''. in  order  tp  pro- 
mote tbe  study  of  botany,  which  was  then  much  neglected ; 
and  tjne  reception  this  work  niet  with  encouraged  him  to  * 
proceed  farther  in  tbi^  study.  He.  no  longer  contented, 
himself  with.whi^t  .he  met  with  about  Cambridge,  but  ex-, 
(ended  h}s  pursuits  throMghonit  the  greatest  par(  of  £ngland. 

7«  a  A  Y. 

and  Wales,  and  part  of  Scotland.  In'  these  j^rilejrs  of 
ftimpling,  tfaougti  he  sometimes  H^ent  alon^y  yet  he  had 
comfnooiy  the  coin|i>any  of *6tber  oe^ious  gientletaicfn,  f I'atti-^ 
cularty  Mr.  Wittoughby^  bis  p<ipilf  Mr,  (aftefwbrds  sir) 
Philip  Skippdn,  and  Mr.  Petet  Cburtfaope.  '  At  the  xeBXh* 
ration  of  Che  king^  be  resolved  upon'  etiteHnj^  i^to-hisfly 
orders;  and  ^vas  ordained  by  Sander^n^,  bishop  of  Lin^ 
coin,  December  23, 1«€0.  He  cOfrtina^  fello<iiFof  TrinSty^ 
college,  till  the  beginning  of  the  BartfaoloMiew^  act-;  whith^ 
requiring  a  subscription  afgainst  the  solemn  ledg^e  and 
eovenam^  occasionod' him  to  resign  his  *feIlovrship,  be  re<i 
fusing  tO'i»gn  that  declaration.  His  biographer  informs  uli 
that  the  reason  of  his  refusal  was  not,  as  •some  h^rt  itiiagined^ 
his  having  taken  the  solemn  league  and  covenant :  "  fo^ 
that  he  never  did,  and  often  declared  that  he  ever  thought^ 
k  ah  unlawful  oath,-  but  he  said  he  could  not  declare,-  foif 
those  that  had  taken  the  oath,  that  no  obligation  lay  upoti 
tbe^n  ;  but  feared  there  might."  This  explanation  of  Mr.- 
Ray'S  conduct  seems  not  very  ^tisfaclory,  btit 'it  is  all 
that  we  can  noiv  obtaVn,  and  it'is  certain  that  he  died  in 
communion  with  the  church  of- England. 

Having  now  left  his  fellowship,  and  visited  tnOst  parts  of 
his  own  eounti^y,  liO'Was  desirous  of  seeing  what  nature  af- 
forded in  foreign  parts;  and  accordingly,  in  Apri^  1663^; 
himself,  with  Mr.  WiHoughby,  Mr;  Bkippoii,  and-Mr.  Na* 
thauael  Bacon,  went  from  Dover  to  CA)ais$  and  thehde 
through  divers  par4s  oiF  Europe;  ivhich,  however,  it  is  suf- 
ficient just  to  therition,  as  Mr.  Kay  himfself,  ih  16?3r,  pub^ 
lished  the  '*  Observittioils"  •  they  made  in  that  tour.  To- 
wards the  end  of  their  jottrney,Mf;  WiHoughby  and  Mr. 
Ray  separated;  the  former  passing  through  Spain, ^tb^ 
latter  from  Montpelier  through  Prance,  into  Engkbd, 
where  he  arrived  in  March,  1665-6..  He  pursued  his  phi- 
losophical studies  with  his  -usXial  iirdour,  and  becanse  sd 
distinguished,  that  he  wafe  importuned  to  come  into  thd' 
roy?il  society,  and  ^as  admitted  fcfllow  the^reof  in  1667.' 
ipeing  theh  solicited  by  dean  (afterwards  bishop)  Wilklns^,- 
to  translate  his  **  Real  Character**  into  Latin,  he  consented ; 
and  the  original  manuscript  of  that  work,  ready  for  th^ 
press,  is  still  extant  in  the  library  of  the  royal  society. 

Iti  the  spring  of  16€9,  Mr.  Ray  and  Mr.  Willougbby' 
entered  upon  those  Experiments  about  the  tdppifigs  of 
trees,  and  the  ascent  and  thid  descent  of  their  ssip,  which 
are  published  in  the  Philosophical  Transactions.    About; 

BAY.  If 


tb>9  time^  •  Mr.  Ray  began  to  draw  up  his  observatioDs  for 
public  use  ;  and  one  of  the  fiirst  th^)gs  he  undertook  was^ 
bis  '^  Collection  of  £ngUsh  Proverbs."  This  book,  tbougb 
sent  to  Cambridge  to  be  printed  in  1669,  yet  was  not  pub* 
lished  till  167.2.  U  was  afterwards  mucb^enlarged,  and  iif 
perhaps  better  known  to  the  generality  of  bis  countrymen^ 
than  any  otber  of  his  Uteraryr  labours.  He  also  prepared 
his  ^'  Catalogue  of  English  Plants''  for  the.  press,  which 
came  out  in  1670:  bis  bumble  thoughts  of  this  and  bis 
other  book' (for  he  was  a  man  of  uncommon  modesty)  may 
be  seen  in  a  LaXia  letter  of  his  .to  Dr.  Uster,  August  22^ 
1670.  In  the  same  letter,  he  also  takes- notice  of  th^ 
alteiHii^  his  namue^ .  by.  leaving  out  the  W  in  the  beginning 
of  it ;:  for,,  till  1670,  he.  had  always  written  his  name  JVray^ 
bi^t  this  beipgy  he  saysy  contrary  to  the  custom  of  his  fore^. 
fathers,  be  therefore  re-assumed  the  name  of  Ray.  In  the 
same  letter,  be  mentions  bis  having  had  ap  offer  of  2QQL 
per  ann«m  with  three  young  noblemen  into  foreign 
parts.;  but  this  .proposal  not  being  consistent  with  his  in- 
firm state  of  body,  he  thought  it  prudent  to  decline  it. 

In  1671  he  was  afflicted  with  ^  feverish  xtisorder,  wbigh 
terminated. in, the  yellow, jaundice)  but  he^ was  soon  ci^red 
of  it,  and  resumed  his  botanical  pursuits.  .  The  year  after, 
his  beloved  friend  Mr.  Willoughby  died,,. in  bis  37th  year,, 
at  Middleton<>ball,  hi^  seat  in  Yorkshire;  ^Uo  the,  infiuit€^ 
and  unspeakable  loss  and  grie^"  says  Mr.  Ray,  ^^ofiny« 
self,  his  friends,  and  all  good  men."  There  having  been 
the  sincerest  friendship  between  Mr.  Willoughby  and  Mr. 
Ray,  who  >were  men  of  similar  dispositions  and  tastes, 
from  the.  time  of  their  being  fellow-collegians,  Mr.  Wil- 
loughby not  only,  confided  in  Mr.  Jiay  in  his  life*time^  but 
also  at  his  death ;.  for,  he  made  him  one  of  the  executors 
of  his  will,  and  charged  bim^witb  the  education  of  his  sons, 
Francis  and  Thomas,  leaving  him  also  for  life  60/,  perann« 
The  eldest  of  these  young  gentlemen  not  being  four  years 
of  age^  Mr.  Ray,  as  a  faithful  trui^tee,  betook  himself  to 
the. instroction  of  them;. and  for  their  use  composed  h\% 
^^  Nomenclator  Classicus,''  which  was  published  in  1672,; 
and  is  far  more  exact,  especially  in  the  natnes  of  natural 
objects,  .than  any  that  had  previously  appeared.  Francis^ 
die  eldest,  dying  before  he  was  of  age,  the  younger  became 
lord  Middleton.  Not  many  mpnlhs  after  the  death  of  Mr. 
Willoughby,  Mr.  Ray  lost  another  of  his  best  friends,  bi- 
shop Wilkins ;  whom  he  visited  in  London,  November  1 8, 
1672,  and  found  expiring. 

H  tt  A  t. 

Mr.  Ray  having  thiis  lost  some  of  his  best  fri^ndsy  aA(l 
being  in  a  manner  left  destitute,  endeavoured  to  consolel 
himself  With  female  society ;  add  in  June,  1673,  married  si 
yoiiug  lady,  not  half  his  ilge,  beit^g  only  20  years  of  age,  th^ 
daughter  of  Mr.  Oakeley,  oif  Launtoti  in  Oxfordshire.  T6- 
*wards  the  end  of  this  yesir  came  forth  his  '^  Observations^ 
Topographical,  Moral,  &c."  made  in  fotefgh  coiintri^s^ 
to  which  was  added  his  **  Catalogus  Stirpiiim  in  exteris  re- 
gionibus  observsltarum  ;*'  and,  about  the  i^anOe  time,  hid 
**  Collection  of  unusual  or  local  English  words,**  which  he 
bad  gathered  tip  in  his  travels  through  the  cbunties  of 
England;  In  1674,  Mr.  Oldenbutgh,  the  secretary  of  the 
Royal  Society,  renewed  his  correspondence  with  Mr.  Ray, 
which  had  been  some  time  intermitted,  and  sent  him  let* 
ters  almost  every  month.  Mr.  Ray*s  accounts  in  these  tet-» 
ters  were  published  by  Oldenburgh  in  the  PhilosophicaH 
Transactions.  Oldenburgh  had  a  farther  \\t^  in  his  cor* 
tespondence  with  Mr.  Ray ;  it  was  to  engage  him  with 
those  leading  members,  who  had  agreed  to  entertain  the 
society  with  a  philosophical  discourse  at  their  meetings,  sd 
that  the  burthen  might  not  lie  among  too  few  of  the  mem- 
bers. Mr,  Ray  complied,  and  accordingly  sent  him  *'  A 
Discourse  concerning  Seeds,  and  the  Specific  Differences' 
of  Plants  ;'^  which,  Oldenburgh  tells  him,  was  so  well  re- 
ceived by  the  president  and  fellows,  that  they  returned 
bim  their  thanks^  and  requested  he  would  repeat  his  favours^ 
of  that  kind. 

This  year,  1674,  and  part  of  the  next,  he  spent  in  pte* 
paring  Mr.  Willoughby's  "  Observations  about  BiVds**  fof 
the  press;  which,  however,  was  not  published  till  1678.. 
These  two  gentlemen,  finding  the  history  of  nature  very 
imperfect,  had  agreed  between  themselves,  before  theii^ 
travels  on  the  continent,  to  reduce  the  several  tribes  of 
nature  to  a  method,  and  to  give  accurate  descriptions  of 
the  several  species  from  a  strict  survey  of  them :  and,  since 
Mr.  Willoughby*s  genius  lay  chiefly  to  animals,  he  under- 
took the  birds,  beasts,  fishes,  and  insects,  as  Mr.  Ray  did 
the  vegetables.  Hovv  they  discharged  each  their  province, 
the  world  has  seqn  in  their  works.  Old  lady  Willougbby 
dying,  and  Mr.  Wifloughby's  sons  being  removed  from 
under  Mr.  Ray's  tuition,  about  1676  he  left  Middletou- 
hall,  and  retired  with  his  wife  to  Sutton  Cofield,  about 
fi^ur  miles  from  Middleton.  Some  time  after,  he  went  itffor 
Essex,    to  Falborne-hall,  where  be  continued  till  June 

R  A  V.  9» 

1677;  aod  then  made  i&notber  reafiove  to  Blaick-Notley^ 
bis  nativie  place. 

.  The  first  fruit  of  our  author's  leisune  and  retiretneaC 
bere^  was  his  <*  Metbodus  Plantarum  Nova,"  published  in 
1682,-  making  an  octavo  volume.  His  principles  of  ar- 
rangenfent  are  chiefly  derived  from  the  fruit.  The  reg^i- 
larrty  and  irregularity  of  flowers,  which  take  the  lead  ifi 
the  system  of  Rivinus,  make  no  part  of  that  of  Ray.  b  i$» 
remarkable  that  he  adopts  the  ancient  primary  division  of 
plants,  into  trees,  shrubs,  and  herbs,  and  that  he  blamed 
Ritinus  for  abolishing  it,  though  his  own  prefatory  remarktr 
tend  to  overset  that  principle,  as  a  vulgar  and  casual  one, 
unworthy  of  a  philosopher:  That  his  system  was  not  merely 
a  commodious  artificial  aid  to  practical  botany,  but  a  phi- 
k)sophical  clue  to  the  labyrinth  of  Nature,  he  probably, 
like  his  fellow-labourers,  for  many  years,  in  this  depart «^ 
m^it,  believed  ;  yet  be  was  too  modest,  and  too  learned, 
to  think  he  had  brought  this  new  and  arduous  design  to 
perfection  ;  for  whatever  he  has  incidentally  or  deliberately 
thrown  out,  respecting  the  value  of  his  labours,  is  ofteik 
marked  with  more  diflidence  on  the  subject  of  classifica^^ 
tion,  than  any  other.  He  first  applied  his  system  to  ^rac-* 
tical  use  in  a  general  *^  Historia  P)antarum,'*  of  which  %h& 
6ht  Volume,  a  thick  folio,  was  published  in  ^696,  and  tfaef 
second  in  1687.  The  third  volume  of  the  same  work^ 
which  is  supplementary,  came  out  in  17Q4.  This  vast  and 
critical  compilation  is  still  in  use  as  a  book  of  reference, 
being  particularly  valuable  as  an  epitome  of  the  contents 
of  various  rare  and  expensive  works,  which  ordinary  libra- 
ries cannot  possess,  such  as  the  "  Hortus  Malabar icu's.'^ 
The  description  of  species  is  faithful  and  instructive ;  the 
remarks  original,  bounded  only  by  the  whole  circuit  of  the 
botanical  learning  of  that  day ;  uor  are  generic  character? 
'  neglected,  however  vaguely  they  are  assumed.  Specific 
differences  do  not  enter  regularly  into  the  author's  plan,' 
nor  has  he  followed  any  uniform  rules  of  nomenclature. 
So  ample  a  transcript  of  the  practical  knowledge  of  sijch 
a  botanist,  cannot  but  be  a  treasure ;  yet  -  it  is  now  n^uch 
neglected,  few  persons  being  learned  enough  to  use  it 
with  facility,  for  want  of  figures,  and  a  popular  nomeocla-* 
ture ;  and  those  who  are,  seldpm  requiring  its  assistance. 
A  mere  catalogue  or  index,  like  the  works  of  Tournefort 
and  Ca'spar  Bauhin,  which  teach  nothing  of  themselves, 
are  of  res^diertise.  <  The  Species  Plantarum  of  Linn^u« 

80  HAY* 

pnitiss  tb0  adyatitnges  of  tbe  clearest  most  coocise  sj^ifid 
definition,  and,  by  the   help  of  Bauhin,  of  an  .universal 
Ind^x.     Nor.  was  Mr.  Eay  less  mindful  of  Mr.  Willougbby's 
coliections,  where  there  were  noble,  though  rude  and  iO;'t 
digested,  materials ;  but  spent  ipucb  tiqie  and  pains  in  re^ 
ducing  them  to  order,  and  fitting  tbem  for  the  press.     Ha 
had  published  h\$  <<  Observations  upon  Birds''  in  1678  3 
a^nd,  in  1685,  be  published  his  *^  History  of  Fisbes  f '  and^ 
though  these  works  were  then  tbe  completest  in  their  kinds^i 
yet  they  lost  muqh  of  their  perfection  by  the  miscarriage 
of  Mr.  Willoughby's  and  Mr.  Ray's  papers  in  their  travels^ 
They  bad  very  accurately  described  all  the  birds, .  fishes^ 
&c*  which  tbey  saw  as.  they  passed  through  Germany, 
especially  those  in  and  upon  the  Danube  and  the  Rhine  '^ 
l^ut  lost  their  account$  in  their  return  home..   This  loss 
Mr,  Ray  laments  in  the  philosophical  letters  above  cited., 
,  Though  Mr.  Ray's  health  began  to  be  impaired  by  yeara 
and  study,  yet  be  ooptinued  from  time  to  time  to  give  bia 
works,  to  tbe  public.     He  published,  in  1688,  "  Fasciculus 
Stirpium  Britannicarum ;"  and,  in  1690,  *<  Synopsis  Me-, 
tfaodica  Stirpium  Britannicarum."     The  leahied  president 
of  ifae  Linna^an  society  observes,  tbat  if  the  fame  or  the 
utility  of  Ray's  great  botanical  works  has,  neither  of  them, 
been  commensurate  with  the  expectations  that  might  have 
i^een  formed,  this  <<  Synopsis"  amply  supplied  .  all  sucb 
defects,  and  proved  tbe  great  corner  stone  of  his  reputation, 
ip  this  depaitmeat  of  science.     The  two  editions  of  his^ 
alphabetical  catalogue  of  English  plants  being  sold  oiFj^ 
and  some  pettifogging  reasons  of  his  bookseller's  standing, 
in  the  way  of  a  third,  with  any  improvements,  he^  re- 
modelled the  work,  tlirowing  it  into  a  systematic  form,  re- 
vising the  whole,  supplying  generic  characters,  with  nur 
inerous  addiiions.of  species,;  and  various  emendations  and; 
remarks.     The  uses  and  medicinal  qualities  of  the  plants, 
are  removed  to  tbe  alphabetical  index  at  tbe  end.     A  se-. 
cond.  edition  of  this  ^<  Synopsis"  was  published  in  1696,. 
nor  did  its  author  ever  prepare  i^nother.     The  third,  now; 
most  in  use,  was  edited  twenty^eigbt  years  afterwards  by 
CULLENius. .   Of  all  tiie  systematiciiland  practical  Floras  of. 
any  country,  the  second  edition  of  Ray's  "  Synopsis"  ia, 
the  most  perfect  tbat  ever  came  under  our  observation. 
He  examined  every  iplaot  recorded  in  bis  work,  and  even 
gathered  most  of  them  himself.     He  investigated   their 
synonyms  with  consummate  accuracy  ^  and  if  t^e  clearness 

HAY.  61 

and  precision  of  other  authors  had  equalled  biS|  he  wduld 
scarcely  have  committed  an  error.  It  is  difficult  tp  ftnd 
him  in  a  mistake  or  misconception  respecting  Nature  her- 
self, though  be  sometimes  misapprehends  the  bad  figures, 
or  lame  descriptions^  he  was  obliged  to  Consult  Above  a 
hundred -species  are  added,  in  this  second  edition,  and  the 
eryptogamic  plants,  in  particular,  are  niore  amply  elucir 
dated.  A  controversial  letter  from  Rivinus  to  Ray,  and  its 
answer,  vrtth  remarks  upon  Tournefort,  are  subjoined  to 
this  second  edition.  Much  of  the  dispute' turns  upon*  the 
now  obsolete  distinction  of  plants,  in  a  methodical  system, 
into  trees,  shrubs,  herbs,  &c.  The  letters  are  well  writ- 
ten, inXatin:  and  liberal,  though  perhaps  hypercritical, 
in  their. style.     Ray  took  no  delight  in  controversy. 

Having  thiis  published  many  books  on  subjects  which  he 
took  to  he  somewhat  foreign  to  his  profession,  be  at  length 
resolved  to  edify  the  world  like  a.divine.  With  this  view  be 
completed  his  Demonstration  of  the  Being  and  Attributes 
of  God,  which  he  calls,  "  The  Wisdom  of  God  manrfested 
in  the  Works  of  the  Creation.'*  The  rudiments  of  this 
work  were  laid  in  some  college-lectures,  iiead  in  tike 
chapel,  and  called  commonplaces;  which,  having  much 
enlarged,  he  published  in  1691,  8vo.  This  book  is.  the 
basis  of  all  the  labours  of  following  divines,  who  have  made 
the  book  of  nature  a  commentary  on  the  book  of  revelation ; 
a  confirmation  of  truths,  which  Nature  has  not  authority, 
<of  herself,  tb  establish.  In  it  the  author  inculcates  the 
doctrine  of  a  constantly  superintending  Providence;  as 
well  as  the  advantage,,  and  even  the  duty,  of  contemplate 
ing  the  works  of  God. .  This,  he  says,  is  part  of  the  busi- 
ness of  a  sabbath-day,  as  it  will  be,  probably,  of  our  em- 
-ployment  through  that  eternal  rest,  of  which  the  sabbath 
is  a  type.  He  was  next  encouraged  to  publish  another  of 
a  siftiiiar  kind,  whose  foundation  was  also  laid  at  Cam- 
bridge, in  some  sermons  which  he  bad  preached  before 
ihe  university.  This  was  bis  "  Three  Physico-Theological 
Discourses .  concerning  the  Chaos,  Deluge,  and  Dissolu- 
tion of  the  World,"  1692,  8vo.  Both  these  works  have 
been  often  reprinted  with  large  additions,  and  continued 
to  be  very  popular  books  until  within  the  last  thirty,  or 
folty  years'. 

Soon  after  these  theological  pieces,  his  "  Synopsis  Me- 
thodica  Animalium  Quadrapeduni"  was  published  in  June 
.16£^3;    and  he  then  finished  a  <^  Synopsis  of.  Birds. and 

Vol.  XXVI.  G 

•2  RAY. 

Fishes,'*  which  was  so  long  neglected  by  the  bookseller^ 
that  It  was  thought  to  have  been  destroyed  ;  but,  after  Mr. 
Ray's  death,  it  was  pablished  by  Mr.  Derham  in  1713b 
lie  made  a  catalogae  of  Grecian,  Syrian,  Egyptian,  and 
Cretan,  plants,  which  was  printed  with  RauwolfTs  Travels 
in  1693  ;  and,  the  year  after,  published  his  **  Sylioge 
Stirpiutn  Europearutn  extra  Britaniiiacn."  He  had  after- 
wards some  little  contests  with  Rivinns  and  Tournefort, 
concerning  the  method  of  plants,  which  occasioned  him  to 
review  and  amend  his  own  method,  and  to  draw  it  up  in 
a  completer  form  than  he  had  used  in  his  *^  Methodus 
Plantarum,^^  published  in  1682,  or  in  his  *^  Historia  P)an- 
tarum.''  He  began  now  to  be.  grievously  afflicted  with  a 
continual  diarrhoea,  and  with  very  painful  ulcers  in  bia 
legs,  which  ate  deep  into  the  flesh,  and  kept  him  waking 
whole  nights :  by  which  means  he  was  so  disabled,  that, 
as  he  tells  Dr.  Tancred  Robinson,  in  a  letter  of  September 
30,  1698,  he  could  not  so  much  as  walk  into  the  neigh- 
bouring fields.  He  still,  however,  kept  up  to  the  last  bis 
correspondence  with  his  friends,  in  the  vivacity  and  clear- 
ness of  style  which  was  natural  to  him.  Latin  and  Engltsbf 
it  is  said,  were  equally  ready  to  his  pen.  So  indefatigable 
was  he  in  the  cultivation  of  the  study  of  Nature,  that  within 
a  year  or  two  of  his  death,  he  began  to  collect  his  scattered 
notes  for  a  work  on  insects,  and  actually  drew  up  a  **  M=e- 
thodus  Insectorum,*^  which  was  printed,  soon  after  his  de- 
cease, in  a  little  octavo  of  sixteen  pages,  and-  republished 
in  the  front  of  his  ^^  Historia  Insectorum^"  This  last  book, 
comprising,  all  his  own  and  Mr.  Willonghby*s  descriptions 
of  insects,  came  from  the  press  in  1710,  at  the  expence  of 
^e  Royal  Society,  and  under  the  superintendance  of  Dr. 
Derham.  It  consists  of  375  quarto  pages,  besides  an  ap- 
dendix  of  twenty-three  more,  on  British  Beetles,  by  Listen 
This  work  is  a  mass  of  accurate  and  authentic  observation  ; 
but,  for  want  of  plates,  has  never  come  into  popular  use. 

The  study  of  insects  was  probably  the  last  that  engaged 
the  attention  of  this  great  and  wise  man  ;  who,  though  on 
the  verge  of  eternity,  in  the  full  possession  of  himself,  and 
in  the  anticipation  of  the  most  glorious  manifestations  of 
bis  Creator,  did  not  disdain  or  neglect  to  contemplate  him 
in  his  least  and  lowest  works.  His  last  letter  to  Dr.  Der- 
ham, who  had  just  been  to  visit  him,  is  daltet)  August  16, 
1704.  He  speaks  of  having  lately  obtained  Mr.  Willough- 
by^s  entomological  papei-s,  and  describes  himself  as  thetL. 

RAY.  83 

catering  on  bis  History  of  Insects.     How  well  be  employed 
bis  time  during  the  autumn,  is  evident  from  what  we  bave 
related  concerning  this  work^  for  he  never  saw  another 
spring.     He  died  at  Black  Notiey,  in  a  house  of  bis  own 
building,  Jan.  17,  1705,  in  the  77th  year  of  bis  age.     His 
character  is  thus  concisely  given  by  Derham  :    •*  In  bis 
dealings,  no  man  more  strictly  just ;  in  his  conversation, 
no  ^man   more  humble,  courteous,  and  affable;    towards 
God,  no  man  more  devout;    and   towards  the  poor  and 
distressed,   no  man   more  compassionate  and   charitable, 
according  to  his  abilities."     The  friend  who  wrote  this 
eulogium,  in  bis  **  Life  of  Mr.  Ray,"  asserts,  that  he  was 
buried,  according  to  his  own  desire,  in  the  church  of  Black 
Notley ;  but  the  authors  of  the  Biographia  Britannica  are 
probably  more  correct,  in  saying,    that  he  declined  the 
i^ffer  made  him  by  the  rector,  of  a  place  of  interment  in  the 
chancel,  choosing  rather  to  repose  with  his  ancestors,  in 
the  church-yard  ;  and   this  account    is  confirmed    by  the 
original  situation  of  bis  monument,  erected  at  the  expence, 
in  part  at  least,  of  bishop  Compton.     The  long  and  ele- 
gant Latin,  epitaph  has  often  been   published.     Its  author 
was  the  rev.  William  Coyte,  M.  A.,  father  of  the  late  Dr. 
Coyte  of  Ipswich,  and  the  original  manuscript  in  possession 
of  sir  E.  J.  Smith,  contains  the  information  that  Ray  was  in- 
terred in   the  church-yard.     In  1737,  the  monument  in 
question,  which  seems  to  bave  been  a  sort  of  altar- tomb, 
being  nearly  ruined,  was  restored  at  the  charge  of  Dr. 
Legge,  and  removed   for  shelter  into  the  church ;  where 
therefore  it  became  a  cenotaph^  as  an  inscription  added  on 
this   occasion   terms  it.     Forty-five  years  afterwards   the 
tomb  again  underwent  a  repair,  by  the  care  of  the  present 
sir  Thomas  Gery  Cullum  and  others,  who  subjoined  a  third 

A  more  lasting  monument  was  dedicated  to  the  memory 
of  our  great  English  naturalist,  in  the  genus  of  plants 
which  bears  his  name,  the  Raiaua.  It  must  be  lamented 
that  he  made,  as  far  as  we  can  learn,  no  collection  of 
dried  plants,  which  might  serve  to  ascertain,  in  every  case, 
what  be  described.  The  great  Herbariums  of  Buddie, 
Uvedale,  &c.  still  kept  in  the  British  Museum,  are  indeed 
supposed  to  supply,  in  a  great  measure,  this  defect ;  they 
having  been  collected  by  persons  who  bad  frequeut  com- 
munication with  Ray,  and  were  well  acquainted  with  bis 
.  plants.     Whatever  he  bad  preserved  relative  to  any  bratnch 

O  2 

84  RAT. 

of  natural  history,  be  gave,  a  week  before  bis  death,  to 
his  neighbour  Mr.  Samuel  Dale,  author  of  the  **  Pharma- 
cologia/*  Nothing  is  said  of  bis  library,  which  was  pro- 
bably inconsiderable.  ^ 

RAYMOND  (Robert)  Lord,  one  of  those  many  emi- 
nent men  who  have  risen  to  the  peerage  from  the  profes- 
sion of  the  law,  was  the  son  of  sir  Thomas  Raymond,  a 
justice  of  the  King^s  Bench,  and  author  of  "  Reports  of 
divers  special  cases  in  the  court  of  King*s-Bench,  Common 
I^Ieas,  and  Exchequer,  from  12  to  35  Car.  II.''  first  printed 
in  1696,  and  lastly  in  1803,  8v6.  His  son  was  solicitor 
general  to  queen  Anne,  and  attorney-general  to  George  I. 
by  whom  he  was  appointed  one  of  the  commissioners  of  the 
great  seal.  He  succeeded  sir  John  Pratt  as  ch|ef  justice  of 
the  court  of  King's-bencb,  and  was  created  baron  Raymond 
of  Abbot's  Langley,  Hertfordshire,  in  1730.  He  died  in 
1732,  leaving  one  son,  by  whose  death,  in  1753,  the  title 
became  extinct. 

His  "  Reports  of  Cases  in  the  courts  of  King's-bench 
and  Common  Pleas,  in  the  reigns  of  king  William  III. 
queen  Anne,  king  George  I.  and  George  II."  were  first 
printed  in  1743,  and  secondly  in  1765,  two  volumes  folio. 
The  last  and  much-improved  edition,  with  marginal  notes 
and  additional  references  by  John  Bayley,  esq.  serjeant  at 
law,  appeared  in  1790,  3  vols.  Svo.  Lord  Raymond's  "Ru- 
brics," translated  by  Mr.  serjeant  Wilson,  who  edited  the 
third  edition  of  the  **  Reports,"  in  1775,  3  vols,  folio,  were 
published  separately  in  1765,  folio.* 

RAYNAL  (William-Thomas),  a  French  writer  of  con- 
siderable, but  temporary  celebrity,  was  born  at  St.  Genies 
in  the  Rovergue,  in  1713.  He  was  educated  among  the 
Jesuits,  and  became  one  of  their  order.  The  learning  of 
that  society  is  universally  known,  as  well  as  the  happy  ta- 
lents which  its  superiors  possessed,  of  assigning  to  each 
member  his  proper  employment.  Raynal,  after  having 
acquired  among  them  a  taste  for  literature  and  science,  and 
being  ordained  a  priest,  displayed  such  talents  in  the  pul- 
pit, that  his  preaching  attracted  numerous  audiences.  His 
love  of  independence,  however,  induced  him,  in  1748,  to 
iiissolve  his  connexion  with  the  Jesuits,  and  to  take  up  his 

^  Life  by  Derham. — ilso  an  elaborate  one  by  the  President  of  the  Linasan 
jSociety  in  Rees'd  CycVopsedia. 

.  *  Lord  Orford's  Roy«l  and  Noble  Authori  by  Park. — Bridyman**  I^egal  Bibli* 

R  A  Y  N  A  L.  85 


residence  at  Paris.    Such  is  the  account  given  by  our  prin- 
cipal authority;  but^  according  to  the  abbe  Barruel,  he 
was  expelled  the  society  for  his  impiety.     With  this  cir- 
cumstance Barruel  may  be  much  better  acquainted  than 
we  can  be :  but  it  seems  probable  that  his  impieties  had  not 
then  reached  much  farther  thati  to  call  in  question  the  su- 
preme authority  of  the  church  ;  for  Itaynal  himself  assures 
us,  that  he  did  not  utter  his  atrocious  declarations  against 
Christianity  till  he  had  ceased  to  be  a  member  of  the  order 
of  Jesuits.      He   then   associated   himself  with  Voltaire^ 
D^Alembert,  and  Diderot,  and  was  by  them  employed  to 
furnish  the  theological  articles  for  the  *^  Encyclopedie.'* 
But  though  his  religious  opinions  were  certainly  lax,  he 
could   not  even  then  be  what,    in  a  Protestant  country, 
would  be  deemed  a  man  remarkable  for  impiety ;  for  he 
employed  the  abbe  Yvon,  whom  Barruel  calls  an  old  meta- 
physician, but  an  inoffensive  and  upright  man,  to  write 
the  articles  which  he  was   engaged  to   furnish.     In  this 
transaction,  indeed,  he  shewed  that  he  possesised  not  a  pro- 
per sense  of  bonour,  for  he  paid  poor  Yvon  with  twenty- 
five  louis  d^ors  for  writing  theological  articles^   for  which 
he  received  himself  six   times  that  suin ;    and   the   trick 
being  discovered,  Raynal  was  disgraced,    and  compelled 
to   pay  up  the  balance  to  the  abbe  Yvon ;  but  though  he 
had  thus  shewn  himself  to  be  without  honour,  it  is  diffi- 
cult to  believe  he  had  yet  proceeded  so  far  as  blasphemy, 
of  whi^h  he  has   been  accused,    since  he  had  employed 
a  Christian  divine  to  supply  his  place  in  the  ^^  £ncyclo- 

After  his  settling  at  Paris,  he  appears  to  have  become' an 
author  by  profession,  as  we  do  not  find  that  he  had  any 
place  or  preferment.  His  first  piece,  published  the  same 
year  in  which  he  quitted  the  society  of  the  Jesuits,  was  en- 
titled ^'  Histoire  du  Stadhouderat.'^  He  next  published 
**  Histoire  du  Parlement  d'Angleterre,''  which  gained  him 
much  reputation,  though  it  had  little  claim  to  the  title  of 
history,  and  was  tinged  with  many  prejudices,  religious 
•  aiid  political.  He  also  composed  "  Anecdotes  Literaires," 
in  three  volumes,  12mo;*and  "  Memoires  de  Ninon  de 
I'Enclos ;"  and  was  much  employed  in  the  **  Mercure 
de  France."  But  the  work  upon  which  his  fame  is  chiefly 
Jl>uilt,  is  his  "  Political  and  Philosophical  History  of  the 
l!uropean  Settlements  in  the  East  and  West'  Indies.'* 
That  this  history  is  written  in  an  animated  style,  and  that 

86  R  A  Y  N  A  L. 

it  contains  many  just  reflections,  both  political  and  pbilo- ' 
sophical,  is  known  to  all  Europe;  for  it  lias  been  trans- 
lated into  every  European  language.  Its  beauties,  how- 
ever, are  deformed  by  many  sentiments  that  are  irreligious, 
and  by  some  that  are  impure.  It  was  followed,  about  1780, 
by  a  small  tract,  entitled  "  The  Revolution  of  America,'* 
in  which  the  author  pleads  the  cause  of  the  revolted  colo- 
nists with  a  degree  of  zeal,  censures  the  conduct  of  the 
British  government  with  a  keenness  of  asperity,  and  displays 
a  knowledge  of  the  principles  and  intrigues  of  thie  different 
factions  which  at  that  period  divided  the  English  nation, 
that  surely  was  not  natural  to  the  ioipartial  pen  of  a  philo- 
sophic foreigner.  Hence  he  has  been  supposed  to  have 
been  incited  to  the  undertakinof,  and  to  have  been  furnished 
with  part  of  his  materials,  hy  some  persons  who  opposed 
the  measures  of  the  English  government,  and  secretly  fo- 
mented the  American  cause.  Be  this  as  it  may,  he  pro- 
pagated, both  in  this  tract  and  in  his  history,  a  number  of 
licentious  opinions  respecting  government  and  religion,  of 
which  he  lived  to  regret  the  consequences. 

A  prosecution  was  instituted  against  him  by  the  French 
government,  on  apcount  of  his  History  of  the  East  and 
West  Indies;  but  it  was  conducted ^ith  so  little  severity, 
that  he  had  sufficient  time  to  retire  to  the  dominions  of  the 
1(ing  of  Prussia^  v^ho  afforded  him  the  protection  iie  so- 
licited, although  his  majesty^s  character  was  treated  by  the 
author  in  his  book  with  no  great  degree  of  veneration. 
Haynal  also  experienced  the  kindness  of  the  empress  of 
Russia;  and  it  is  not  a  little  remarkable  of  this  sins:ular 
personage,  that  although  he  was  always  severe  in  discussing 
the  characters  of  princes,  yet  the  most  depotic  among  these 
heaped  upon  him  many  marks  of  favour  and  generosity. 
The  abb6  also  received  a  very  unusual  mark  of  respect  from 
a  British  House  of  Commons.  It  was  once  intimated  to 
the  speaker,  that  tlaynal  was  a  spectator  in  the  gallery. 
The  business  was  immediately  suspended,  and  the  stranger 
conducted  to  a  more  convenient  and  honourable  station. 

The  great  trait  of  Raynal's  .character  was  a  love  of  li- 
berty, which,  in  his  earlier  writings,  he  did  not  properly 
define  ;  but  when  he  lived  to  see  some  of  the  consequences 
of  this,  in  the  progress  of  the  French  revolution,  he  made 
one  glorious  effort  to  retrieve  his  errors.  In  the  month  of 
May  1791,  he  addressed  to  the  constituent  assembly  one 
of  the  most  eloquent,  argumentative,  and  impressive  letters 

R  A  Y  N  A  L.  87 

that  ever  was  written  on  any  subject ;  a  letter  which,  if 
the  majority  of  theoi  had  not  been  intoxicated  with  their 
newly-acquired  consequence,  inust  have  given  some  check 
to  their  mad  career. 

One  consequence  of  this  letter  was  very  singular.  Those 
who  could  not  answer  it,*  nor  resist  the  conviction  of  its 
arguments,  wreuked  their  vengeance  on  Raynal,  by  en- 
deavouring to  prove  that  he  did  not  write  the  celebrated 
History  of  the  Indies;  and  this  became  the  cant  of  the  day. 
Tp  illustrate  this,  we  shall  give  the  following  extract  of  9, 
letter  from  an  English  gentleman  then  in  Paris,  addressed 
to  the  editor  of  one  of  the  London  newspapers. 

*^  I  am  sorry  to  add,**  says  this  gentleman,  *^  that  the 
reputation  of  the  abb£  Raynal  in  Paris,  where  he  is  per- 
sonally known,  is  very  different  from  what  he  enjoys  in 
London,  where  he  is  only  known. as  an  author.  That  Phi- 
losophical history  which  you  ascribe  to  him,  is  really,  in 
no  proper  sense,  his  work ;  but  was  produced  by  a  com- 
bination of  the  labours  of  several  ingenious  men,  among 
whom  I  am  inclined  to  thiqk,  he  contributed  the  smallest 
part.  We  might  indeed  give  him  some  credit  for  lending 
his  name  to  a  book,  which  contained  so  many  bold  truths, 
which  it  was  then  dangerous  to  publish ;  but  even  here, 
there  is  need  of  caution;  for  under  the  ancient  system, 
deceit  and  fraud  were  carried  to  such  a  pitch  of  refine- 
ment, that  it  was  not  uncommon  for  men  of  letters  to  con- 
cert stratagems  with  ministers,  to. get  themselves  put  into 
the  Bastile,  to  raise  their  reputation,  and  to  make  their 
fortune  in  the  world.  Whatever  be  in  this,  you  may  as- 
cribe the  history  of  the  European  settlements  to  Perrijeat 
la  Roque,  Dubreuil,  Diderot,  Nargion,  or  Holbach,  who 
were  all  concerned,  as  well  as  the  abbe  Raynal.*' 
•  This  letter  was  written  by  Mr.  Thomas  Christie,  who 
wrote  a  volume  some  time  after  on  the  French  revolution  ; 
but  when  our  readers  consider  that  he  was  then  intoxicated 
,with  the  fallapious  prospects  of  that  revolution,  and  that 
this  accusation  against  the  abb6  RayOal  was  not  produced 
iuntil  he  had  written  again^iit  the  proceedings  of.  the  assem- 
bly, they  will  easily  be  able  to  appreciate  the  information 
that  he  was  not  the  author  of  the  celebrated  history. 

A  History  of  the  Divorce  of  Catherine  by  Henry  VIIL 
and  a  History  of  the  Revocation  of  the  Edict  of  Nantz,  and 
some  other  works,  are  attributed  to  Raynal,  but  are  little 
known.     He  escaped  the  general  danger,  during  the  reign 

8^  R  A  Y  N  A  L. 

df  BxAtspietrei  but  was  stripped  of  his  property,  arid  died' 
in  poverty^  March  6,  1T96,  at  thfe  advanced  age  of  eighty • 
foiir.  Such  was  his  distress  at  this  time,  that  there  was  only 
found  in  bis  possession  an  assignment  of  fifty  livres,  which 
iVas  worth  no  more  than  about  five  sous.  When  he  had 
money  be  was  liberal  to  profuseness,  and  delighted  in  those 
expences  that  would  add  to  his  fame.  He  raised  in  the 
island  of  Ardstatt,  ne^r  Lucerne,  a  monument  to  the 
founders  of  Helvetian  liberty.  He  gave  annuities  of  1200 
livres  each  to  five  principal  learned  societies  in  France,  to 
be  bei9towed  in  prizes.  ^ 

RAYNAUD  (Theophilus),  a  celebrated  Jesuit,  was 
bom  in  1583,  at  Sospelio,  in  the  county  of  Nice.  He  resided 
almost  wholly  in  France ;-  and  though  his  singular  opinions, 
joined  to  a  temper  naturally  morose  and  satirical,  involved 
him  in  many  disputes  with  his  society,  he  would  not  quit 
it.  He  died  at  Lyons,  October  31,  1663,  aged  eighty,  and 
the  Carmelites  paid  him  funeral  honours  in  all  theif  convents 
on  account  of  the  book  he  had  written  on  the  Scapulary. 
A  complete  collection  of  hi9  works  was  printed  at  Lyons, 
in  16€5,  20  vols.  fol.  Tom.  XX  is  not  numbered  so,  but 
entitled '^Apopompecus,'*  1669,  and  falsely  marked  Cracow; 
it  contains  those  works  which  father  Raynaud  did  not  choose 
to  own.  They  discover  uncommon  learning  and  extent  of 
reading ;  but  as  almost  all  the  subjects  he  has  chosen  are 
singular,  and  treated  in  a  singular  and  extravagant  manner, 
his  books  sold  slowly  at  first,  and  Boissat,  who  printed 
them,  was  ruined,  and  died  iu  an  hospital.  Most  of  his 
works  bad  been  published  separately,  and  their  author  suf- 
fered the  mortification  of  seeing  some  of  them  put  into  the 
Index.  Two  of  the  best  and  most  remarkable  among  them 
are,  -^^  Erotema  de  bonis  et  malis  Libris,''  i.  e.  Questions 
concerning  good  and  bad  books ;  and  ^'  Symbola  Antoniana/' 
Rome,  1648,  8vo,  relative  to  St.  Anthony's  fire.*' 

RAYNERIUS,  a  learned  Dominican,  born  at  Pisa,  was 
appointed  vice-chancellor  of  the  Roman  church,  and  bishop 
of  Maguelone.  He  died  January  13,  1649,  leaving  several 
works:  the  most  considerable  of  which  is  a  theological 
dictionary,  entitled  '^  Pantheologia ;"  in  which  he  has  ar^ 
ranged  the  theological  subjects  in  alphabetical  order.  The 
best  edition  of  this  work  is,  Lyons^  1655,  3  vols.  fol.  with 

}  t>ict.  Hist.— Greig'8  SupplemeDt  to  the  Eiicycl.  Britan. 
'  DopiD.— Gen.  Dict.--NiceroD|  yol.  XXV  |. 

JR.A  Z  Z  I.  S9 

the  addidoos  by  father  Nicolai,  a  Dominican :  it  was  re* 
printed  in  1670.^ 

RAZZI  (GiANTONio,  called  II  Soddoma),  was  born  at 
Veecelli,  in  Piedmont*  in  1479,  and  became  a  citizen  of 
Siena.  The  warm  tone  of  his  coloar,  the  masses  of  his 
cUaroscaro,  and  other  traces  of  the  Milanese  school  in  his 
works^  seem  to  con&rm  the  tradition  as  to  the  place  of  his 
fairth.  The  frescoes  which  he  painted  in  the  Vatican,  un«* 
der  the  pontificate  of  Julius  II.  were  by  order  of  that  pope 
deoMdished,  to  make  room  for  those  of  Raphael.  €ertain 
other  pictures,  Vepresenting  deeds  of  Alexander  the  Great, 
fltill  remain  in  the  palace  Chigi,  now  called  the  Farnesiuar: 
with  much  of  the  chiaroscuro,  though  not  of  the  dignity 
and  grace,  of  Lionardo  da  Vinci,  they  are  remarkable  for 
beauties  of  perspective  and  playful  imagery. 

His  most  vigorous  works,  however,  are  at  Siena.  In  the 
Epiphany  at  8.  Agostino,  we  recognize  the  principles  of 
Vinci ;  the  style  of  the  Cfafist  under  Flagellation  in  the 
cloister  of  S.  Francesco  has  been  compared  to  that  of  Mi- 
chelangiolo ;  his  S.  Sebastian,  now  in  the  Ducal  gallery, 
has  the  air  of  an  antique  torso,  and  the  S.  Csftherina  oiF 
Siena,  at  S.  Domenica,  possesses  Raphael's  beauties  of 
expression.  He  often,  indeed,  painted  merely  for  dis- 
patch, and  without  previous  study,  when,  already  advanced 
in  age,  he  solicited  work  at  Pisa,  Volterra,  and  Lucca; 
but  in  all  his  works  we  trace  the  master^hand,  which  in  spite 
of  negligence  performs  with  power.     He  died  in  li54.* 

-  READING  (John),  an  English  divine,  was  a  native  of 
Buckinghamshire,  where  he  was  born  in  1588.  He  was 
admitted  a  student  of  Magdalen-hali,  Oxford,  in  1604.  He 
took  his  degree  of  M.  A.  in  16 10,  and  then  entered  himself 
a  commoner  of  Alban-ball.  In  1612  be  was  ordained  dea«> 
con,  and  in  1614  priest,  by  the  bishop  of  Oxford.  About 
this  time  he  became  chaplain  to  Edward  lord  Zouch  of  Ha- 
ringwortb,  warden  of  the  cinque  ports,  and  governor  of  Do» 
-ver-castle.  Having  accompanied  this  nobleman  to  Dover, 
bis  preaching  was  so  much  admired,  that  at  the  request  of 
the  parishioners  hq  was  made  minister  of  St.  Mary's,  in 
December  1616.  He  was  afterwards  appointed  chaplain 
in  ordinary  to  Charles  I.  He  was  one  of  those  doctrinal 
paritans,  who  opposed,  as  much  as  any  churchman  of  op^ 
posite  religious  sentiments,  the  violent  proceedings  of  the 

*  Caye,  toU  II.-^Moreri.  s  Pilkingtoo  by  Faseli.— Saxi)  Ooomait. 


authors  of  the  rebellion,  and  had  exposed  them  so  frequently 
in  his  sermons*  that  he  was  soon  marked  out  for  veogeance. 
Ill  April  1642/  his  library  af'Dover  was  plundered,  and  in 
November  following  be  was  dragged  from  his  house  by  the 
soldiers,  and  imprisoned  for  a  year  and  seven  months.  In 
January  of  the  above  mentioned  year,  archbishop  Laud, 
then  a  prisoner  in  the  Tower,  had,  at  his  majesty^s  request, 
bestowed  on  him  the  living  of  Chartham  in  Kent;. but  from 
that  the  usurping  party  took  care  he  should  receive  no  ad* 
vantage.  He  was  also  with  as  little  effect  made  a  preben*  , 
dary  of  Canterbury.  In  J  644,  however,  sir  William  Brock- 
man  gave  him  the  living  of  Cfaeriton  in  Kent,  which  be  was. 
not  only  allowed  to  keep,  but  was  likewise  appointed  by 
the  assembly  of  divines,  to  be  one  of  ifae  nine  divines  who 
were  to  write  annotations  on  the  New  Testament  for  the 
work  afterwards  published,  and  known  by  the  title  of  the 
"  Assembly's  Annotations." 

His  sufferings,  houever,  were  not  yet  at  an  end ;  for 
soon  after  this  apparent  favour,  upon  a,  sus^picion  that  he 
was  concerned  in  a  plot  for  the  seizing  of  Dover-castle,  he 
was  apprehended  and  carried  to  Leeds-castle,  where  he 
was  imprisoned  for  some  time.  In  March  1650,  he  held  a 
public  disputation  in  Folkstone  church  with  Fisher,  au 
anabaptist,  who  argued  against  the  necessity  of  ordination, 
and  quoted  as  his  authority  some  passage  in  bishop  Taylor^s 
**  Discourse  of  the  liberty  of  Prophesying,"  which  obliged 
Mr.  Reading  to  write  a  tract  on  the  subject.  On  the  resto- 
ration, when  Charles  11.  landed  at  Dover,  Mr.  Rieading  was 
deputed  by  the  corporation  to  address  his  majesty,  and 
present  him.  with  a  large  Bible  with  gold  clasps,  in  their 
name.  He  was  now  replaced  in  the  prebend  of  Canterbury 
and  the  living  of  Chartham.  Here  be  died  Oct.  26,  1667> 
and  was  buried  in  the  chancel  of  the  church. 

He  published  several  occasional  sermons  from  1623  to 
1663  ;  and  1.  '^  Brief  instructions  concerning  the  holy  Sa* 
crament,"  Lond.  1645,  8vo.  2.  "A  guide  to  the  holy 
City,"  Oxon.  1651,  4to.  3*  "An  antidote  tt>  Aiiabap* 
tism,"  1654, 4to.  It  was  in  this  he  animadverted  on  tho^ 
}!>assages  of  bisbop  Taylor's  f^  Discourse/'  which  seemed 
to  favour  irregular  preaching.  4.."  An  Evening  Sacrifice, 
or  Prayers  for  a  family  in  these  times  of.  calamity."  5. 
'<  Speech  made  before  king  Charles  II.  on  the  shore,  when 
be  landed  at  Dover/*  &c.  1660,  single  sheet,  with  verses. . 
Mn  Reading  left  several  manuscripts,  partly  in  the  hands 

RE  A  U  M  U  R.'  91 

of  Bisil  Kennet,  whence  they  passed  to  his  sen,  White 

REA-L.  See  St.  REAL. 
•REAUMUR  (Rene'  Anthovy  Farchault,  Sjeur  de), 
at!  eminent  FVench  naturalist,  was  born  at  RocheHe  in  1683. 
He  fearned  grammar  at  the  place  of  his  birth,  and  studied 
philosophy  at  the  Jesuits  college  at  Poitiers.  In  1699  he 
i^ent  from  thence  to  Bourges,  at  the  invitation  of  an  uncle, 
where  he  studied  the  civil  law.  In  1703,  he  went  to  Paris, 
and  applied  himself  wholly  to  the  matheitiatics  and  natural 
philosophy;  and  in  170S,  %being  then  oniy  twenty-four 
years  old,  he  was  chosen  a  member  of  the  Royal  Academy 
of  Sciences;  and  durin<j  that  and  the  following  year,  he 
described  a  general  method  of  finding  and  ascertaining  all 
curves  described  by  the  extremity  of  d  right  line,  thie  other 
end  of  which  is  moved  round  a  given  curve,  and  by  lines 
which  fall  upon  a  given  curved  under  a  certain  angle  greater 
or  less  than  a  right  angle. 

These  are  the  only  geometrical  performances  that  he 
produced.  In  the  year  1710  he  read  his  observations  upon 
the  formation  of  shells,  in  which  he  proved  that  they  grow 
not  like  the  other  parts  of  the  animal  body,  by  expansion, 
but  by  the  external  addition  e^f  new  parts  :  he  also  assigned 
the  cause  of  the  variety  of  colour,  figure,  and  magnitude 
which  distinguishes  one  shell  from  another.  Duruig  the 
experiments  which  this  inquiry  led  him  to  make  nfjon  the 
snails,  he  discovered  a  very  singular  insect  which  lives  not 
only  upon  these  animals,  but  burrows  in  their  bodies,  a 
situation' which  he  never  leaves  unless  he  is. forced  out  of 
it' by  the  snail.  This  inquiry  also  gave,  occasion  to  M. 
Reaumur  to  account  for  the  progressive  motion  of  testace** 
ous  animals  of  different  kinds,  and  to  describe  and  explam 
an  almost  endless  variety  of  organs  which  the  author  of  na- 
ture has  adapted  to  that  purpose.  He  produced  also  the 
same  jear  the  natural  histor)^  of  cobwebs.  M.  Bon,  the 
first  president  of  the  chamber  of  accounts  at  Montpellier, 
bad  shewn  that  cobwebs  might  be  spun  into  a  kind  of  silk, 
which  might  be  applied  to  useful  purposes;  but  it  was  still 
necessary  to  determine  whether  spiders  could  be  bred  in 
sufficient  numbers,  without  an  expence  too  great  for  the 
undertaking  to  bear;  and  Reaumur  soon  found  that  M. 
Bon*s  discovery  was  a  mere  matter  of  curiosity,  and  that  the 
commercial  world  could  derive  no  advantage  from  cobwebs, 

1  Atb.  Ox.  Yol.  ir.— Walker'd  Sufferings  of  the  Clergy.-— Kennel's  MSS.  i«. 
SriL  Mus. 


It  had  been  long  known,  that  marine  animals  adhere  to 
solid  bodies  of  various  kinds,  either  by  an  attachment  which 
continues  during  their  existence,  or  which  they  can  deter- 
mine at  pleasure;  but  how  this  attachment  was  formed^ 
remained  a  secret,  till  it  was  discovered  by  Reaumur,  to 
If  hose  inquiries  we  are  indebted  for  our  knowledge  of  many 
organs  and  materials  adapted  to  that  purpose,before  unknown* 
In  the  course  of  this  inquiry,  M.  Reaumur  discovered  a  fish 
different  from  that  which  furnished  the  ancients  with  their 
Tyrian  dye,  but  which  has  the  same  property  in  a  yet 
greater  degree  :  upon  the  sid^  of  this  fish  there  are  small 
grains,  like  those  of  a  hard  roe,  which  being  broken,  yield 
first  a  fine  full  yellow  colour,  that  upon  being  exposed  for  a 
few  minutes  to  the  air,  becomes  a  beautiful  purple. 

About  the  same  time  Reaumur  made  a  great  variety  of 
experiments  to  discover  whether  the  strength  of  a  cord  was 
greater  or  less  than  the  sum  of  the  strength  of  the  threads 
of  which  it  consists.  It  was  generally  believed  that  the 
strength  of  the  cord  was  greater,  but  Reaumur^s  experi* 
ments  proved  it  to  be  less;  whence  it  necessarily  follows, 
that  the  less  a  cord  differs  from  an  assemblage  of  parallel 
threads,  i.  e.  the  less  it  is  twisted,  the  stronger  it  is^. 

It  had  been  long  asserted  by  those  who  lived  on  the  sea 
coast,  or  the  banks  of  great  rivers,  that  when  craw-fish, 
crabs,  and  lobsters,  happen  to  lose  a  claw,  nature  produces 
another  in  its  stead  :  this,  however,  was  disbelieved  by  all 
but  the  vulgar,  till  Reaumur  put  the  matter  out  of  dispute, 
and  traced  the  re-production  through  all  its  circumstances, 
which  are  even  more  singular  than  the  thing  itself.  M. 
Reaumur  also,  after  many  experiments  made  with  the  torpe* 
dp,  or  numb-fish,  discovered  that  its  effect  was  not  produced 
by  an  emission  of  torporific  particles,  as  some  have  sup- 
posed, but  by  the  great  quickness  of  a  stroke  given  by  this 
fish  to  the  limb  that  touches  it,  by  muscles  of  a  most  admi- 
rable structure,  which  are  adapted  to  that  purpose.  These 
discoveries,  however,  are  chiefly  matters  of  curiosity;  those 
which  follow  are  of  use. 

It  had  loog  been  a  received  opinion,  that  Turquoise 
stones  were  found  only  in  Persia ;  but  Reaumur  discovered 
mines  of  them  in  Languedoc ;  he  ascertained  the  degree 
of  heat  necessary  to  give  them  their  colour,  and  the  pro« 

*  That  mode  of  unitiog  Tarious  threads  into  a  cord,  is  andoubtedly  the  best 
which  causes  the  tensions  of  the  threads  to  be  equal  in  whatever  direction  the 
eord  is  strained. 


per  form  and  dimension  of  the  furnace ;  he  proved  also 
that  the  Turquoise  is  no  more  than  a  fossil  bone  petrified, 
coloured  by  a  metallic  solution  which  fire  causes  to  spread ; 
and  that  the  Turquoises  of  France  are  at  least  eqdal  in 
beauty  and  size  to  those  of  the  East.  He  also  discovered 
the  secret  of  making  artificial  pearls,  and  of  the  substancie 
necessary  to  give  them  their  colour,  which  is  taken  from  a 
little  fish  called  able,  or  ablette.  He  drew  up,  at  the  same 
time,  a  dissertation  upon  the  true  pearl,  which  he  i^upposed 
to  be  a  morbid  concretion  in  the  body  of  the  animal. 

Reaumur  soon  after  published  the  History  of  the  Aurife- 
rous rivers  of  France,  in  which  he  has  given  a  very  particu- 
lar account  of  the  manner  of  separating  the  grains  of  gold 
from  the  sand  with  which  it  is  mixed.  Among  other  me- 
moirs he  drew  up  the  following:  1.  Concerning  the  vast 
bank  of  fossil  shells,  which,  inTouraine,  is  dug  for  manure 
called  Falun  :  2.  Upon  flints,  proving  that  they  are  only 
more  penetrated  by  a  stony  juice;  or,  if  the  expression 
qiay  be  allowed,  more  stonified  than  other  stones,  though 
less  than  rock  crystal.  3.  Upon  the  Nostoch,  a  singular 
plant,  which  appears  only  after  hard  rains  in  the  summer, 
under  a  gelatinous  form,  and  soon  after  disappears.  4. 
Upon  the  light  of  Dails,  a  kind  of  shell  fish,  which  shines 
in  the  dark,  but  loses  its  lustre  as  it  grows  stale.  5,  Upon 
the  facility  with  which  iron  and  steel  become  magnetic  by 

In  1722,  he  published  a  work  under  the  title  of  '*Tbe 
art  of  converting  Iron  into  Steel,  and  of  rendering  cast  Iron 
ductile.*^  The  use  of  iron  is  well  known  under  the  three 
forms  of  cast  iron,  forged  or  bar  iron,  and  steel :  iroti  in 
the  first  state  is  susceptible  of  fusion,  but  it  is  brittle  and 
hard,  and  can  neither  be  forged  by  the  hammer,  nor  cut 
by  the  chissel :  in  the  second  state  it  is  malleable,  and  may 
be  both  filed  and  cut,  but  it  is  no  longer  fusible  without 
the  addition  of  a  foreign  substance  :  in  the  third  it  acquires 
a  very  singular  property  of  becoming  hard  and  brittle,  if 
after  it  has  been  made  red  hot  it  is  dipped  into  cold  water  : 
the  extreme  brittleness  of  cast  iron  makes  it  unfit  for  the 
construction  of  any  thing  that  is  required  to  be  either  sup- 
pie  or  elastic,  and  still  more  for  any  thing  upon  '  which  it 
will  be  necessary  to  employ  a  tool  of  any  kind  after  it  comes 
out  of  the  font,  for  no  tool  can  touch  it.  On  the  other 
hand,  the  manner  of  converting  forged,  or  bar-iro»)  into 
steel,  was  tbctn  wholly  unknown  in  France.     ^;'Jt,  Rcqiumur 


hayifig^  in  the  course  of  other  inquiries,  found  thai  §tecl 
ditfereJ  from  iron  only  in  having  more  sulphur  and  more 
salt  in  its  jcomposition,  undertook  to  discover  the  cnetbod 
of  giving  to  iron  what  was  wanting  to  make  it  steel,  and  at 
length  perfectly  succeeded,  so  as  to  make  steel  of  what 
quality  he  plea^^d. 

1  The, same  experiments  which  convipced  Reaumur  thj^t 
steel  differed  from  iron  only  in  having  more  sulphur  and 
salt,  convinced  him  also  that  cast  iron  differed  from  forged 
iron,  only  by  having  still  mare  sulphur  and  salt  than  steel ; 
it  was  steel  with  an  excess  of  its  specific  difference  from 
forged  iron.:  he  therefore  set  himself  to  take  away  this  ex- 
cess,, and  he  succeeded  so  as  to  produce  a  great  variety  of 
utensils  in  cast  iron,  which  were  as  easily  wrought  as  forged 
iron,  apd  did  not  cost  half  the  moDey.  However,  a  ma- 
nufactory set  on  foot  in  France  for  renderii>g  cast  iron  suf- 
ficiently ductile  to  be  forged  and  wrought,  lyas,  after  some 
tkne,  discontinued.  For  discovering  the  secret  of  convert- 
ing iron  into  steel,  the  duke  of  Orleans,  being  then  regent, 
settled  a  pension  upon  Reaumur  of  12,000  livres  a  year, 
and,  at  his  request,  it  was  settled  upon  the  academy  after 
bis  death,  to  be  applied  for  defraying  the  expences  of  fu- 
ture attempts  to  improve  the  arts. 

M.  de  Reaumur  also  discovered  the  secret  of  tinning 
plates  of  iron,  as  it  was  practised  in  Germany;  and  bis 
countrymen,  instructed  in  that  useful  manufacture,  np 
longer  imported  them  from  abroad.  .  He  has  likewise  the 
credit  of  having  invented  the  art  of  making  porcelain.  A 
few  simple  observations  upon  fragments  of  glass,  porcelain, 
and  pottery,  convinced  him  that  cbina  was  nothing  more 
than  a  demi-vitrification  ;  now  a  demi-vitrification  may  be 
obtained  either  by  exposing  a  vitrifia,ble  matter  to  the  ac- 
tion of  fire,  and  withdrawing  it  before  it  is  perfectly  vitri* 
fied,  or  by  making  a  paste  of  two  substances,  one  of  whiclr 
is  vitrifiable,  and  the  other  not :  It  was  therefore  very  easy 
to  discover  by  which  of  these  methods  ibe  porcelain  of 
China  was  made ;  nothing  more  \yas  nepessary  than  to.urge 
it  with  a  strong  fire  :  if  it  consisted  wholly  of  a  vitrifiable 
matter  half  vitrified,  it  would  be  converted  into  glass;  if 
of  two  substances, />ne  of  which  was  not  vitrifiable,  it  would 
come  out  of  the  furnace  the  same  as  it  went  in  :  this  expe*^ 
riment  being  made,  the  China  porcelain  suffered  no  altera- 
tion, but  all  the  European  porcelain  was  changed  intp 



But  wbein  the  China  porcelain  was  thus  discovered  to 
consist  of  two  distinct  substancesi  it  was  farther  necessary 
to  discover  what  they  were,  and  whether  France  produced 
them.'  M.  Reaumur  accomplished  these  dtMerata^  and 
bad  the  satisfaction  to  find  that  the  materials  for  making 
China  porcelain  were  to  be  had  in  France,  in  the  same 
abundance,  and  iti  greater  perfection,  than  in  India.  Reau- 
mur also  contrived  a  new  species  of  porcelain,  consisting 
only  of  glass,  annealed  a  second  time,  with  certain  easy 
precautions,  which,  though  less  beautiful  than  other  porce* 
lain,  is  yet  a  useful  discovery,  considering  ttie  great  fa- 
cility and  little  expence  with  wl\ich  it  is  made. 

M.  Reaumur  was  the  first  that  reduced  thermometers  to 
a  common  standard,  so  as  that  the  cold  indicated  by  a  ther- 
mometer in  one  place,  might  be  compared  with  the  cold 
indicated  by  a  thermometer  in  another;  in  other  words,  he 
prescribed  rules  by  which  two  thermometers  might  be  con- 
structed that  would  exactly  coincide  with  each  other  through 
all  the  changes  of  heat  and  cold  :  he  fixed  the  middle  term, 
or  zero,  of  bis  division  of  the  tube,  at  the  point  to  which 
the  liquor  rises  when  the  bulb  is  plunged  in  water  that  i» 
beginning  to  freeze  ;  he  prescribed  a  method  of  regulating 
the  divisions  in  proportion  to  the  quantity  of  liquor,  and 
not  by  the  aliquot  parts  of  the  length  of  the  tube ;  and  he 
directed  how  spirits  of  wine  might  be  reduced  to  one  cer- 
tain degree  of  dilatability.  Thermometers  .  constructed 
upon  these  principles  were  called  after  his  name,  and  soon 
took  place  of  all  others. 

Reaumur  also  invented  the  art  of  preserving  eggs,  and 
of  hatching  them ;  this  art  had  been  long  known  and  prac- 
tised in  Egypt,  but  to  the  rest  of  the  world  was  an  impene- 
trable secret :  he  found  out  and  described  many  ways  of 
producing  an  artificial  warmth  in  which  chickens  might  be 
hatched,  and  some  by  the  application  of  fires  used  for  other 
purposes;  he  shewed  how  chickens  might  be  hatched  in  a 
<tuttghill,  he  invented  long  cages  in  which  the  callow  brood 
were  preserved  in  their  first  state,  with  fur  cases  to  creep 
nnder  instead  of  the  hen,  and  he  prescribed  proper  food 
for  them  of  things  every  where  to  be  procured  in  great 
plenty.  He  found  also  that  eggs  might  be  kept  fresh  and 
£t  for  incubation  many  years,  by  washing  them  with  a  var- 
nish of  oil,  grease,  or  any  other  substance,  that  would  ef- 
fectually stop  the  pores  of  the  shell,  and  prevent  the  con- 
tents from  evaporating ;  by  this  contrivance  e^gs  may  not 

96  R  E  A  U  M  U  H. 

only  be  preserved  for  eating  or  batching  in  tbe  botett  cli- 
mates, but  the  eggs  of  birds  of  every  kind  may  be  trans* 
ported  from  one  climate  to  another,  and  the  breed  of  those 
that  could  not  survive  a  long  voyage^  propagated  in  the 
most  distant  part  of  the  world. 

While  he  was  employed  in  these  difScoTeries,  he  was 
gradually  proceeding  in  another  work,  the  *'  History  of 
Insects,"  tbe  first  volume  of  which  he. published  in  1734. 
This  volume  contains  the  history  of  caterpillars,  which  he 
divides  into  seven  classes,  each  of  a  distinct  kind  and  cha- 
racter: he  describes  the  manner  in  which  they  subsist,  a& 
well  under  the  form  of  caterpillars  as  in  the  chrysalis;  the 
several  changes  which  they  undergo ;  the  manner  of  taking 
Ibod,  and  of  spinning  their  webs.  The  second  volume, 
which  was  published  in  1736,  is  a  continuation  of  the  same 
subject,  and  describes  caterpillars  in  their  third  state,  that 
of  butterflies,  with  all  the  curious  particulars  relating  ta 
iheir  figure  and  colour,  the  beautiful  dust  with  which  they 
are  powdered,  their  coupling,  and  laying  their  eggs,  which 
tbe  wisdom  of  Providence  has,  by  an  invariable  instinct,  di- 
rected them  to  do,  where  their  young  may  most  conveni- 
ently find  shelter  and  food.  The  third  volume  contains  the 
history  of  moths,  not  only  of  those  wbieh  are  so  pernicious 
to  clothes  and  furniture,  hot  those  which  live  among  the 
leaves  of  trees,  and  in  the  water ;  the  first  is  perhaps  the 
most  useful,  because.  Reaumur  has  given  directions  how 
the  cloth-moth  may  be  certainly  destroyed;  but  the  second 
abounds  with  particulars  that  are  not  only  curious,  but  won- 
derful in  the  highest  degree.  This  volume  also  contains 
the  history  of  the  vine-fretter,  an  intect  not  less  destruc- 
tive to  our  gardens  than  the  moth  to  our  furniture,  with  an 
account  of  the  worm  that  devours  them,  and  the  galls  pro- 
duced upon  trees  by  tbe  puncture  of  some  insect,  which 
often  serve  them  for  habitations. 

From  the  gall,  or  gall-nut,  properly  so  called,  Reaumur 
proceeds,  in  his  fourth  volume,  to  the!  history  of  those  pro- 
tuberances which,  though  galls  in  appearance,  are  really 
insects,  but  condemned  by  nature  to  remain  forever  fixed 
and  unmoveable  upon  the  branches  of  trees  ;  and  he  dis- 
closes the  astonishing  mystery  of  their  multiplication.  He 
then  proceeds  to  give  an  account  of  flies  with  twd  wings, 
and  of  the  worms  in  which  they  pass  the  first  part  of  their 
,  lives  ;  this  article  includes  the  very  singukir  history  of  the 
gnat.     The  fifth  volume  treats  of  four-winged  fiiies^  and 



among  others  of  the  bee,  concerning  which  he  refutes  many 
groundless  opinions,  and  establishes  others  not  less  extra- 

The  bee  is  not  the  only  fly  that  makes  honey,  many  spe- 
i:\en  of  the  same  genus  live  separate,  or  in  little  societies. 
The  history  of  these  begins  the  sixth  and  last  volume^  and 
contains  a  description  of  the  recesses  in  which  they  deposit 
and  secure  their  eggs, .with  proper  nourishment  for  the 
worms  they  produce  till  their  transformation.  The  author 
then  proceeds  to  the  history  of  wasps,  as  well  those  who 
live  separate,  as  in  companies,  to  that  of  the  lion-pismire, 
the  hofse-stinger,  and  lastly,  to  the  fly  called  an  epheme* 
ron,  a  very  singular  insect,  which,  after  having  lived  in 
the  water  three  years  as  a  fish,  lives  as  a  fly  only  one  day, 
during  which  it  suffers  its  metamorphosis,  couples,  lays  its 
eggs,  and  leaves  its  dead  carcass  upon  the  surface  of  the 
wat^r  which  it  had  inhabited.  To  this  volume  there  is  a 
preface,  containing  the  discovery  of  the  polype,  an  animal 
that  multiplies  without  coupling,  that  moves  with  equal  fa- 
cility upon  its  back  or  its  beliy,  and  each  part  of  which, 
when  it  is  divided,  becomes  a  complete  animal,  a  property 
then  thought  singular,  but  since  found  to  be  possessed  by 
several  other  animals. 

It  had  long  been  a  question  amongst  anatomists,  whether 
digestion  is  performed  by  solution  or  trituration :  M.  de 
Reaumiir,  by  dissecting  a  great  number  of  birds  of  different 
kinds,  and  by  many  singular  experiments,  discovered  that 
the  digestion  of  carnivorous  birds  is  performed  by  solution, 
without  any  action  of  the  stomach  itself  upon  the  aliments 
received  on  it ;  and  that,  on  the  contrary,  the  digestion  of 
granivorous  birds  is  effected  wholly  by  grinding  or  tritura- 
tion, which  is  performed  with  a  force  sufficient  to  break 
the  hardest  subf  tances. 

M.  de  Reaumur,  during  the  course  of  his  experiments 
upon  birds,  remarked  the  amazing  art  with  which  the  seve- 
ral species  of  these  animals  build  their  nests.  His  obser- 
vations on  this  subject  he  communicated  to  the  French  aca« 
demy  in  1756,  and  this  memoir  was  the  last  he  exhibited. 
He  died  by  a  hurt  in  his  head,  received  from  a  fall  at  Ber- 
mondiere  in  the  Maine,  upon  an  estate  that  bad  been  left 
him  by  a  friend,  on  the  17th  of  October,  1 756,  aged  seventy- 
five  yi^rs. 

He  was  a  man  of  great  ingenuity  and  learning,  of  the 

Vol.  XXVI.  H 

9S  ft  E  A  U  M  U  R. 

strictest  integrity  and  honour,  the  warmest  benevolence^ 
and  the  n>ost  extensive  liberality.' 

REBOULET  (Simon),  a  native  of  Avignon,  and  ex* 
Jesuit,  was  an  advocate,  but  compelled  to  quit  his  profes- 
sion for  want  of  health.  He  died  in  1752.  Reboulet  wrote 
the  "  Memoires  de  Forbin,"  2  vols.  1 2mo,  and  the  "  Hist, 
de  rEnfance,"  2  vols,  compiled  from  memoirs  with  which 
the  Jesuits  furnished  him,  of  whom  he  was  too  servile  a 
flatterer  to  express  any  doubt  concerning  what  they  related. 
This  work,  however,  was  burnt  as  calumnious  and  defama- 
tory, by  a  sentence  of  the  parliament  of  Toulouse.  His 
other  works  are,  "  A  History  of  Pope  Clement  XL'*  in  2 
smalt  volumes,  4to,  which  the  king  of  Sardinia  suppressed; 
as  his  father  did  not  love  the  Jesuits,  and  could  not  there* 
fore  be  a  great  man  in  the  opinion  of  Reboulet.  A  *^  His- 
tory of  Louis  XIV."  3  vols.  4to,  or  9  vols.  12mo,  his  best 
work,  is  tolerably  accurate  as  to  facts,  but  the  narration  is 

RECORDE  (Robert),  a  learned  physician  and  mathe- 
matician, was  born  of  a  good  family  in  Wales,  and  flou- 
rished in  the  reigns  of  Henry  VIII.,  Edward  VI.,  and  Mary. 
There  is  no  account  of  the  exact  time  of  his  birth,  thoagh 
it  must  have  been  early  in  the  sixteenth  century,  as  he  was 
entered  of  the  university  of  Oxford  about  1525,  where  he 
was  elected  fellow  of  All  Souls  college  in  1531,  being  then 
B.  A. ;  but  Wood  is  doubtful  as  to  the  degree  of  master. 
Making  physic  his  profession,  he  went  to  Cambridge^  where 
he  was  honoured  with  the  degree  of  doctor  in  that  faculty, 
in  1545,  and  highly  esteemed  by  all  that  knew  him  for  his 
great  knowledge  in  several  arts  and  sciences.  He  after- 
wards returned  to  Oxford,  where,  as  he  had  done  before 
he  went  to  Cambridge,  he  publicly  taught  arithmetic,  and 
other  branches  of  the  mathematics,  with  great  applause.' 
It  seems  he  afterwards  repaired  to  London,  and  it  has  been 
said  he  was  physician  to  Edward  VI.  and  Mary,  to  which 
princes  he  dedicates  some  of  his  books ;  and  yet  he  endcfd 
his  days  in  the  King's  Bench  prison,  Southwark,  where  fie 
was  confined  for  debt,  in  1558,  at  a  very  immature  age. 
Pits  gives  him  a  very  high  character,  as  excelling  in  every 
branchof  knowledge,  philosophy,  polite  literature,  astror- 
nomy,  natural  history,  &c.  &c.  And  Tanner  observes  that 
he  had  a  knowledge  of  the  Saxon  language,  as  appears  from 

*  Diet.  Hist— Ann.  Register  for  1763.— Hutton*»  DifitioRarjr. 
3  L'AVocat  Diet.  Hi<t. 

R  E  C  O  R  D  E.  99 

•his  marginal  notes  on  Alexander  Essebiens,  a  MS;  in  Cor«» 
pus  Chr^sti  college,  Cambridge. 

Recorde  published  several  mathematical  books,  which 
are  mostly  in  dialogue,  between  the  master  and  scholar. 
:Tbey  are  as  follow :  1.  '^  The  Pathway  to  Knowledge,  con- 
taining the  first  principles  of  Geometrie,  as  they  may  moste 
aptly  be  applied  unto  practise,  bothe  for  use  of  Instrumentes 
Geometriqall  and  Astronomicetill,  and  also  for  projection  of 
vPlattes  much  necessary  for  all  sortes  of  men,'*  Lond.  1551 
and  1574,,4to.     2.  "The  Ground  of  Arts,  teaching  the 
.perfect  worke  and  practice  of  Arithmeticke,  both  in  whole 
numbers  and  fractions,  after  a  more  easie  and  exact  forme  former  time  hath  beene  set  forth,"  1549, 1558, 1561, 
and  ^571,.  8vo. — This  work  went  through  many  other  edi- 
tion^i  and  was  corrected  and  augmented  by  several  other 
perspns ;  as  first  by  the  famous  Dr.  John  Dee ;  then  by 
John  Mellis,  a  schoolmaster,  1590  and  161$;  next  by  Ro- 
rbert .  Norton ;    then  by  Robert  Hartwell,   practitioner  in 
jnathematics,  in  I^onjion ;  and  lastly,  by  R.  C.  and  printed 
in  8yo,  1623.     In  the  ^^  Archeologia,"  voL  XIII.  may  be 
seen  a  specimen  of  the  author's  method  of  illustrating  an ' 
eicample,  which  exhibits  a  strange  jumble  of  Arabic  and 
Roman  notation.     The  former  was  not  much  in  use  in  his 
days.     3.  "  The  Castle  of  Knowledge^  containing  the  Ex- 
plication of  the  Sphere  bothe  Celestiall  and  Materiall,  and 
divers  other  things  incident  thereto.  With  sundry  pleasaunt 
proofes  and  ce:rtaine  newe  demonstrations  not  written  before 
in  any  vulgare  wporkes,"  Lond.  1 55  l,.4to,  1556, fol.  and  1596, 
4to.     4.  **  The  Whetstone  of  Witte,  which  is  the  seconde 
part  of  Arithmetike; :  containing  the  extraction  of  Rootes ; 
the  Cossike  practise,  with  the  rules  of  Equation  :  and  th^ 
woorkes  of  Surde  Nombers,"  Lond.  1557,  4to. — An  analy- 
sis of  this  work  on  Algebra,  with  an  account  of  what  is 
new  in  it,  is  given  in  Dr.  Button's  Dictionary,  art,  Algebra. 
5.  **  The  Urinal  of  Physic,  and  the  Judicial  of  Urines,'* 
4to,  1548,  1567,  1674,  1582,  and  1651,  the  two  last  in  8vo. 
Bale  and  Pits  mention  some  writings  of  his  on  the  eucharist, 
auricular  confession,  the  image  of  a  true  commonwealth, 
&c.     He*  also  collated  the  first  and  third  editions  of  Fa- 
1)ian's  Chronicle,  translated  Euclid,  and  undertook  the  an- 
.cient  description  of  England  and  Ireland^  but  we  know  not 
that  these  were  published. 

Sherburne  says  that  he  published  ^'  Cosmographise  Isago- 
gen }"  also  that  be  wrote  a  book,  <<  De  Arte  faciendi  Horo.- 

H  2 

100  R  E  D  I. 

logium  ;**  and  another^  <<  De  Usu  Globomm,  k  6e  Sutii 

ItEDI  (FiiAKCis)i  an  ancient  Italian  scholar  «nd  pbysi^ 
cian,  was  born  of  a  noble  fiunily  at  Aresszo,  in  162€.  He 
studied  at  Padua,  where  betook  the  degree  of  doct<Ar  in 
philosophy  and  physic :  and  very  soon  afterwards  rendered 
himself  so  conspicuous  by  his  talents  and  acquirements  in 
these  sciences,  that  he  was  appointed  first  physician  to  the 
grand  dukes  Ferdinand  II.  and  Cosmo  III.  At  this  tim# 
the  academy  del  Cimetito  was  occupied  in  a  series  of  phi- 
losophical experiments  which  gave  full  scope  and  employ- 
ment toUedi's  genius;  and  at  the  desire  of  his  noble  pa- 
tron, he  undertook  the  investigation  of  the  salts  which  are 
obtainable  from  different  vegetables.  With  what  success 
these  experiments  were  conducted,  may  be  seen  by  refer- 
ring to  his  works.  His  principal  attention,  however,  was 
directed  to  two  more  impdrtiint  subjects :  viz.  the  poison  of 
the  viper,  and  the  generation  and  properties  of  insects.  In 
the  first  of  these  inquiries  he  shewed  the  surprising  differ- 
ence there  is  between  swallowing  ^he  viperine  poison,  and 
having  it  applied  to  the  surface  of  the  body  by  .a  wound. 
He  also  proved  that,  contrary  to  the  assertion  of  Charas^ 
the  virulence  of  the  poison  does  not  depend  upon  the  rage 
or  exasperation  of  the  animal,  since  the  poison  collected 
from  a  viper  killed  without  being  previously  irritated,  and 
dropped  into  a  wound  produces  the  same  fatal  effects,  as 
that  which  is  infused  into  a  wound  made  by  the  animal 
when  purposely*  teazed  until  it  bites.  On  the  subject  of 
insects,  he  refuted  the  doctrine,  maintained  by  all  the  an- 
cients and  by  many  moderns,  of  putrefaction  being  the 
cause  of  their  generation ;  a  doctrine  which  had,  indeed, 
been  attacked  some  years  before  by  an  Italian  author  named 
Aromatari,  but  not  with  that  weight  of  facts  and  force  of 
argument  which  are  so  conspicuous  in  this  treatise  and  the 
rest  of  Redi^s  writings.     His  observations  on  various  natural 

}>roductions  brought  from  the  Indies,  and  on  animals  that 
ive  within  other  living  animals,  **  osservazioni  intorno  agli 
animali  viventi  che  si  trovano  negli  animali  viventi,^'  exhibit 
many  curious  experiments  and  discoveries.  But  while  he 
was  thus  engaged  in  philosophical  pursuits,  he  did  not  ne- 
glect the  duties  of  his  profession,  as  a  physician.     His  let^ 

>  Tanner. — ^Baltt  and  Pitt.— Alb.  Ox.  vol.  I.  aev  edit. — Eutton't  Dictionary*, 
w-£Uii'8  edition  of  Fabian,  ISlK-^Aikin'fBiOgraphtcal  Mvm^irs  of  ^^•(iiciDt^-^- 
^ller'i  Wortbiet. 

n  EJ)  I.  loi 

ters  contain  numerous  histories  of  diseases,  iind  of. their 
treatment';  for  he  kept  a  register  of  all  remsirkable  caseH 
Und  consultations.  He  was  particularly  cjiligeot  in  noticing 
the  operation  of  remedies,  and  in  many  disorders  enjpinei 
a  very  abstemious  diet.  Redi^s  merits,  however,  were  npl 
confined  to  philosophy  and  medicine.  He  was  alao  an  ex* 
cellent  philologist  and  an  elegant  poet,  .  His  '^  Bacco  i^ 
Toscana^^  has  lately  been  edited  by  Mn^Mathias.  jiW  hit 
writings  possess  the  attraction  of«a  pure  and  polished  style  j 
and  the  Ac&demy  della  Crusca  justlv  regarded  him  as  on« 
of  the  best  authorities,  in  the  composition  of  their  celebrated 
Pictionary.  This  indefatigable  philosopher. and  amiable 
man  died  at  Pisa  in  16.98;  having  previously  suffered. much 
from  epileptic  attacks^  After  his  death,  a  tnedal  was  slrack 
in  honour  of  bis  name,  by  order  of  Cosmo.  III.  His  work* 
have  gone  through  various  editions ;  but  that  which  wag 
printed  at  Naples  in  7  vols.  4to,  is  esteemed  the  best^ 

REDMAN,  or  REDMAYNE  (JoH^),  one  of  the  Jtoost 
learned  divines  of  bis  time,  was  bom  in  1499,  descended 
from  a  Yorkshire  family,  an.d  was  nearly  related  to  Ton* 
stalls  bishop  of  Durham.  By  the  encouragement. of  this 
learned  prelate,  he  was  from  his  infancy  devoted  |o  litera^ 
ture,  which  he  cultivated  first  in  Corpus  Christi,  Oxford^ 
under  the  first  president,  John  Claymond,  a  man  of  sih<* 
gular  erudition  and  generosity.  From  Oxford  he  went  tot 
a  time  to  study  at  Paris,  and  continued  there  uptil  he  bet 
came  of  age.  He  then,  on  his  return,  fixed  himself  in  8n 
John's  college,  Cambridge,  where  he  is  said  to  hate  been. 
«o  adorned  with  the  knowledge  of  Cicero  and  the  purest 
authors  of  a^ntiquity,  that  Cheke,  then  a  yofing.  nian  there^ 
was  fired  with  emulation ;  and  in  a  short  time,  through 
their  united  painaand  example,  that  seminary  acquired  the 
fame  of  being  more  than  a  mat^h  for  a  whole  foreign  uni*^ 
versity.  Here  he  took  his  bachelor's  degree  in  1526,  that 
of  master  in  1530,  and  that  of  D.  D.  in  1534«^ 
jalso  elected  public  orator  of  the  university.  He  was  soon 
after  chosen  master  of  King'srhall,.  which  1^  resigned  in 
}547,  being  then  appointed  .the  firs|:  master  of  Trinity 
college.  Be  was  likewise  archdeacon  of. Taunton,,  and  a 
member  of  the.  convocation  in  1547  and  1550;  also  pre- 
bendary of  Wells,  and  of  Westminster,  in  the  college  of 


1  pAbront  Vit»  Italonini»  toI.  in.«-Nieerpn»  vol.  IH.— Eloy«  Diet.  Hist.  d« 
Medicine.-^Baldwin't  Literary  Jounul^  vqU  I.— 3e«  Matbias's  edition  of 
^  Baoco  IB  ToKana/^  ISOI. 

109  R  E  D  M  A  N. 

which  cathedral  he  died  in  155i,  aged  fifty^two,  and  was' 
buried  in  the  north  aile  of  the  abbey. 

Dodd  says  that,  as  to  Dr.  Redman's  religion,  **  though 
he  was  no  friend  to  the  doctrfne  of  the  reformers,  yet  he 
was  very  complaisant  to  them,  in  point  of  discipline,  aiid 
went  so  far  away  with  them,  as  to  be  an  assistant  in  com* 
piling  the  book  of  Common  Prayer.  In  a  word,  he  divide 
himself  between  both  religions."  We  have  better  autfao* 
rity,  however,  for  asserting  that  if  he  did  so  divide  him- 
self, the  reformed  religion  had  the  larger  share.  That  he* 
was  at  first  attached  to  the  religion  in  which  he  had  been 
educated,  appears  by  his  letter  to  Latimer  reproving  that 
reformer  for  his  innovattoDs ;  but  he  soon  found  reason  to' 
change  his  opinion.  He  had  applied  his  maturer  judg- 
ment and  learning,  with  equal  piety  and  patience,  for  the 
space  of  twenty  years,  to  the  study  of  the  Scriptures  and 
the  early  writers  of  the  church,  intending  to  compose  a 
work  on  the  subject  of  transubstantiation  ;  but  the  result 
of  his  studies  was,  that  there  was  no  foundation  for  that 
absurd  dogma,  either  in  'Scripture,  or  in  the  primitive 
fathers.  He  therefore  relinquished  this,  and  other  enrors 
of  the  Romish  creed,  and ''with  constant  judgment  and 
unfeigned  conscience  descended  into  that  manner  of  be- 
lief," which  he  held,  when  he  assisted  in  compiling  the 
first  liturgy  of  Edward  VL  published  in  1549*.  We  have 
still  more  proof  of  his  relinquishing  his  old  creed,  in  Mr. 
archdeacon  Churton^s  "  Life  of-  Nowell.**  Nowell  waited 
upon  Redman  in  his  last  illness,  desirous  to  know  what  was 
his  opinion  and  belief  concerning  the  ''  troublous  contro- 
versies of  those  days,*'  professing  himself  willing  to  ''re-' 
ceive  and  approve  his  words  as  oracles  sent  from  heaven.'* 
The  dying  confessor,  possessing  a  "  quiet  mind  and  per- 
fect remembrance,'*  took  a  day  or  two  to  consider  of  the 
matters  propounded  to  him  by  Nowell ;  and  then  sen^  for 
him,  declaring  himself  ready  to  converse  with  him  on  those 
points,  and  to  answer  truly  as  he  thought,  to  whatever 
question  should  be  asked  him,  as  in  the  presence  of  God. 
These  articles  were  fourteen  in  number,  the  sum  of  which 
was,  that  purgatory,  the  sacrifice  of  the  mass,  and  tran- 

^  "  Afterwards  I  conferred  with  Dr.  Prayer  was  ao  holy  book,  and  agree* 

Redman,   in  whom  I  reposed  mach  able  to  the  Gospel."    Bernard  Gilpin*i 

kope  in  regard  of  his  eminent  virtues  Letter  to  his  brother  George  in  1575* 

and  great  scholarship.    He  affirmed  and  Wordsworth,  vol.  IV.  p.  134. 
unto  me  that  the  book  of  Common 

REDMAN.  109 

ttthstantiation,  were  groundless  and  ungodly  ;  that  we  are 
justiBedy  not  by  our  works,  but  by  lively  faith,  which  rests 
in  our  only  Saviour  Jesus  Christ ;  that  good  works  are  not 
destitute  of  their  rewards ;  yet  nevertheless  they  do  not 
merit  the  kiugdom  of  heavei),  which  is  ^^  the  gift  of  God.'* 
Dr:  Wilkes,  master  of  ChrisOs  college,  Caoibfidge,  and 
Dr.  Young  of  Trinity  college  in  that  university,  were  pre- 
sent at  this  conference  ;  of  which  an  account  was  given  by 
Young,  in  a  Latin  epistle  to  their  .common  friend  Cbeke. 
Redman  survived  this  interview,  which  was  in  Nov.  1551, 
not  many  days,  for  on  the  27th  Nowell  succeeded  him  in 
the  canonry  of  Westminster. 

His  works,  all  published  after  his  death,  wer^,  1.  ^'  Opus 
de  j.ustificatione,"  Antw.  1555,  4to.  2.  ^^  Hymn  us  in  quo 
peccator  justificationem  qusrens  jcudi  imagine  describitur,'* 
printed  with  the  former.  3.  <^  The  Complaint  of  Grace,'^ 
Lond.  1556,  8vo,  1609,  12mo.  4.  **  Resolutions  concern- 
ing the  Sacrament,*'  in  the  appendix  to  Burnet's  Hist,  of 
the  Reformation,  with  ^^  Resolutions  of  some  questions  re- 
lating to  bishops  and  priests.''  There  are  also  in  Fox 
some  articles  by  him/ 

'  REED  (Joseph),  a  dramatic  and  miscellaneous  writer, 
was  born  at  Stockton,  in  the  county  of  Durham,  in  March 
1723,  and  succeeded  his  father  in  the  business  of  a  rope- 
tnaker,  which  he  carried  on  in  that  country  until  1757, 
when  he  removed  to  Sun  Tavern  fields  at  Stepney  near 
London,  and  there  pursued  the  same  occupation  with  great 
credit  and  probity  until  his  death,  Aug.  15,  1787,  aged 
sixty-four.  In  1750  he  married  Sarah,  daughter  of  Mr. 
John  Watson,  of  Stockton,  ilax-dresser,  who  died  many 
years  before  him,  and  by  whom  he  left  issue  John  Watson 
Reed,  late  of  Ely-place,  Holborn,  attorney  at  law,  who 
died  Jan.  31,  1790;  Shakspeare,  who  succeeded  him  in 
his  business  ;  and  Sarah,  who  married  Gilbert  Wilson,  and 
died  his  widow  a  few  days  before  her  brother. 

Notwithstanding  a  due  attention  to  business,  Mr.  Reed 
found  leisure  to  amuse  himself  and  the  world  with  many 
miscellanies  in  prose  and  verse  of  very  considerable  merit. 
The  late  Mr.  Ritson,  who  had  for  Mr.  Reed,  what  be  ex- 
tended to  very  few,  a  high  respect,  intended  to  have 
edited  some  of  these  misceiiajiies,  in  a  volume  qr  volumes, 

»  Ath.  Ox.  vol.  r.  new  edit.— Strype's  Cranmer,  pp.  77,  U7,  156,  157,  269. 
— ^Fox's  Acts  aad  Monaments,  anno  1551.— C burton*!  Life  of  Nowell,  p.  15,  .&c. 
-— Wordsworth'i  Eccl.  Biography.. 

104  REED. 

of  which  ^e  following  were  to  hare  bean  the  contents : 
1.  **  Madrigal  and  Trulletta,  a  mock  tragedy,"  17S8.  2. 
**  The  Register  Office,"  1761,  a  farce,  or  rather  a  dramatic 
satire.  S,  The.  same;  the  second  edition.  4.  *'Tom 
Jones,"  d  comic  opera,  1769.  5.  ^<  Dido,"  a  tragedy,  1767, 
printed  for«4he  first  time  by  Messrs.  Nichols  in  1 808,  but 
the  whole  impression  having  been  destroyed  by  the  fir^ 
which  consumed  their  premises  in  February  of  that  year,  it 
has  not  been  reprinted.  6.  The  ^^ Retort  Courteous,"  to 
the  inanager  of  the  theatre.  7.  An  '<  Epitaph  on  the  Earl 
of  Chatham."  8.  "  St.  Peter's  Lodge,"  a  serio-comic  le- 
gendary tale.  9.  *^  A  Rope's  end  for  Hempen  monopo* 
lists."  Besides  the  abovei  articles,  Mr.  Reed  was  the  author 
of,  10.  **  A  Poem,  in  imitation  of  the  Scottish  dialect,  on 
the  death  of  Mr.  Pope,"  printed  in  the  Gentleman's  Ma* 

Kzine  for  August  1744.  11.  '^The  Superannuated  Gal- 
It,"  a  farce,  Newcastle,  1745,  12mo.  12.  "  A  British 
Philippic,  inscribed  to  the  right  hon.  the  earl  of  Granville," 
London,  1756,  4to.  13.  **  A  Sop  in  the  Pan  for  a  phy- 
sical critic,  in  a  letter  to  Dr.  Smollett,  occasioned  by  a  cri- 
ticism (in  the  Critical  Review)  on  Madrigal  and  Truiletta/' 
1759.  14.  ^^  A  humorous  account  of  his  own  Life," 
printed  in  the  Universal  Museum  for  i764.  15.  ^<  The 
Tradesman'-s  Companion,  or  Tables  of  Averdupois  weight, 
&c."  London,  1762,  12mo.  16.  "The  Impostors,  or  a 
Core  for  Credulity,"  a  farce,  acted  for  the  benefit  of  Mr. 
Woodward,  March  19,  1776,  with  an  excellent  prologue, 
not  printed.  To  these  may  be  added,  several  tragedies, 
comedies,  and  farces,  never  acted  or  printed;  a  few  un- 
published poems;  and  some  numbers  of  the  ^^  MQnitor,"^a 
political  paper  published  in  the  administration  of  the  earl 
of  Bute,  and  "  Letters"  under  the  signature  Benedict^  in 
defence  of  Mr.  Garrick,  on  the  publication  of  Kenrick's- 
**  Love  in  the  Suds,"  printed  originally  in  the  Morning 
Chronicle,  and  afterwards  added  to  the  fifth  edition  of  that 

REED  (Isaac),  a  gentleman  eminently  conversant  in 
literary  history,  was  born  Jan.  1,  <i742,  at  Stewart»street, 
Old  Artillery-ground,  London,  of  a  family,  we  are  told, 
'*  highly  respectable,  and  of  considerable  antiquity,"  but 
eertainly  at  this  time  somewhat  reduced,  as  his  father  was 
in  the  humble  occupation  of  a  baker.     He  is  said,  how- 

1  Biog.  Drain.*Nicb«It't  Bowyer,  ?o1.  IX.  p.  116*— Brewster's  History  of 


REED;  .      105 


evetf  to  have  been  a  nan  of  education  and  abilities  very 
superior  to  his  condition,  and  both  capable  and  deairous 
of  bestowing  those  advantages  upon  bis  son»  whom  he  sent 
to  an  academy  at  Streatbam.  In  1757,  Mr.  Reed  b^ame 
an  articled  clerk  to  Messrs.  Perrot  and  Hodgsooi  then 
eminent  atitornies  in  London  ;  and  at  the  expuration  of  his 
articles,  engaged  hknself  as  assistant  to  Mr.  Hoskins^  of 
Lincoln's-inn,  an  emipent  barrister  and  conveyancer.  In 
this  situation  he  remained  about  a  year,  when  he  took 
chambers  in  Gray*s«ino,  and  began  to  practise  as  a  con^- 
veyancer  on  his  own  account. 

Independently,  however,  of  his  application  to  the  labo* 
rious  duties  of  bis  profession,  he  had,  previous  to  this  pe« 
Hod,  acquired  great  proficiency  in  general  knowledge,  and 
in  pai^icular  a  decided  taste  for  old  English  literature,  and 
an  intimate  acquaintance  with  old  English  ^thors.  His 
reading,  in  this  class,  was  most  extensive,  and  only  equalled 
by  a  memory  uncommonly  tenacious  of  facts  and  dates. 
Hence  his  publications,  as  editor,  are  stamped  with  a  pe- 
culiar value ;  and  he  had  not  proceeded  far  in  researches 
into  the  antk^nities  of  English  literature,  when  he  gave  up 
his  profession,.to  which  be  never  appears  to  have  been  cor- 
dially attached,  and  devoted  his  time  and  his  little  pro- 
perty to  employments  more  congenial  to  his  disposition, 
and  to  his  retired  and  simple  manners. 
.  As  he  had  the  utmost  aversion  to  the  appearance  of  his 
name  on  a  title-page,  it  is  not  easy  to  enumerate  all  the 
-publications  of  which  he  was  editor,  but  we  are  told  that 
thf  following  list  may  be  considered  as  tolerably  accu- 
rate. In  1768;,  he  collected  into  one  volume  the  poetical 
works  of  lady  Mary  Wcrtley  Montagu.  In  1778,  he 
{irinted  a  few  copies  of  Middleton's  unpublished  play, 
called  ^^  The  Witch,  a.tragi-comedie,*'  which  were  circu- 
lated privately  among  his  friends.  In  the  same  year  he 
.oollected  materials  for  a  sixth  volume  of  Dr.  Young's  Works, 
small  8vo.  •  In  1773,  be  collected  .and  published  the  Cam- 
bridge Seatonian  prize  poems^  from  their  institution  in 
1750.  From  1773  to  about  1780,  he  was,  if  not  editor, 
a  constant  contributor  to  the  <^  Westminster.  Magazine,^' 
and  particularly  pf  the  biographical  articles;  but  about 
1782  or  1783  transferred  his  services  to  the  *^  European 
Magazine,"  of  which  he  was  from  that  time  editor,  and  one 
of  the  proprietors.  He  was  also  an  occasional  contributor 
to  the  Gentleman^s  Magazine.    In  1775  he  furnished  the 

106  R  E  £  D. 

biographical  notes  to  Pearch's  collection  of  poems,  4  j^o1«# 
and  rendered  the  same  imporlant  service  to  a  new  edition 
of  Dodsley's  collection  in  17S2,  6  vols.  One  of  the  lives 
of  Dr.  Dodd,  published  in  1777,  has  been  ascribed  to  Mr. 
Reed,  and  he  certainly  conveyed  it  to  his  then  booksellers, 
Messrs.  Fididing  and  Walker,  but  there  are  doubts  whe- 
ther he  was  the  sole  author.  There  are  none,  however, 
respecting  the  '^  Biographia  Dramatica,"  2  vols.  Svo,  which 
was  his  favourite  work.     It  was  first  published  by  him  in 

1782,  and  he  continued  to  accumulate  materials  for  im- 
provement and.  enlargement,  which  he  recommended  to  be 
put  into  the  hands  of  Mr.  Stephen  Jones,  in  whose  know- 
ledge of  the  subject,  and  fitness  for  the  office  of  editor,  he 
had  the  utmost  confidence.  A  new  edition  has  accord- 
ingly been  published  by  that  gentleman,  extended  to  4 
vols.  8vo,  in  1812.  In  1780,  Mr.  Reed  published  an  im- 
proved edition  of  Dodsley's  **  Old  Plays,"  12  vols.  8vo. 
To  these  we  may  add  two  supplemental  volumes,  a. thir- 
teenth and  fourteenth,  to  Dr.  Johnson's  Works ;  a  select 
collection  of  fugitive  pieces  of  wit  and-humour,  in  prose 
and  verse,  under  the  title  of  "  The  Repository,"  1777 — 

1783,  4  vols.  8vo ;  the  "  Life  of  Dr.  Goldsmith,"  prefixed 
to  the  second  volume  of  his  **  Essays,"  collected  and  pub- 
lished in  3  vols.  12mo,  by  Mr.  Wright  the  printer,  in  1795; 
and  a  concise,  but  masterly  delineation  of  his  friend  Dr. 
Farmer,  communicated  to  William  Seward,  esq.  and  printed 
in  his  ^*  Biographiana." 

To  the  generality  of  readers  the  name  of  Mr.  Reed  is 
most  familiar  as  an  annotator  on  Shakspeare.  The  fyst 
edition  of  our  immortal  bard  in  which  he  was  engaged  was 
that  of  1785,  10  vols.  This  he  undertook  at  the  request  of 
bis  friend  Mr.  Steevens,  with  whom  he  was  joint  editor  in 
the  subsequent  edition  of  1793.  Mr.  Steevens  had  a  high 
respect  for  him  as  a  coadjutor  in  tbis  undertaking ;  and  as  a 
testimony  of  his  regard,  bequeathed  him  his  own  corrected 
copy  of  Shakspeare,  from  which  was  published,  in  1803, 
Mr.  Reed's  last  edition,  in  21  vols.  8vo,  and,  for  the  first 
time,  his  name  was  formally  prefixed. 

But,  it  is  justly  remarked  by  his  biographer,  all  these, 
though  no  inconsiderable  proofs  of  his  industry  and  zeal, 
are  far  from  comprising  the  sum  total  of  his  labours ;  in- 
deed they  give  a  very  inadequate  idea  of  his  literary  use- 
fulness. The  works  in  which  he  was  partially  concerned 
as  editor,  are  exceedingly  numerous^  and  the  occasions  on 

REED.  ^  107 

wbicb  he  has  given  his  assistance  in  4ifficttlt  points  of  lite* 
littture,  almost  beyond  calculation,  particularly  in  what 
concerned  the  literary  histofy  of  his  own  country.  Although 
his  manner  had  little  of  polish,  he  was  always  kindly  ready 
to  communicate  the  information  he  had  for  so  many  yean 
accumulated ;  and  perhaps  received  more  public  acknow* 
ledgments  for  his  assistance  in  this  way  than  any  man  of 
his  time.  Hence,  on  his  death,  so  many  scholars  of  emi- 
nence hastened  with  their  gratefal  tributes  to  his  memory*  ^ 
He  died  Monday,  Jan.  5,  1807;  and  was  interred,  agree- 
ably to  his  desire,  at  Amwell,  a  place  which  be  was  accus- 
tomed to  visit  and  admire. 

His  collection  of  books,  chiefly  English,  was-  perhaps 
one  of  the  most  ejctensive  in  that  series  ;  and  most  of  them 
were  enriched  by  bis  MS  notes.  They  were  sold  in  No- 
vember 1807  by  Messrs.  King  and  LocheOi  in  a  sale  which  _ 
lasted  thirty-nine  days,  and  produced  more  than  4000/. 
Few  collections  have  attracted  more  attention  of  late 
years,  and  it  may  be  doubted  whether  we  shall  ever  see  a 
eoliection  dispersed,  in  all  respects  so  well  suited  to  the 
taste  of  those  who  are  ambitious  of  possessing  literary  cu- 
riosities, or  of  enlarging  their  knowledge  of  English  lite- 

RHESE  (John  David),  an  English  physician  and  phi- 
lologist, was  born  ^at  Llanvaetbly  in  the  isle  of  Anglesea, 
in  1534.  After  residing  two  or  three  years  at  Oxford,  he 
was:  elected 'Student  oL  Christ  church,  but  inclining  to  the 
suidy  of  medicine,  went  abroad,  and  took  the  degree  of 
doctor  in  that  faculty  at  Sienna  in  Tuscany.  He  acquired 
io  perfect  a  knowledge  of  the  Italian  language,  that  he  was 
appointed  public  moderator  of  the  school  of  Pistoia  in 
Tuscany,  and  wrote  books  in  that  tongue,  which  were  much 
esteemed  by  the  Italians  themselves.  On  his  return,  with 
a  high  reputation  for  medical  and  critical  learning  of-all 
kindsj  he  retired  to  Brecknock,  where  he  passed  the 
greater  part  of  his  life  in  literary  pursuits  and  the  practice 
of  his  profession,  and  where  he  died  about  1609.  Wood 
say^  he  died  a  Roman  catholic  ;  and  Dodd,  upon  that  au- 
thority, has  included  him  among  his  worthies  of  that  re- 
ligion^ but  there  seems  some  reason  to  doubt  this.  One  of 
Rhese's  publications  was  a  Welsh  grammar,  <*  Cambro- 
BritannicsB,  Cytnersecseve,  lingueB   Institutiones  et  Rudi- 

^  Life  in  Europ.  Mag.  lS07.-«-NichoIs's'Bowyer. 

108  il  H  E  S  E. 


menta,  he.  ad  intelUgend.  BiblUt  Sacra  ouper  in  Cambro* 
Britannieom  wrmooem  ^egaiite r  Teria^''  Loud.  15^2,  folio. 
Prefixed  £o  tliis  is  a  pre&ce  by  Humphrey  Prich»rd^.in 
which  be  informs 'Us  that  the  author  made  this  boi^.puif*^ 
posely  for  tlie  beUei)  ondecstandiog  ofitbat  exceUentitraBs** 
lation  of 'the  Bible  into  Wekfa,  and  prtacipally  for  Che  sake 
of  the  clergy^  and  to -make  the 'scriptures  nK>re  intelligible 
tothemandtothepeople^  a  measure  whicha:Roinancatho« 
lie  in  those  days  would  scarcely  haTeadopted*  Prichatrd  also 
says  that  he  was  ^^  arincecse;  Beligiofiis  pvopeg^nd»  avidissi- 
mus  ;'Vand  as  Prichard  was  a  protestanty  and  aniinister  of 
the  church  of  England,  he  must  surely  mean  the  protestaafe 
religion.  Rbese^s  other  works  are,  **  Rules  for  obtaining 
the  Latin  Tongue, V  written  in  the  Tuscan  language,  aai 
printed  at  Veniee;  and  ^^De  Italics  linguss  pronuncia« 
tione,'*  in  Latin,  printed  at  Padua.  There  was  likewuto  ia 
Jesus  college  library  a  MS  compenditun  of  Aristotle's. Me«- 
taphy;»ies  in  the  Welsh  language  by  our  author,  in  which 
be  asserts,  what  every  ancient  Briton  will  agree  to,  that  this. 
toAgue  is  as  copious  and  proper  finr  the  expression  of  phi^ 
losophical  terms,  as  the  Greek  or  any  other  language^  Se- 
veral other  valuable  tracts,  which  are  entirely  lost,  were 
written  by  Dr.  Rbese,  who  was  accounted  one  of  the  great 
luminaries  of  ancient  British  literature.  ,  By  Stradling  in 
his  epigrams,  he  is  styled  <*  novum  antiques  linguss  lumen  ;'* 
and  by  Camden,  ^^  clarissimns  et  eruditissimus  vir  Joannes 
David,"  for  be  was  sometisses  called  John  David,  or  Davis«' 
REEVES  (Wiluam),  an  English  divine^  was  born  in 
1668,  and  educated  at  King's  college,  Cambridge,  where 
he  took  his  degree  of  B.  A.  in  1688,  and  M.  A.  in  1690^ 
and  obtained  a  fellowship.  In  1694^  earl  Berkley  gave  him 
the  rectory  of  Cranford  in  Middlesex,  and  he  obtained 
the  vicarage  of  St.  Mary,  Readings  in  1711.  He  was  alsd 
chaplain  to  queen  Anne.  He  died  March  26,  1726,  in  the 
fifty-eighth  year  of  his  age,  and  was  buried  near  the  altar 
in  St  Mary^s  church.  He  published  several  occasional 
sermons ;  and  after  his  death  a  collection  of  fourteen  were 
printed  in  1729,  from  his  MS.  which  he  had  prepared  far 
the  press.  These  sermons  have  a  peculiar  cast  of  origin 
nality ;  and  the  author  was  considered  as  an  able  and  spi-» 
rited  preacher.    The  first  sermon  in  the  volume,  ''The 

1  Alb.  Ox.  vol.  I.  new  «dit,«— Aikin's  Bieg.  Memoin  of  M cdicine.—Usher'c 
hift  and  LetUri^  p.  168. 

REEVES;  109 

iktat  consequences  of  Btibery,  exenpltfied  in  Judas,  Matt. 
:rxvii.  3,  4^  was  first  preached  during  the  time  of  an 
election,  and  printed  at  a  low.  price,  to  be  ^iven  away: 
«nd  it  is  said  that  many,  on  hearing,  or  reading  it,  returned 
the  bribes  which  they  had  taken,  and  voted  another  way. 
He  published  al^  a  valuable  work,  ^'  The  Apologies  of  the 
Fathers,  with  a  dissertation  on  the  right  use  of  the  Fathers,** 
Lond.  1709,  2  vols.* 

REGINALD  (Anthony),  a  Dominican  of  the  seven- 
teenth century,  one  of  the  greatest  defenders  of  Thomism^ 
and  the  doctrine  of  grace  efficacious  in  itself,  died  1676, 
at  Toulouse.  His  principal  works  are,  a  small  theological 
treatise  ^^  sur  Ik  oglebre  distinction  du  Sens  compost  et  du 
Sens  divis^;*'  and  <^  De  mente  Concilii  Tridentini  circa 
<jratiam  per  se  efficacem."  This  last  was  edited  by  Ar- 
nauld and  Quesnel,  in  1706,  folio.* 

REGINO,   a  learned  Benedictine,  abbot  of  Prum  to- 

wi^rds  the  end  of  the  ninth  century,  has  left  a  good  '^Ghro^ 

side,'*  in  the  collection  of  German  historians  by  Pisto* 

rius,   1583,  3  vols,  folio,  and  a  collection  of  canons  and 

ecclesiastical  rules,  entitled,  **  De  Disciplinis  ecclesiastic 

eis,  et  de  Religione  Christiana."     This  last  he  compiled  at 

tbe  solicitation  of  Rat^bode,    archbishop  of  Treves^    to 

which  city  he  had  retired,  after  being  obliged  to  quit  hi» 

abbey,  in  the  year  89^.     M.  Baluze  baa  published  an  ex» 

cellent  edition  of  this  collection,  with  notes,  in  1671,  8vo. 

Regino  died  at  Treves,  in  the  year  916.* 


REGIS  (Peter  Sylvan),  a  French   philosopher,  and 

great  propagator  of  Cartesianism,  was  born  in  Agenois,  in 

1632.     He  cultivated  the  languages  and  philosophy  under 

the  Jesuits  at  Cahors,  and  afterwards  divinity  in  the  uni* 

versity  of  that  town,  being  designed  for  the  church.     He 

made  so  uncommon  a  progress,  that  at  the  end  of  four 

years  he  was  offered  a  doctor^s  degree  without  the  usual 

charges ;  but  he  did  net  think  it  became  him  to  accept  of 

it  till  he  had  studied  also  in  the  Sorbonne  at  Paris.     He 

went  thither,  but  wa^  soon  disgusted  with  theology ;  and, 

as  the  philosophy  of  Des  Cartes  was  at  that  time  drawing 

public  attention,  through  the  lectures  of  Rohault,  be  be^ 

<^ame  attached  to  it,  and  went  ^o  Toulouse  in  1665,  where 

1  Cofttes^'t  History  of  Reading. — Newconrt'i  Repertorium. 

•  Moreri. — Diet.  Hist. 

^  OupiQ^— Cart,  ▼o1. 1.— Mor«ri.«— BttUart'ft  Acad,  des  S/cienoea,  toL  I. 


R  E  G  I  S* 

he  read  lectures  on  the  subject.  Having  a  clear  and  fluent 
manner,  and  a  facility  in  making  himself  understood,  be 
was  honoured,  as  his  auditors,  by  the  magistrates,  the 
learned,  the  ecclesiastics,  and  even  the  ladies,  who  all  af- 
fected to  abjure  the  ancient  philosophy.  In  1680,  he  re- 
turned to  Paris ;  where  the  concourse  about  him  was  such, 
that  the  Aristotelians  applied  to  the  archbishop  of  Paris, 
who  thought  it  expedient,  in  the  name  of  the  king,  to  put 
a  stop  to  the  lectures ;  and  they  were  accordingly  discon- 
tinued for  several  months.  The  whole  life  of  Regis,  how- 
ever, was  spent  in  propagating  the  new  philosophy.  In 
1690,  he  published  a  formal  system  of  it,  containing  lo- 
gic, metaphysics,  physics,  and  morals,  in  3  vols.  4to,  and 
written  in  French.  It  was  reprinted,  the  year  after,  at 
Amsterdam,  with  the  addition  of  a  discourse  upon  ancient 
and  modern  philosophy.  He  wrote,  afterwards  several 
pieces  in  defence  of  his  system;  in  which  he. had  disputes 
with  M.  Huet,  Du  Hamel,  Malebranche,  and  others.  His 
works,  though  abounding  with  ingenuity  and  learning,  have 
been  disregarded  in  consequence  of  the  great ,  discoveries 
and  advancement  in  philosophic  knowledge  that  have  been 
since  made.  He  died  in  1707.  He  had  been  chosen  mem- 
ber of  the  academy  of  sciences  in  1699.  * 

REGIUS  (Urban),  or  le  roi,  a  name  he  thought  pro- 
per to  change,  as  it  was  liable  to  be  applied  in  ridicule^ 
was  a  learned  Reformer  of  the  1 6th  century,  and  born  at 
Langenargen,  or  Arga  Longa,  in  the  territories  of  the, 
counts  of  Mountfort.  Having  received  a  very  liberal  edu- 
cation, first  at  the  school  of  Lindau,  and  afterwards  at  that 
of  Fribourg,  where  he  lived  with  Zasius,  a  celebrated 
civilian  who  encouraged  his  diligence,  and  adi^iired  him  for 
his  extraordinary  proficiency  and  amiable  manners,  he  went 
to  Basil  for  farther  improvement,  but  was  soon  attracted 
to  Ingoldstadt,  at  that  time  a  very  famous  university,  and  un- 
der the  direction  of  the  no  less  famous  John  Eckius.  Here 
Regius  read  lectures,  but  unfortunately  was  induced  to  su- 
perintend the  education  of  some  youths  of  noble  families, 
and  provide  them  with  books  and  other  necessaries,  which 
their  parents  neglecting  to  pay,  he  was  obliged  to  give  up 
what  little  property  he  had  for  the  benefit  of  his  creditors, 
and  in  despair  of  assistance  to  carry  dn  his  studies,  en- 
listed as  a  common  soldier.     In  this  plight,  however,  he 

1  Niceroiij  ▼o'.  VI.— Diet.  Hist. 


happened  to  be  discovered  by  Eckiu^y  who  procured  his 
discharge,  and  prevailed  on  the  parents  of  bis  pupils  to 
discharge  all  arrears  due  to  him. 

Urban. then  returned  to  his  studies^  and  became  so  dis- 
tinguishedi  that  the  emperor  Maximilian,  passing  through 
Ingoldstadt,  made  him  his  poet-Iaureat  and  orator ;  and  he 
was  afterwards*  made  professor  of  poetry  and  oratory  in 
that  university.  But,  having  applied  to  the  study  of  divi- 
nity, he  engaged  with  warmth  and  assiduity  in  the  contro* 
versies  of  the  times,  particularly  in  that  between  Luther 
and  Eckius,  in  which  be  inclined  to  Luther;  but  unwilling 
to  give  personal  offence  to  his  preceptor  and  good  friend 
Eckius,  he  left  Ingoldstadt  and  went  to  Augsburgh,  where^ 
at  the  importunity  of  the  magistrates  and  citizens,  he  an'" 
dertook  the  government  of  the  church.  Here  he  departed 
farther  and  farther  from  the  errors  of  Popery,  and  soon 
joined  with  Luther  in  preaching  against  them.  In  Jiis  opi- 
nions, however,  concerning  the  sacrament  and  original  sin, 
he  sided,  for  a  tinie,  with  Zuinglius,  in  consequence  of  a 
correspondence  in  which  that  reformer  explained  to  him 
the  grounds  of  his  belief.  In,  his  preaching  against  errors 
so  general  as  those  of  popery  then  were,  be  met  with  much 
opposition,  but  appears  to  have  been  supported  by  some  of 
the  principal  citizens,  one  of  whom  bestowed  on  him  his 
daughter,  by  whom  he  had  thirteen  children.  Eckius,  both 
by  letters  and  by  the  intervention  of  friends,  endeavoured 
to  gain  him  back  to  the  church,  but  his  principles  were 
fixed,  add  he  resisted  both  (latteries  and  promises. 

In  1530  there  was  a  diet  held  at  Augsburg,  at  which  the 
duke  of  Brunswick  was  present,  who  prevailed  on  Regius 
to  go  to  Lunenburg  in  bis  dominions,  to  take  care  of  the 
church  there.  The  duke  -highly  esteemed  him,  and  de- 
clared to  the  people  of  Augsburgh,  who  petitioned  for  his 
return,  that  he  would  a^  soon  part  with  his  eyes  as  with 
Regius,  and  made  him  chief  pastor  of  all  the  churches  in. 
his  dominions,  with  an  ample  and  liberal  salary.  Here  he 
passed  the  greater  part  of  a  useful  and  active  life  in 
preaching,  writing,  and  religious  conferences.  He  died 
May  23,  1541,  when  on  a  journey  with  the  duke  to  Hague- 
nau ;  the  place  of  his  death  is  said  to  be  Zell ;  but  we 
have  no  account  of  his  age.  He  had  often  wished  that  he 
might  die  a  sudden  and  easy  death^  which  happened  to  be 
the  case.  His  works  were  collected  in  3  vols,  folio :  the 
first  two  contain  the  pieces  he  published  in   Latin,  th» 

112  B  E  G  I  U  a 

other  bis  German  compositions.  This  last  volume  was  af- 
terwards translated  into  Latin,  and  published  ander  the 
title  of  ^*  Vita  &  Opera  Urbani  Regii,  reddita  per  ErQfst. 
Regium,*'  Norib.  15612.  Some  of  his  pieces  were  translated 
in  the  16tb  century  into  English,  as  **  The  Sermon  which 
Christ  made  on  the  way  to  Emmaus,  &c.''  1573,  4to.  '^  A 
declaration  of  the  twelve  articles  of  the  Christen  faythe, 
&C/M548.  <' An  Instruccyon  of  Christen  fayth,  &g.'* 
1588,  translated  by  Fox  the  martyrologist.  ^  The  Okie 
Learoyng  and  the  New  compared,  &c/'  1548,  8vo.  ^  Ex- 
position on  the  87th  Psalm,"  1594,  8vo.  <^  A  homily  of 
the  good  and  evil  Angell,  &c.''  1590,  8vo,  and  others. 
Besides  what  are  included  in  the  three  volumes  mentioned 
above,  John  Freder  of  Pomerania  published,  after  the  au- 
thor's death,  a  work  of  his,  entitled  ^^  Loci  Theologici  ex 
patribus  &  scholasticis  neotericisque  coUecti." ' 

REGNAI^D  (John  Francis),  one  of  the  best  French 
comic  writers  after  Moliere,  was  born  at  Paris  in  1647^  He 
had  scarcely  finished  his  studies,  when  he  was  seized  with 
a  passion  for  travelling,  and  an  ardent  desire  to  see  the 
different  countries  of  Europe.  He  went  to  Italy  first,  but 
was  unfi>rtunate  in  his  return  thence;  for,  the  English  ves* 
sel  bound  for  Marseilles,  on  which  he  embarked  at  Genoa, 
was  t^ken  in  the  sea  of  Provence  by  the  Barbary  Corsairs ; 
and  be  was  carried  a  slave  to  Algiers.  Having  some  ac- 
quaintance with  the  art  of  French  cookery,  he  procured  an 
office  in  his  master's  kitchen.  His  amiable  manners  and 
pleasant  humour  made  him  a  favourite  with  all  about  him, 
and  not  a  little  so  with  the  women ;  but  being  detected  in 
an  intrigue  with  one  of  them,  his  master  insisted  upon  his 
submitting  to  the  law  of  the  country,  which  obliged  a 
Christian,  convicted  of  such  an  ofience,  either  to  turn  Ma«» 
bometan,  or  to  suffer  death  by  fire.  Regnard,  however,  was 
saved  from  either  punishment,  by'  the  intervention  of  the 
French  consul,  who  having  just  received  a  large  sum  for 
bis  redemption,  sent  him  home,  about  1681. 

He  bad  not  been  long  at  Paris,  before  he  set  out  to  visit 
Flanders  and  Holland,  whence  he  passed  to  Denmark,  and 
afterwards  to  Sweden.  Having  done  some  singular  piece 
of  service  to  the  king  of  Sweden,  this  monarch,  who  per- 
ceived that  he  was  travelling  out  of  pure  curiosity,  told 
bim,  that  Lapland  contained  mapy  things  well  worthy  of 
^  '  ■  '  >      ' 

1  Melcbior  Adaiii.-*OeD,  Diet. 

R  £  G  N  A  R  D.  Ii3 

observation ;  and  ordered  his  treasurer  to  accoaimodate 
bim  with  whatever  he  wanted,  if  he  chose  to  proceed  thi-^ 
tfaer.     Regnard  embarked  for  Stockholtn,  with  two  other 
gentlemen  that  had  accompanied  him  from  France;- and 
went  as  for  as  Torneo,  a  city  at  the  bottom  of  the  Both-" 
Hie  Gulph.    He  went  up  the  river  Torneo,  whose  source  is' 
not  fiir  from  the  Northern  cape ;  and  at  letigth  penetrated 
to  the  Icy  sea.     Here,  not  being  able  to  go  farther^  he  and 
bis  companions  engraved  these  four  lines  upon  a  rock : 

**  Gallia  DOS  genuit,  vidit  nos  Africa}  Gangem 
Hausimus,  Europamque  oculis  lustra^imus  omiieili  j ' 
Casibus  &  variis  acti  tenaque  manque^ 
Hie  tandem  stetlmus>  nobis  ubi  deluit  orbis/' 


While  he  was  in  Lapland,  his  curiosity  led  him  to  inquire 
into  the  pretended  magic  of  the. country;  and  he  was^ 
shewn  some  of  the  learned  in  this  black  art,  who^  not  suc- 
ceeding in  their  operations  upon  him,  pronounced  him  a- 
greater  magician  than  themselves.  After  his  return  to 
Stockholm,  he  went  to  Poland,  thence  to  Vienna,  and  from 
Vienna  to  Paris,  after  a  ramble  of  almost  three  years^ 
-  He  npw  settled  in  his  own  country,  near  Donrden,  about 
eleven  leagues  from  Paris,  and  wrote  a  great  many  come* 
dies,  which  •  were  acted  with  success,  particularly  bis 
^'  Gamester.'*  He  was  made  a  treasurer  of  France,  and 
lieutenant  of  the  waters  and  forests,  which  enabled  bim  to 
indulge  his  .taste  for  pleasure  and  gaiety.  It  has  been  said 
that  <he  ^ied  of  chagrin  in  his  52d  year,  Sept.  4,  1709,  and 
that  he  even  contributed  himself  to  shorten  his  days  ;  but 
both  these  reports  are  contradicted  in  the  new  edition .  of 
the  Diet.  Hist  (1811),  and  his  death  attributed  to  impru-^ 
dent  conduct  after  taking  medicine.  The  best  edition  of 
his  works,  which  consist  of  comedies  and  his  travels,  is  that 
of  Paris,  1790,  4  vols.  8vo,  with  notes.  ^ 

REGNIER  (Mathurin),  a  satirical  French  poet,  was  the 
son  of  a  citizen  of  Chartres,  by  a  sister  of  the  abb£  Des-^. 
portes^  a  famous  poet  also,  ai^d  was  bom  there  in  1573.' 
He  was  brought  up  to  the ;  church,  and  no  man  more  unfit 
orunwortbyj  for  such  were  his  debaucheries,  that  as  we 
learo  from  himself,  he  had  at  thirty  all  the  infirmities  of  old 
age.  Yet  this  did  not  prevent  his  obtaining  the  patronage 
of  cardinal  Joyeuse,  and  the  ambassador  Philip  de  Bethiine, 
with  whom  he  was  twice  at  Rome,  in  1593  and  1601.      la 

*  Diet  Hitt. 

Vol.  XXVI.  I 

Hi  »  E  G  N  I  E  Jl, 

ICOiy  by  ibeir  infiuence^  be  obuined  i^  canonry  jb  the 
church  of  Chartres ;  and  bikd  Qthf r  beoeficMn  anc)  ^q  ,^.. 
peomn  of  2000  liwoi,  which  Hemry  I V«  settled  ou  hiqn  in 
1606|  all  which  h^  ^peet  on  bis  Uceqtioua  pleasmes*  He 
died  at  Rouen  in  1615,  at  the  age  of  forty^  completely  de- 
bilitated and  worn  Qot« 

He  was  the  first  aan^g  the  Freiioh  who  succeeded  in  sa* 
tire.;  and»  if  Boileau  has  b^  the  glory  of  rai^ini;  that  sfjie* 
cies  of  eoBH>esition  to  pevfeouon  a0V>ng  tbeio,,  it  mi^  be 
said  of  Regnier»  that  he  laid  the  foundation,  and  was  per- 
haps more  an  ori^piirui}  writer  ^ba^  Boileau,  He  is  sup- 
posed to  have  taken  Juvenal  and  Peruus  for  bis  model :  it 
is  certain,  that  be  has  in  seme  places  imitased  Ovid,  and 
b^wfrowed  largely  frMi  the  Italiaui*  While  preteDdieg, 
however,  to  expose  yiice,  muck  of  that  impuri^]F»  whioh  ran 
through  his  life,  orept  also  intet  bis  wnting^.  Seftenteen  of 
bis  satires,  with  other  poems^  were  printed  at  Rooeo  ia 
Ire^llt.  There  is  a  i\eat  Elaevir  edition  of  hia  works  at  Isy^ 
den,  1650,,  l2ffio;  but,  th<a  b^ai  are  those  of  Rouen,  1799, 
4to,  with  abort  notes  by  M.  Broasette ;  and  of  E^ofidoay  1739, 
wilbi  notes  by  Lenglet  du  Fresnoy,  oa^e*  of  Tonaon^s  iMid- 
soBBke  books  4to,  of  which  there  are  large  paper  eopies. ' 

REGNIER  (be  ^lutBTS,  er  0£$*M4JiAis  (FRAHCia  Sqaa* 
phin)^  a  French  writer,  waa  bora  at  Paris  in  I6%a ;  and,  at 
fifteen,  distikignisbed  himself  by  translating'  the  *^  Baiw*  - 
Ghomyomacbia'*  into  burlesque  verse.    At  thirty^  be  want 
to  Rooue  asi  secretary  to  an  embassy.   Ao^  Italian  ode  of  Jiis. 
writing  procured  him  a  place  in  the  aeadenty  de  ia  Crusoa. 
in  1667;  and,  ia  1670,  he  waa  elected  a  membef  of  the 
French  academy.     lo  1684,  be  waa  made  perpetual  secre-- 
tary,  aftes  the  death  of  Mezeray ;  and  it  ssas  be.  Who  drew 
up. all  those  papers,  in  the  name  of  the  academy,  against 
Furetiere.   In  1668,  the  king  gave  hsm  the  priory  of  Grao^ 
mont,  which  determined  him  to  the  ecclesiastical  fnactiiin : 
and,  in  1675,  he  had  an  abbey.     His  works  axev^uir  Itaiiaa 
translation  of  Anacreon's  odes,  which  he  dedicated  ta  the 
academy  de  la  Cvusca  in  16d^;  a  French  grammar ;  aad 
two  volumes  of  poems,  in  French,'  Latin,  Italian,  and  Sfdk* 
nish.     He  translated,  into  French,  TuUy  *'  De  Diviaatione^ 
k  de  Finibus  ;'*  and  Rodrigue^s  ^^Treatise  of  Christian  per- 
fection," from  the  Spanish.     He  died  in  17  IS,  aged  89;. 
^^  He  has  done  great  service  to  language,"  aays  Voltaire, 

I  Kiceron,  rok  XI.  XX-i-Dict  Hist. 

R  E  O  N  I  E  R.  119 

*<  and  is  the  audioc  of  tome  po^^  ia  French,  and  IlaliM. 
He  contrived  to  make  one  of  hia  Italian  pieces  pass  for  Pe- 
trarch's ;  but  be  conld  not  have  made  his  Fvenoh  verses 
pass  £<x  those  of  any  great  French  poet*'  ^    . 

REID  (Thomas),  a  Scotch  divine,  whose  lifci.  however 
banen  of  incidents,  fixes  an  aera  in  the  history  pf  modern 
pbikttophy,  was  born  April  ^Q,  1710,  at  Strachen  in  Kii^- 
cajrdioesbire,  a  country  parish,  situated  about  tweaty  miles 
from  Aberdeen,  on  die  north  side  of  tbe  Grampian  moun- 
tains* His  father,  the  rev.  Lewis  Reid»  was  minister  of 
thttt  parish  for  .fifty  yean.  His  mother  was  Margaret  Gre- 
gpory,  one  of  the  twenty *-nine  children  of  David  Gregory 
of  Kinnardie,  and  sister  to  James  Gregory,  the  inventor  of 
the  reflecting  telescope,  and  to  David .  Gregory,,  SaviUaa 
professor  of  astronomy  at  Oxford.  After  two  years  spent 
at.  the  parish  school  at  Kincardine,  our  author  was  sent  to 
Aberdeen,'  where  be  had  the  advantage  of  prosecuting  his 
ckflsical  studies  under  an  able  and  diligent  teacher  ^  so  thf^t 
about,  the  age  of  twelve  or  thirteen  he  was  entereda  student 
inMarischsd  College,  under  Dr.  George  TurnbuU.  Th^ 
sessions  of  the  college  were  at  that  time  very  short,  and  thjs 
education,  according  to  Dr*  Reid'»  own  account,  slight  and 

^It  .dofs  not  appear  that  Dr*  Reid  gave  any.  early  indjic%- 
tioos  of  f uiore  eminance*  His  industry,  however,  and  mo* 
des^,  were  conspicuous  &om  his  childhoods  and  j^t.was 
icHT^oU  of'  him  by  the  parish  sfchoolmastcr,  who  initiated 
him  in  the  first  principles  of  learning,  ^-^  tbathe  would  turn 
t>nt  to  be  a  man.  of  good  and  weU-wearing  par|s,"  a  predict 
tioa  which,  although  itimplied  no  flattering  hopes  of  those 
more  brilliant  endowments  which  are  commoidy  regarded 
astfaeconftituents.  of  genius,  touched  not  unhappily  on 
that  capacity  of  patient  thought,  which  contributed  sp 
powerfully  to  the  success  of  his  pbilos<q[»hi€al  researches. 
His  residence  at  the  university  was  prolonged  beyoiid  the 
usual  term,  in  consequei^ce  of  biai  apppintinent  to  the  office 
of  .librarian,,  which  Inad  been  endowed  by  one  of  bis  ances- 
tors about  a  century  before.  The  situation  was  acceptable 
to  bun,  as  it  afibtded  an  opportunity  of  indulging  his  pas- 
sion for  study,  a»d  united  the  charms  of  a  learned  society 
with  the  quiet  of  an  academical  retreat. 

In  173^^  be  resigned  this  eflice,  and,  accompanied  by 

^  Diet  Bist.^^NlceroD  in  Defmsraii,  rol,  V. 


il«  R  E  I  D. 

Dr.  John  Stewart,  afterwards  professor  of  mathematics  in 
Marisclial  college,  and  author  of  a  ^' Commentary  on 
Newton^s  Quadrature  of  Curves,"  on  an  excursion  to  Eng- 
land. Tbey  visited  together  London,  Oxford,  and  Cam- 
bridge, and  were  introduced  to  the  acquaintance  of  many 
persons  of  the  first  literary  eminence.  His  relation  to  Da- 
vid Gregory  procured  him  a  ready  access  to  Martin  Folkes, 
whose  house  concentrated  the  .  most  interesting  objects 
which  the  metropolis  had  to  offer  to  his  curiosity.  At  Cam- 
bridge he  saw  Dr.  Bentley,  who  delighted  htm  with  his 
learning,  and  amused  him  with  his  vanity;  and  enjoyed 
repeatedly  the  conversation  of  the  blind  mathematician 
Saunderson ;  a  phenomenon  in  the  history  of  the  human 
mind,  to  which  he  has  referred  more  than  once  in  his  phi- 
losophical speculations.  With  the  learned  and  amiable 
'Dir.  Stewart  he  maintained  an  uninterrupted  friendship  rill 
1766,  when  Mr.  Stewart  died  of  a  malignant  fever.  His 
death  was  accompanied  with  circumstances  deeply  aflRect- 
ing  to  Dr.  Reid^s  sensibility;  the  same  disorder  proving 
fatal  to  his  wife  and  daughter,  both  of  whom  were  buried 
with  him  the  same  day  in  the  same  g^ave. 

In  17S7,  Dr.  Reid  was  presented  by  the  King's  college 
of  Aberdeen  to  the*  living  of  New  Machar  in  that  county ; 
^biit  the  circumstances  in  which  be  entered  on  his  prefer- 
ment were  far  from  auspicious.  The  intemperate  zeal  of 
one  of  his  predecessors,  and  an  aversion  to  the  law  of  pa- 
tronage, had  so  inflamed  the  minds  of  his  parishioners 
against  him>  that  in  the  first  discharge  of  his  clerical  func- 
tions, he  had  not  only  to  encounter  the  most  violent  oppo- 
sition, but  was  exposed  to  personal  danger.  His  unwearied 
attention,  however,  to  the  duties  of  his  oflice,  the  mildness 
end  forbearance  of  his  temper,  and  the  active  spirit  of  bis 
humanity,  soon  overcame  all  these  prejudices;  and  not 
many  yeats  afterwards,  when  he  was  called  .to  a  different 
situation,  the  same  persons  who  had  suffered  themselves  to 
be  so  far  misled,  as  to  take  a  share4n  the  outrages  against 
him^  followed  him  on  his  departure  with  their  blessings  and 

Dt.  Reid's  popularity  at  New  Machar*  increased  greatly 
'after  bis  marriage,  in  1740,  with  Elizabeth,  daughter  of  his 
uncle  Dr.  George  Reid,  physician  in  London.  The  ac- 
commodating manners  of  this  excellent  woman,  and  her  ^ 
good  offices  among  the  sick  and  necessitous,  were  long  re- 
membered with  gratitude,  and  so  endeared  the  family  ta 

R  £  I  D.  117 

ttle  n^ighboarhoodi  that  its  removal  was  regarded  as  a 

■general  misfortune.  The  simple  and  affecting  language  in 
which  some  old  men-expressed  themselves  on  this  subject 
deserves  to  be  recorded :  **  We  fought  against  Dr.  Keid 
when  he  came,  and  would  have  fought  /or  him  when  he 
went  away." 

It  is  mentioned,  that  long  after  he  became  minister  of 
New  Machar,  he  was  accustomed,  from  a  distrust  in  his 
own  powers,  to  preach  the  sermons  of  Dr.Tillotson  and  Dr. 
Evans,  and  that  he  had  neglected  the  practice  of  compo* 
sition  in  a  more  than  ordinary  degree^  in  the  earlier  part 
of.  his  studies.  The  fact,  says  his  biographer,  is  curious, 
when  contrasted  with  that  ease,  perspicuity,  and  purity  of 
style,  which  he  afterwards  attained.  Yet  during  his  resi- 
dence at  this  place,  the  greater  part  of  his  time  was  spent 
in  the  most  intense  study ;  particularly  in  a  careful  exa- 
mination of  the  laws  of  external  perception,  and  of  the 
other  principles  which  form  the  ground-work  of  human 
knowledge.  His,  chief  relaxations  were  gardening  and 
botany,  to  both  of  which  pursuits  he  retained  his  attach- 
ment even  in  old  age. 

The  first  work  published  by  Dr.  Reid  was  in  the  Philo- 
sophical Transactions  of  London  in  1748.  It  was  entitled 
''An  Essay  on  Quantity,  occasioned  by  a  Treatise  in  which 
simple,  and  compound  Ratios  are  applied  to  Virtue  and 
Merit,"  and  shews  plainly,  that  although  he  had  not  yet 
entirely  relinquished  the  favourite  researches  of  his  youth^ 
he  was  beginning  to  direct  his  thoughts  to  other  objects. 
The  treatise  alluded  to  in  the  title  of  this  paper  was  Dr. 
Hutcheson's  ''  Inquiry  into  the  origin  of  our  ideas  of 
beauty  and  virtue."  In  1752,  the  professors  of  King's 
college,  Aberdeen,  elected  Dr.  Reid  professor  of  philosor 
phy,  in  testimony  of  the  high  opinion  they  had  formed  of 
h|s  learning  and  abilities.  Soon  after  his  removal  to  Aber- 
deen, he  projected  (in  conjunction  with  his  friend  Dr. 
John  Gregory)  a  literary  society,  which  subsisted  many 
years,  and  produced  that  spirit  of  philosophical  research 
to  which  we  owe  the  writings  of  Reid,  Gregory,  Campbell, 
Seattle,  and  Gerard,  who  communicated,  in  this  society, 
sketches  of  their  works,  and  profited  by  the  remarks  mutu- 
ally offered.  In  1763  he  was  invited  by  the  university  of 
Glasgow,  and  accepted,  the  office  of  professor  of  moral 
philosophy.  In  1764  he  published  his  <*  Inquiry  into  the 
Human  Mind;"  which  was  succeeded,  after  a  long  interval, 

lis  R  E  I  D. 

h)  1785,  hj  bis  ^^  Essays  on  the  intellectaal  Powers  of 
Man  ;**  and  that  agsiin,  in  1788,  by  the  "  active  Powers/* 
These,  with  a  masterly  "  Analysis  of  Aristotk^s  Logic,** 
which  forms  an  appendix  to  the  third  volume  of  lord 
Karnes's  Sketches,  comprehend  the  whole  of  Dr.  Reid's 
publications.  The  interval  between  the  dates  of  the  first 
and  last  of  these  amount  to  no  less  than  forty  years,  al> 
*  though  he  had  attained  to  the  age  of  thirty-eight  before  he 
/  ventured  to  appeiir  as  an  author.  Even  in  very  advanced 
life,  he  continued  to  prosecute  bis  studies  with  unabated 
ardour  and  activity.  The  modern  improvements  in  che- 
mistry attracted  his  particular  notice ;  and  he  applied  him- 
self, with  his  wonted  diligence  and  success,  to  the  study 
of  these  and  its  new  nomenclature.  He  amused  himself, 
also,  at  times,  in  preparing  for  a  philosophical  society,  of 
which  he  was  a  member,  short  essays  on  particular  topics, 
which  happened  to  interest  his  curiosity.  The  most  im- 
portant of  these  were,  '^  An  examination  of  Dr.  Priestley's 
opinion  concerning  Matter  and  Mind  ;**  "  Observations  on 
the  Utopia  of  sir  Thomas  More  ;**  and  *^  Physiological  re- 
flections on  Muscular  motion.''  This  last  essay  appears  to 
bave  been  written  in  the  leighty-sixth  year  of  his  age,  and 
was  read  by  the  author  to  his  associates,  a  few  months 
tefore  his  death. 

While  he  was  thu^  enjoying  an  old  age,  happy  in  some 
respects  beyond  the  usual  lot  of  humanity,  bis  domestic 
eomfort  suffered  a  deep  and  incurable  wound  by  the  deUth 
of  Mrs.  Reid.  He  had  had  the  misfortune  too  of  surviving, 
for  many  years,  a  numerous  family  of  promising  children ; 
four  of  whom  (two  sons  and  two  daughters)  died  after  they 
bad  attained  to  maturity.  One  only  was  left  to  him,  Mrs. 
Cai'michael,  then  the  wife,  now  the  widow,  of  Patrick 
Carmichael,  M.  D.  His  situation  at  this  period  cannot  be 
better  described  than  by  himself. '  **  By  the  loss,"  says  he, 
**  of  my  bosom  friend,  with  whom  I  lived  fifty-two  years, 
I  am  brought  into  a  new  world  at  a  time  of  life  when  old 
habits  are  not  easily  forgot,  or  new  ones  acquired.  But 
(every  world  is  God's  world,  and  I  am  thankful  for  the 
comforts  he  •  has  left  me.  Mrs.  Carmichael  has  now  the 
care  of  two  old  deaf  men,  and  does  every  thing  in  her 
power  to  plese  them ;  and  both  are  very  sensible  of  her 
goodness.  I  have  more  health  than  at  my  time  of  life  I 
bad  any  reason  to  expect.  I  walk  about ;  entertain  my- 
self with  reading  what  I  soon  forget;  can  converse  with  one 

R  £  t  Di  lit 

persM^  if  hd  arttculates  difttinctly,  and  it  within  tea 
inches  of  my  l^ft  ear ;  go  to  charch  witboat  hearing  oimb 
word  tbot  it  said.  You  know  I  never  had  any  pretensioM 
to  vitacity ;  bat  I  am  still  free  from  languor  and  trmuV* 

The  actual  and  useful  life  of  Dr.  Reid  was  now  draiiring 
Co  a  con<ilusion.  A  violent  disorder  attacked  him  about 
the  end  of  September  1796;  but  does  not  seem  to  hav^ 
occasioned  much  alarm  to  those  about  him,  till  be  wes 
visited  by  Dr.  Cleghom,  who  soon  communicated  his  op* 
prehensions  in  a  letter  to  Dr.  Gregory.  Among  ottM^ 
symptom^i  he  mentioned  particularly  <<  that  alteration  of 
voice  and  features,  whicb>  though  not  easily  described,  is 
so  well  known  to  all  who  have  opportunities  of  seeing  life 
ek)se.**  Df.  Reid's  own  opinion  of  his  case  was  probably 
the  same  with  that  of  his  physician ;  as  he  eipressed  to 
him  on  his  first  visit,  his  hope  that  he  was  ^*soon  to  get  his 
dismission.*'  After  a  severe  struggle,  attended  with  re- 
peated strokes  of  palsy,  he  died  on  the  7th  of  October  foU 

Ill  point  of  bodily  constitntion^  few  men  have  been  more 
indebted  t6  nature  than  Dr.  Reid.  His  form  was  vigorous 
^nd  athletic;  and  his  muscular  force  (though  be  was 
somewhat  under  the  middle  size)  uncommonly  great ; 
advantages  to  which  his  habits  of  temperance  and  exercise, 
and  the  unclouded  serenity  of  his  temper,  did  ample  jus* 
tice.  His  countenance  was  strongly  expressive  of  deep 
and  collected  thought;  but  when  brightened  up  by  thd 
face  of  a  friend,  what  chiefly  caught  the  attention  was  a 
look  of  good  will  and  of  kindness.  A  picture  of  him,  toft 
which  he  consented,  at  the  particular  request  of  Dr.  Gre- 
gory, to  sit  to  Mr.  Raeburn  during  his  last  visit  to  Edin-^ 
burgh,  is  generally  and  justly  ranked  among  the  happiest 
performances  of  that  excellent  artist. 

The  most  prominent  features  of  Dr.  Reid's  character 
were  intrepid  and  inflexible  rectitude,  a  piiire  and  devoted 
attachment  to  truth,  and  an  entire  command  over  his  pas- 
sions. In  private  life,  no  man  ever  maintained  more  emi- 
nently or  tliore  uniformly,  the  dignity  of  philosophy  ; 
combining  with  the  most  amiable  modesty  and  gentleness, 
^  noblest  spirit  of  independence.  As  a  public  teacher, 
he  was  distinguished  by  unwearied  assiduity  in  inculcating 
principles,  which  he  conceived  to  be  of  essential  import- 
ance to  human  happiness.  In  his  elocution  and  mode  of 
itisteructfon,  there  was  nothing  peculiarly  attractive.     Such, 

120  R  £  I  D. 

how&fetf  were  the  simplicity  and  perspicuity  of  liis  slyle ; 
such  the  gravity  and  authority  of  bis  character,  that  he 
was  always  listened  to  with  profound  respect,  and,  in  his 
latter  years,  with  a  veneration,  which  age  added  to  great 
wisdoni  always  inspires. 

All  that  is  valuable  in  this  sketch  has  been  taken  from 
Mr.  Dugald  Stewart's  life  of  Dr.  Reid,  the  most  elaborate 
part  of  which  is  the  view  of  the  spirit  and  scope  of  Dr. 
Reid's  philosophy.  We  have  long  regretted,  says  ano^r 
able  critic,  that  the  writings  of  this  philosopher,  the  first 
who  in  the  science  of  Mind  deserves  the  title  of  interpreter 
of  .nature,  should  be  so  little  known,  especially  in  the 
southern  part  of  this  kingdom ;  and  we  fondly  hope  that 
the  illustration  afforded  by  Mr.  Stewart  of  their  high  ntj^its, 
and  the  exposure  of  the  prejudices  which  have  been  raised 
against  them  by  bold  censurers,  who  never  took  the  pains 
to  understand  them,  will  pave  the  way  to  a  more  general 
diffusion  among  our  countrymen  of  the  advantages  which  a 
careful  study  of  them  cannot  fail  to  produce. 
'  The  distinguishing  characteristic  of  the  philosophy  of 
Reid  is  this ;  that  whereas  all  his  predecessors  in  th^  study 
of  Mind  employed  themselves  in  forming  arbitraty  theories, 
as  Descartes  in  the  study  of  the  material  world  accounted 
by  vortices  for  the  motions  or  the  heavenly  bodies,  Dr* 
Reid,  on  the  other  hand,  adopted  the  inductive  method 
followed  by  sir  Isaac  Newton,  and  by  an  examination  of 
the  phsBUomepa  of  mind  of  which  we  are  conscious,  endea- 
voured to  rise  to  the  general  laws  which  regulate  our  men- 
tal  Qperations.  The  illustrations  which  Mr.  Stewart  has 
stated  of  the  absolute  necessity  of  following  this  method 
exclusively  in  the  study  of  mind  as  well  as  of  matter,  of 
the  merit  of  Dr.  Reid  in  setting  the  first  example  of  this 
just  mode  of  inquiry,  and  of  his  success  in  the  prosecution 
of  it,  desetve  the  greatest  attention.  Mr.  Stewart  has 
classed  the  objections  stated  to  the  philosophy  of  Reid 
under  four  beads.  1.  That  he  has  assumed  gratuitously, 
in  all  bis  reasonings,  that  theory  concerning  the  human 
.^oul  which  the  scheme  of  materialism  calls  in  question. 

2.  That  hi&  views  tend  to  damp  the  ardour  of  philosophical 
curiosity,  by  stating,  as  ultimate  facts,  pbsenomena  which 
may  be  resolved  into  principles  more  simple  and  genera), 

3.  That  by  an  unnecessary  multiplication  of  original  or  in- 
stinctive prinpipl^s,  be.  has  brought  the  science  of  mind 
into  a  st^t^e^more  perplexed  and  unsatisfactory  than  that  in 

RE  TD.  121 

whiob  it  was  left  by  Locke  and  his  successors.  4.  That 
:  bis  pliilosoph}^  by  sanctiouiiig  an  appeal  from  the  decisions 
of  die  learned  to  the  voice  of  the  multitude,  is  unfavourable 
taa.spirit  of  free  inquiry,  and  lends  additional  stability  to 
popular  errors.  In  bis  reply  to  these  objections,  Mr. 
Stewart  has  not  only  set  the  merit  of  the  writings  which  he 
defends  in  a  clearer  "light,  but  has  taken  occasion  to  add 
Various  illustrations,  which  will  not  a  little  facilitate  the 
study  of  these  writings  to  those  who  for  the  first  time  un- 
dertake it. 

The  merit  of  the  writings  of  Reid,  with  regard  to  the 
future  labours  of  the  philosopher,  and  the  progress  of  the 
scietkce  of  mind,  by  illustrating  the  true  mode  of  philoso- 
phising, and  setting  the  first  example  of  the  practice,  is 
the  chief  point  which  Mr.  Stewart  has  endeavoured  to  illus- 
trate. But  there  is  another  species  of  utility  possessed  by 
these  writings  which  deserves  to  be  pointed  out ;  their  un* 
\  rivalled  efficacy  in  leading  a  young  mind  to  think.  By  the 
perspicuity  of  expression  which  Reid  employs,  and  the 
uncommon  clearness  of  his  conceptions,  he  excites  the 
reflection  of  his  readers  upon  their  own  mental  operations 
so  skilfully,  that  they  are  scarcely  sensible  of  the  exertion. 
And  unquestifmably  the  finest  school  for  this  most  iippor- 
tant  and  difficult  of  all  acquirements,  the  power  of  refiect- 
ingon  the  opecations  of  our  own  minds,  is  the  writings  of 

'  REIGNY  (Louis  Abbl  Beffroi),  commonly  called 
Cousin  Jaques,  a  very  eccentric  French  writer,  was  born 
at  Laon  Nov.  6,  1757.  From  his  eighteenth  to  bis  twenty- 
.  second  year,  be  taught  rhetoric  and  the  belles  lettres  in 
several  colleges,  and  came  to  Paris  in  1770,  where  he  was 
made  a  member  of  the  Mus6e  and  of  the  Lyc^m  of  arts* 
He  was  also  a  member  of  the  academy  of  Bretagne,  and  of 
many  other  learned  societies,  all  which  seem  to  indicate 
r^eputation  and  talents.  The  former. he  employed  every 
queans  to  acquire,  but  appears  in  general  to  have  been  more 
ambitious  of  temporary  than  lasting  fame,  and  thought 
himself  very  successful  when  be  puzzled  the  wits  of  Paris 
with  the  strange  titles  of  bis  publications.  In  1799  he 
began  to  publish,  in  a  periodicar  form,  what  be  called 
**  Dictionnaire  des  hommes  et  des  choses/'  which  his  bio- 

1  Life  by  Mr.  Ste<rart.— Other  valuable  remarks  and  particulars  may  be  seen^ 
in  Dr.  Gleig*8  Supplement  to  the-  Encyclopaedia  Britanoica;  and  Forbes's  Life 
i»f  lSeattie.-«-Ba!dwin*f  I^iterary  Journali  &c.  kc,  kc. 

IM  R  E  I  G  N  Y. 

grapher  styles  a  whimsical  work,  without  informing  us  in 
what  respect.  Something  political  seems  to  have  entered 
into  its  composition,  as  after  he  had  published  several 
numbers,  it  was  suppressed  by  the  police.  He  tried  his 
talents  likewise  on  the  theatre ;  and  if  success  be  a  proof 
6f  merit,  had  no  reason  to  complain.  His  plays  were, 
1.  '^  Les  ailes  de  Tamour,''  which  was  performed  at  three 
theatres.  2.  **  Le  club  des  bonnes  gens,"  played  117 
times  at.  Feydau,  and  often  reprinted  at  Paris:  3.  **  His* 
toire  universelle,"  a  comic  opera,  played  S7  times  at 
Feydau  in  1790  and  1791.  4.  "Nicodeme  dans  la  Lune,'' 
represented  373  times.  5.  «  La  petite  Nanette,"  &c. 
and  other  operas,  which  were  all  successful,  and  of  which 
he  also  composed  the  music,  in  an  easy  and  agreeable 

His  other  publications  were,  6.  '^  Petites  maisons  du 
Parnasse,"  Bouillon,  1783,  8vo,  a  collection  in  prose  and 
▼erse,  mostly  original,  but  some  borrowed.  7.  "  MaU 
borough,  Tarlututa,  Hurlaberla,"  3  vols.  8vo ;  with  the  con- 
tents of  this  we  are  unacquainted,  as  well  indeed  as  with 
those  of  the  following.  8.  "  Les  Ldnes,"  Paris,  1785^ 
1787,  24  vols.  12mo,  of  which  two  editions  were  published. 

9.  **  Le  Courier  des  Planetes,"  Paris,  1788,  1790,  10  vols. 

10.  "  Les  Nouvelles  Luties,"  Paris,  1791,  8vo.  11.  "  Le 
Consolateur,"  ibid.  1792,  3  vols.  8vo;  12.  "  La  Consti- 
tution de  la  Lune,"  ibid.  1793.  13.  "Testament  d'nn 
electeur  de  Paris,"  ibid.  1795.  14.  "  Precis  historiqoe  de 
la  prise  de  la  Bastille,"  ibid.  1789,  which  is  said  to  have 
gone  through  seventeen  editions.  1 5.  ^  Histoire  de  France 
pendant  trois  mois,"  ibid.  1789,  8vo.  This  fertile  writer 
died  at  Charenton,  near  Paris,  in  April  1810.^ 

REINECCIUS  (Reinier),  a  learned  German,  was  m 
native  of  Steinheim,  in  the  sixteenth  century.  He  was  a 
disciple  of  Melancthon,  and  taught  the  belles  lettres  in  thef 
universities  of  Frankfort  and  Helmstadt  till  his  desub,  in 
1 595.  His  chief  publications,  on  history  and  genealogy, 
in  which  he  was  profoundly  versed,  are,  **  Syntaglna  de 
Familiis  Monarchiarum  trium  priorum,"  1574 ;  *'  Familiffi^ 
Regum-  JudsBorum;"  "  Chronicon  Hierosolymitaniiiti ;" 
**  Historia  Orientalis ;"  "  Historia  Julia,"  3  vols,  folio ; 
**  Methodus  Legendi  Historiam."  • 

REINESIUS  (Thomas),  a  learned  and  philosophic  Ger* 
onan,  was  born  at  Gotha,  a  city  of  Tburingia,  in  1587. 

A  Pict.  Hitt  >  Moreri. 


He  was  a  physician ;  but  applied  himself  to  polite  literatore, 
in  which  be  tihiefly  excelled.  Afber  practising  physic  iti 
other  places,  hd  Settled  at  AUenbnrg  for  sevenu  years^  and 
was  made  a  burgo-master.  At  last,  baring  been  raised  to 
be  counsellor  to  the  elector  of  Saxony,  he  went  to  reside 
at  Leipsic  ;  where  he  also  died  in  1667.  One  of  his  let- 
ters relates  many  circumstances  of  his  life,  and  shews  him 
to  have  met  with  many  vexations ;  though,  as  will  appear 
afterwards,  he  was  more  than  ordinarily  upon  his  guard, 
that  he  miffht  not  be  involved  in  the  troubles  of  the  world. 


He  wrote  a  piece  or  two  npon  subjects  of  his  own  pro- 
fession ;  but  the  greatest  part  of  his  works  relate  to  philo- 
logy and  criticism,  among  which  are  *^  Yarianim  Lectio- 
Dum  libri  tres,''  in  4to.  Bayle  says,  he  was  one  of  those 
philologers  who  know  more  than  their  books  can  teach 
them ;  whose  penetration  enables  them  to  draw  many  con* 
Sequences,  and  suggests  conjectures  which  lead  them  tp 
the  discovery  of  hidden  treasores ;  who  dart  a  light  into 
the  gloomy  places  of  literature,  and  extend  the  liiAits  of 
ancient  knowledge.  By  hiis  printed  letters^  it  would  ap- 
pear that  he  was  consulted  as  an  oracle ;  that  he  answered 
Tery  learnedly  whatever  questions  were  brought  to  him ; 
and  that  he  was  extremely  skilled  in  the  families  of  ancient 
Rome,  and  in  the  study  of  inscriptions.  A  great  eulogium 
is  given  of  his  merit,  as  well  as  of  his  learned  and  political 
ivorks,  by  Grsvius,  in  the  dedication  of  the  second  edi- 
tion of  Casaubon^s  epistles,  dated  Amsterdam,  August  31, 
1655,  and  by  Haller  and  Saxius.  He  partook  of  the  libe- 
Tality  which  Lewis  XIV.  shewed  to  the  most  celebrated 
66h(dars  of  Europe,  and  received  with  the  present  a  very 
obliging  letter  from  Colbert;  which  favour  he  retorned, 
by  dedicating  to  him  bis  '^  Observations  on  the  Fragment 
of  Petronius,'*  in  1666.  The  religion  of  Beinesius  was 
suspected  to  be  of  the  philosophical  kind.^ 

REINHOLD  (Erasmus),  an  eminent  astronomer  sind 
mathematician,  was  born  at  Salfeldt  in  Thuringia,  a  pro^ 
vinc^  in  Upper  Saxony,  the  11th  of  October,  1511.  He 
studied  mathematics  under  James  Milicbi  tit  Wittemberg^ 
in  which  university  he  afterwards  became  professor  of  those 
^sciences,  which  he  taught  with  great  applause.  After 
writing  a  nomber  of  useful  and  learned  works,  he  died 

February  19,  1553,  alt  42  years  of  age  only.     His  writings, 



124  R  £  I  N  H  O  L  D. 

are  chiefly  the  following  :  1.  <VTheori»  nove  Plauetaram 
Q.  Purbacbii/'  augmented  and  illustrated  with  diagrams 
and  Scholia  in  8vo,  1542;  and  again  in  1580.  In  this 
work,  among  other  things  worthy  of  notice,  he  teaches  (p. 
75  and  7,6)  that  the  centre  of  the  lunar  epicycle  describes 
an  aoal figure  in  each  monthly  period,  and  that  the  orbit 
of  Mercury  is  also  of  the  same  oval  6gure.  2.  '*  Ptolomy*s 
Almagest,"  the  first  book,  in  Greek,  with  a  Latin  version, 
and  Scholia,  explaining  the  more  obscure  passages,-  1549, 
8vo.  At  the  end  of  p.  123  he  promises  an  edition  of 
Theon^s  Commentaries,  which  are  very  useful  for  under- 
standing Ptolomy's  meaning ;  but  bis  immature  death  pre* 
vented  Reinhold  from  giving  this  and  other  works  which  he 
had  projected.  3.  'VPrutenicse  Tabulse  Coelestium  Mo- 
tuum,"  1551,  4to;  again  in  1571;  and  also  in  1585, 
Reinhold  spent  seven  years  labour  upon  this  work,  in 
which  he  was  assisted  by  the  munificence  of  Albert,  duke 
of  Prussia,  from  whence  the  tables  had  their  name.  Rein- 
hold compared  the  observations  of  Copernicus  with  those 
of  Ptolomy  and  Hipparchus,  from  whence  he  constructed  ^ 
these  new  tables,  the  uses  of  which  he  has  fully  explained 
in  a  great  number  of  precepts  and  canons,  forming  a  com- 
plete introduction  to  practical  astronomy.  4.  *'  Primus 
liber  Tabularum  Directionum  ;^*  to  which  are  added,  the 
"  Canon  Foecundus,"  or  Table  of  Tangents,  to  every 
minute  of  the  quadrant ;  and  New  Tables  of  Climates,  Pa- 
rallels, and  Shadows,  with  an  Appendix  containing  the 
second  Book  of  the  Canon  of  Directions;  1554,  4to. 
Reinhold  here  supplies  what  was  omitted  by  Regiomonta- 
nus  in  his  Table  of  Directions,  &c. ;  shewing  the  finding 
of  the  sines,  and  the  construction  of  the  tangents,  the  sines 
being  found  to  every  minute  of  the  quadrant,  td  the  ra« 
dius  10,000,000;  and  he  produced  the  Oblique  Ascensions 
from  60  degrees  to  the  end  of  the  quadrant*  He  teaches 
also  the  use  of  these  tables  in  the  solution  of  spherical 

Reinhold  prepared  likewise  an  edition  of  many  other 
works,  which  are  enumerated  in  the  Emperor^s  Privilege, 
prefixed  to  the  Prutenic  Tables;  such  as,  Ephemerides  for 
several  years  to  come,  computed  from  the  new  tables; 
Tables  of  the  rising  and  setting  of  several  Fixed  Stars,  for 
.many  different  climates  and  times;  the  illustration  and 
establishment  of  Chronology,  by  the  eclipses  of  the  lumin- 
aries, and  the  great  conjunctions  of  the  planets,  and  by 

R  E  I  N  H  O  L  D.  125 

tile  a|^petrance  of  coinels,  &c. ;  the  Ecdcftiastical  Galea* 
dar;  the  History  of  Years,  or  Astronomical  Calendar; 
^*  Isagoge  Spherica,''  or  Elements  of  the  doctrine  of  the 
Pfiioiam  Mobile ;  **  H^potyposes  Orbium  Ccelestium,'*  or 
the  Theory  of  Planets ;  Goustroction  of  a  New  Quadrant; 
the  doctrine  of  Plane  and  Spherical  Triangles;  Commen- 
taries on  the  work  of  Copernicus ;  also  Commentaries  on 
the  1 5  books  of  Euclid,  on  Ptolomy's  Geography,  and  on 
the  Optics  of  Alhazen  the  Arabian.  Reinbold  also  made 
Astronomical  Observations,  but  with  a  wooden  quadrant, 
which  observations  wdre  seen  by  Tycho  Brahe  when  he 
passed  through  Wittemberg  in  1575,  who  wondered  that 
so  great  a  cultivator  of  astronomy  was  uot  furnished  with 
better  instruments. 

'  Reinhold  left  a  son,  named  also  Erasmus  after  himself, 
an  eminent  mathematician  and  physician  at  Salfeldt.  He 
wrote  a  small  work  in  the  German  language,  on  Subter- 
ranean Geometry,  printed  in  4to  at  Erfurt,  1575.  He 
wrote  also  concerning  the  New  Star  which  appeared  in 
Cassiopeia  in  1572;  with  an  Astrological  Prognostication, 
published  in  1574,  in  the  German  language.' 

REISKE  (John  James),  an  extraordinary  scholar,  and 
equally  extraordinary  man,  who  has  furnished  us  with  very 
curious  memoirs  of  his  life,  was  born  Dec.  25,  1716,  at 
Zorbig,  a  small  town  near  Leipsic,  of  ancestors  of  whom 
he  knew  nothing,  except  that  his  grandfather  was  an  inn- 
keeper. He  was  educated  at  the  school  of  Zorbig  until 
ten  years  old,  then  was  removed  to  Soschen,  where  a  gen- 
tleman, to  whom  he  afterwards  in  gratitude  dedicated  his 
remarks  on  the  '^  Tusculan  questions,''  brought  him  very 
forward.  Thence  be  went  to  school  at  Halle,  where  he 
complains  of  the  length  of  the  prayers,  and  of  the  ignorance 
of  bis  teacher,  who  knew  nothing  of  Latin.  In  1733  he 
removed  to  the  university  of  Leipsic ;  but  instead  of  at* 
tending  to  Greek,  mathematics,  and  polite  literature,  gave 
himself,  **  in  an  evil  hour,"  to  Rabbinical  learning,  and 
Arabic.  Such,  however,  was  his  ceconomy,  that  although 
during  the  five  years  be  remained  here,  he  received  from 
home  only  two  hundred  dollars,  he  contrived  not  only  to 
live,  but  to  purchase  most  of  the  Arabic  books  then  ex- 
tant, and  in  1736  he  had  read  them  all.  The  last  year, 
indeed,  he  obtained  a  scholarship  of  twenty  dollars  a^year, 

>  Hutton's  DietioMi^.—- Moreri, 

litlncb  b^  i*igbfc  b«v0  eogojed  loogeri,  bad  i»e  uot  io  i7$ff 
fle^ermiAOd  to  visii  HolFan4^  without  evec  considering  bow 
be  vr9s  icf  tf ansel  witbout  a^poej.  He  get  out^  however^ 
Srom  Letp^i^  to  Lifta0qbu;rg  io  tbe  commQii  waggpn,  avd 
tbeoce  by  tb^  Elbe  to  Haobburgb^  wbere  be  visited  Reioiit-^ 
vmf  first  received  bio cooUy^  but  <^  diseoveriog 
bii  leammg>  gave  hiip  lettqrs^  andbecmiM  bis  &sit  friends 
nor,  be  ad<b|  did  tbe  worthy  loep  of  Hambq^fb  aend  bim 
penttiless  on  tbe  wny. 

On  bis  arrival  at  AivistercjaQi,  be  waa  weU  received  by  % 
frifeod  of  bis  inoiber*^,  who  bad  loarried  a  lioen^draf^er 
there.  Next  day  be  visited  DorviUe,r  to  whom  be  bad  m 
letter  of  recommendalioii  fraisa  professor  Wolfe^  DerviUe 
offered  him  600  florins  a-year  to  live  with  bimi  and  be  Ua 
^aiHiensis ;  but  ReUke  tdld  bioi  that  be  was^  not  come  to 
Holland  to  make  bis  fortune,,  wbicb  be  coutd  have  doM 
belter  in  hisi  own  country,  but  to  look  for  Arabic  naaou* 
scripts.  Dorville  seemed  surprised  and  a  little  angry  m% 
such  an  answer  fVom,  a  man  who  had  DOt  a  shilling ;  b^ 
afterwards^  Reiike  says,  ^^  vye  were  very  -  good  frieod% 
though  I  wonder  we  did  so  well  together,  for  we  were 
aEkuch  of  the  same  temper,  hasty,  ^passionatej  and  self-^ 
willed/^  He  tben  went  to  Leydeo,  where  be  had  the  moiH 
lificatioe  to  be  told  that  there  ,was  no  provision  in  HoUaod 
fcff  strangers,  that  it  was  vacation  tinie^  that  the  scbolaM 
were  all  gone,  and  the  library  quite  inaccessible.  H^ 
eontrived,  however,  to  pick  up  a  livelihood,  by  beiag 
corrector  of  the  press  for  Alberti's  Hesycfaius>  and  giving 
a  few  lessons,  when  be  couJid  procure  pupiki^  At  lengtb 
he  got  introduced  to  Scbukens^  who  allowed  him  to  ei^jr 
Oriental  MSS.  at  bis  bouse,  and  teaqb  his  son  Arabic*  At 
tbe  desire  of  Schultens,  be  applied  himself  to  tbe  Arabic 
poets,  and  publbbed  an  edition  of  tbe  ^^  Meallakat'*  in 
1740 ;  but  they  did  not  quite  agree  .about  spoae  passages 
i»it,  and  this  laid  tbe  foundation  of  the  misunderstanding 
between  them.  In  the  mean  tine  he  niade  a  eaialogue  of 
Arabic  MSS.  in  the  Leyden  library,  a  work  which  eool^ 
ployed  htnit  some  months,  and  for  which  he  was  rewaKded 
with  nine  guilders,  about  eighteen  shillings  I 

Ail  this,  however,  be  called  '^  going  on  well,*'  and  pro- 
ceeds to  date  his  misfortunes  from  his  displeasing  the 
firiendfi  of  Burman.  When  Burman  seo>t  his  ^^  PetropiasV 
to  press,  he  was  old  and  bed-ridden,  and  tbe  correction  of 
tbe  work  fell  upon  Reiske.     He  made  some  alterations  in 

R  E  I  S  K  E.  127 

ike  firat  volame,  which  Buhnan  lived  to  see  and  was 
pleased  with ;  but  hi^peDuig  to  take  some  greater  liberties 
with  the  teat  of  Petronius,  in  the  second,  all  Burman^a 
friends  became  his  enemies;  his  scholars  deserted  him,  and 
DorriUe  broke  with  him*  Peter  Burman,  the  son,  wrote 
a  prefisce  against  Reiske,  which  he  answered  in  the  ^<  Acta 
Eroditorom/* '  During  his  resideace  here,  as  he  saw  no« 
thing  wa^  to  be  done  in  divinity,  he  made  some  progress 
in  the  study  of  physic,  and  intended  to  return  home  and 
piactise;  but,  he  inforass  tis,  '^  straigbtness  of  circam« 
stances,  oddoess  of  humour,  and  the  love  of  Arabic^ 
alwajTs  kept  him  from  it.'^ 

Two  things  determined  him  to  leave  Holland^  the  one 
was  that  he  had  ofiended  Schultens  by  some  remarks  on 
the  study  of  Arabic ;  the  other,  that  in  the  thesis  which  he 
wsote  for  his  medical  degree,  be  incurred  the  suspicion  of 
maierialisiii;  but  having  got  this  degree  June  10,  1746, 
he  bade  adieu  to  Holland.  After  a  long  apostrophe  in 
admiration  of  Holhtnd,  which,  he  says,  he  wishes  he  had 
nevier  seen,  or  never  left,  he  informs  us  that  while  with 
Dorville,  be  translated  into  Latin,  some  small  French  tracts^ 
which  that  auihoi  inserted  in  his  ^^  Miscellanea  Critica  ;^* 
made  collections  for  him  from  MSS*  or  other  literary  cu* 
riositieB ;  translated  his  '<  Cbarito'*  into  Latin,  and  collated 
the  copy  vriiioh  Dorville  had  received  from  Cocchi  at 
Elorence.  They  quarrelled,  however,  because  Dorville  not* 
oaty  altered  some  parts  of  this  translation,  but  obliged 
Bmske  to  do  the  same  himself  before  bis  face. 
'  After  some  stay  at  his  native  place  Zorbig,  where  he 
could  find  no  opportuni^  of  settling  advantageously,  he 
was  obliged  to  return  to  Leipsic.  In  1747,  he  tells  us  he 
was  made  professor  for  the  publication  of  a  tract,  entitled* 
^  De  principibus  Mahummedanis  literarum  laude  claris.*^ 
From  this  time  be  lived,  during  many  years,  in  want  and 
obscurity,  frequently  not  knowing  wbere  to  get  bread  to 
eat.  What  he  did  get,  be  says,  was  hardly  earned,  by 
private  instruction,  writing  books,  correcting  for  the  press, 
translations,  and  working  for  reviews ;  and  thus  he  went 
on  from  1746  to  1758  «. 

*  The  reader  will  wonder  bow  Reiske  a  reader  of  books,  as  well  at  a  writers 

could  be  in  such  want  wiih  so  many  and  would    often   buy  them  without 

4>ccopationt.     As  a  corrector  of  the  thinking  whether  he  should  have  money 

press  atone,  he  would  have  done  very  enough  left  to  buy  next  day's  dinner, 

wall ;  what  ruined  him  was,  his  being  Besides  this,  hetiad  the  rage  of  pab- 

12$  R  E  I  S  K  E. 

In  the  mean  time,  in  1 748,  be  wrote  bis  ^^  Progmmiaa 
de  epocba  Arabuin,  &c/^  for  wbicb  he  was  made  Arabic 
professor,  but  id  this  o6Sice  be  complains  of  being  rewarded 
by  an  ilUpaid  salary  of  one  hundred  dollars  a  year.  In. the 
autumn  of  that  year  a  bookseller  at  Leyden  agreed.with 
bini  for  a  publication  of  Abulfeda^s  History  in  Latin  and 
Arabic  :  tb^  first  sheet  was  accordingly  printed,  and  made 
bim  known  in  France  and  England;  and  the  whole,  he 
8ays„  would  have  followed,  if  it  had  not  been  for  his  quarrel 
with  ScbuUens.  Keiske  appears  to  have  had  an  extraordi* 
oary  propensity  to  quarrelling,  and  being  a  reviewer,  was 
not  sparing  of  the  means,  by  reviewing  in  an  arrogant  and 
petulant  style  the  works  of  those  persons  with  whom  he 
was  living  in  apparent  friendship.  He  even  unblushingljr 
avows  that  a  sort  of  revenge  led  him  to  speak  ill  of  the 
Works  of  some  of  his  friends.  He  speaks  at  the  same  time* 
of  the  bitter  remorse  with  which  he  reflected  on  liis  treat- 
ment of  Schultens,  who  ^'  had  been  a  father  to  him,^*  ac<* 
knowledges  the  acid  of  youthful  pride  which  mixed  ^ith 
bis  criticisms,^  and  yet  talks  of  being  influenced  by  the 
**  conscience  and  duty"  of  a  reviewer  f 

Among  the  works  wbicb  be  performed  for  bread,  and 
umta  Mtnervoy   were  a  translation  of  the  life  of  Cfayistina 
from  the  French,  and  an  index  to  the  translation  of  the  His** 
tory  of  the  academy  of  inscriptions.  Thdse  which  he  wrote 
am  anwre  were  his  criticisms  in  the  Leipsic  Acts,  which 
were  very  numerous,    his  *^  Greek  Anthology/'  and  kk 
1754  the  first  part  of  his  ^<  Annales  Moslemici,''  dedicated 
to  the  curators  of  the  university  of  Leyden^  who,  as  he 
says,  did  not  thank  him,  and  he  sold  only  thirty  copies^ 
After  a  little  Arabic  effusion,  called  ^^  Risalet  Abit  Wall-* 
cit,*'  he  began  his  ^'  Animadversiones  ad  autores  Grascos,'* 
and  printed  five  volumes  of  them,  which  cost  him  1000 
fhalersy  of  which  be  never  saw  more  than  100  again*     i^  I 
have,  however,**  be  says,  *^  enough  for  five  volumes;  morei,; 
and  should  go  quietly  out  of  the  world,  if  I  couldonce  see> 
tjiem  printed,  for  they  ^xejlos  ingemi  met  (that  is  supposing} 
it  to  be  allowed  that  my  genius  has  any  flowers).;  and  sure; 
I  am,  that  little  as  their  worth  is  now  known,  and  much  aa 
they  have  been  despised,  the  time  will  come  when  party 
and  jealousy  shall  be  no  more,  and  justice  will  be  done 

Ii«binj^  things  which  mouldered  away  bay  leather,  and  send  it  to  Zorbig,^ 
in  a  dark  room,  and  besides  this  he  where  she  sold  it  by  retaiL  Note  by 
had  his  mother  t»  keep,     He  used  to     Mrs.  Reiske. 

ft  E  I  S  K  E.  \2^ 

li^etai.^-^Should  they  come  out  in  my  life-time,  it  will  pay 
toe  for  all  my  trouble  :  if  they  should  not,  an  ever-waking 
Ood  will  take  care^  that  no  impious  hand  seizes  on  tiiy . 
Work,  arid'  makes  it  his  own.  Possibly  there  may  arise 
'^dmef  honourable  God-fearing  man,  who  may  hereafcet 
publish  them  unadulterated  to  my  posthumous  fame,  and 
fer  the  good  of  litei'ature  t  such  is  my  wish,  siich  are  my 
prayers  to  God,— «-and  he  will  hear  those  prayers.*' 

Ifi'1755,  he  was  chosen  fellow  of  GotscHed's  society  of 
the  fihe. arts.  This  produced  two  sniall  papers,  which  are 
in  the  Transactions  of  that  society,  and  an  acquaintance 
with  bis  wife,  the  sister  of  Probst,  who  came  With  him  to 
Leipsic.  Hei*  modesty,  goodness  of  heart,  and  love  of 
Earned  nieii,  caught  his  heart ;  but  the  war  broke  out,  and 
he  did  not  marry  tilt  nine  years  after.  In  1756  he  made  a 
catalogue  of  the  Arabic  coins  in  the  library  at  Dresden, 
and  translated  Thogtai  in  a  couple  of  days.  It  came  out 
with  a  preface  and  notes,  containing  accounts  of  the  Ara- 
bic poet*.  There  were  only  two  hundred  copies  printed. 
"  The  war  now  raged  very  fiercely  all  over  Saxony,  and  poor 
Reiske  was  obliged  to  avail  himself  of  Ernesti^s  generosity, 
who  gave  him  bis  table  for  two  yeai*S3  but  in  1758,  hi^ 
fortunes  took  a  surprizing  and  most  unexpected  turn,  and 
he  was  made  independent,  by  being  appginted  rector  of 
tti^schc^ol  of  St.  Nicholas.  This  he  tells  us  he  had  had  an 
om^n  of  at  the  beginning  of  the  year;  for,  rising  on  new 
year's  day,  at  three  o'clock  in  the  morning,  as  was  bis  con- 
^ant  custom,  to  pursue  his  translation  of  Libanius's  letters, 
be  found  that  he  had  come  to  a  letter  written  to  Anatolius, 
atfd  the  first  word  he  read  was  Anatolius.  '^Now,''  says 
he,  ^'  thought  I,  the  year  is  come  in  which  God  will  let 
the!  light  of  his  countenance  shine  upon  thee;  and  in  five 
fl^eks  rfter  Haltaus  (his  predecessor)  died." 
'•  About  1763  be  translated  Demosthenes  and  Thucydides 
iilto  German,  and  married  Mrs.  Reiske,  a  woman  of  great 
liuhrary  accoQiplishments.  In  1768  he  issued  proposals  for 
his  edition  of  Demosthenes,  which  forms  the  first  two  vo- 
latiies  ofhis  **Oratores  Graeci."  On  this  occasion  we  have 
at!  interesting  note  from  Mrs.  Reiske.  **  When  the  work 
went  to  press,  only  twenty  thalers  of  the  subscription 
[ftoiiey  btid  cOme  in.  The  good  man  was  quite  struck  down 
with  this,  and  seemed  to  have  thrown  away  all  hope.  His 
grief  went  to  my  ^oul,  and  I  comforted  him  as  well  as  I 
could,  and  persuaded  hrm  to  sell  my  jewels,  which  be  at 

Vol.  XXVI.  K 

)30  R  E  I  S  K  E. 

length  came  into^  after  I  had  convioced  him  that  a  few 
9hining  stones  were  not  necesss^  to  my  happiness."  The 
work  at  length  appeared  in  1770.  His  <^  Theocritus,**  puh^* 
Ijshed  in  1765,  be  calls  a  bookseller^s  job,  and  it  certainly- 
is  not  the  best  of  his  critical  efforts.  It  was  published  ia 
2  vols.  4to,  to  which  he  would  have  added  a  third,  could 
be  have  agreed  with  bb  bookseller.  His  '^  Plutarch'*  and 
'^  Dionysius  Halicarnassensis**  were  also  edited  by  him  for 
the  booksellers ;  but  the  ^^  Oratores  Grasci**  was  the  work 
of  bis  choice,  and  one  on  which  his  reputation  may  safely 

Reiske  died  Augnst  14, 1774.  Much  of  his  character 
may  be  learned  from  what  he  has  himself  told  us.  Mrs. 
Reiske,  who  completes  his  memoirs,  attributes  to  him  a 
hi.igh  degree  of  rectitude,  and  adds,  that  he  often  blamed 
himself  in  cases  where  he  deserved  no  blame,  and  always, 
thought  he  ought  to  be  better  than  he  was.  He  though^; 
ill  of  mankind,  and  we  have  seen  that  some  part  of  his  owa 
practice  was  not  very  well  calculated  to  lessen  that  batjL 
opinion  in  other  minds.  When  speaking  of  his  ill-treat- 
ment of  Scbultens,  who  had  accused  him  of  irreligion,  he 
denies  this,  and  adds,  ^*  the  worst  he  could  say  of  me,  hap-' 
pily  for  me,  was,  that  I  was  a  proud,  insolent,  and  ungrate- 
ful young  man.** 

Mrs.  Reiske  informs  us  that  his  unexampled  love  of  let- 
ters produced  not  only  all  the  works  be  has  published,  and. 
all  the  MSS.  he  left  behind  him  \  but  every  man  who  had 
any  thing  to  publish,  might  depend  upon  his  countenance 
and  protection.    He  gave  bopks,  advice,  subscription,  evea. 
all  that  be  bad.     Nay,  he  niad^  up  to  several  people  tb^t 
bad  treated  him  ill,  only  in  order  that  he  might  make  their, 
works  better.     He  was  also  a  man  of  grea^  charity.     As  a 
scholar  his  character  is  too  well  known  to  require  a  prolix, 
detail  of  bis  various  knowledge.    He  had  read  all  the  Greek 
and  Latin  authors,  and  all  the  Arabic  ones,  more  .thaa 
once,  and  was .  likewise  acquainted  with  the  best  Italian, 
French,  English,  and  German  writers.     He  read  Tilloib- 
son^s  and  Barrow*s  sermops  constantly,  and  used  to  traqs*. 
late  them  for  bi^  wife  into  French.     His  memfory  was  ao 
wonderful  that  he  remembered  all  he  had  heard,  and. could 
repeat  a  sermon  he  had  heard  almost  verbatim.     In  the  lastt 
days  of  his  life  he  called  all  his  learned  wprks  trifles.    '^  All- 
these  troublesome  labours,*'  said  be,  '^  cannot  preserve  me 
from  the  judgment  seat,  at  which  I  must  soon  appear-<-my 

bhiy  iconfidiititffe  prbdeedb  froin  the  thbUgAts  ot  bavihff 
lived'  uprighdy  before  God:'* 

H»^  ddminerde  tfith  the  leilrned  was  ^  m  extensive. 
Amori^liis  c6i¥espbnddnts  b^  ^ainefate^  Abrescb^  Albert!, 
Albifibs^  Askew,  Bandini,  Battbblotnei,  Bernard,  Biau- 
feohi,  Bildfer,  Bbridam,  flnd%,  Gteher,  Gronovias,  Ha- 
Vei'cariip,  Hemstbrhuys,  Miichaelis,  Osel,  cardinal  Quirini, 
Reidiarns,  ^ebtisch,  Wolfe,'  ind'  Wittembach.  Of  some 
of  these,  hoWever,  he  speaks  with  little  respect.  Of  hh 
wotte,  tweiity^seveh  of  which  are  etiumerated  by  Harles, 
we  have  noticed  the  principal.  He  wrote  his  own  life  as 
far  as  1771,  which  was  continued  by  Mrs.  Reiske,  and 
piiblished  in  1783.' 

*  RELAND  (Hadrian),  an  eminent  orientalist,  was  born 
at  Ryp,  a  village  in*  North-Holland,  July  17,  li576.  His 
father  was  minister  of  that  village^  but  afterwards  removed 
tx)  Alkmaar^  and  then  to  Atnsterdam,  in  which  last  city 
tlelahd  was  educated  with  great  care ;  and  at  eleven  years 
of  age,  having  passed  through  the  usual  courses  at  school,^  • 
was  placed  in  the  college  under  Surenhusius.  During  three 
y^ars  of  study  under  this  professor,  he  made  a  great  pro- 
griess  in  the  Hebrew,  Syriac,  Chaldee,  and  Arabic  lan- 
guages ;  and  at  his  leisure  hours  applied  himself  to  poetry, 
in  which  he  was  thought  to  succeed.  At  fourteen,  he  was 
sent  to  Utrecht ;  where  he  studied  under  Grsevius  and 
Lensden,  acquired  a  more  perfect  knowledge  of  the  Latin 
at)d  oriental  tongues,  and  applied  himself  also  to  philoso- 
phy, in  which  he  afterwards  took  the  degree  of  doctor. 
At  seVehteen,  he  entered  upon  divinity  under  the  direc- 
tion of .  Herman  Witsius  and  others ;  but  did  not  abandon 
,ther  oriental  languages,  which  were  always  his  favourite 
stiidy.  After  he  had  resided  six  years  at  Utrecht,  his  fa- 
ther sent  him  to  Leydeit,  to  continue  his  theological  stu- 
dies undet  Frederic  Spanheim  and  oth^rk ;  where  be  soon 
-  received  the  offer  of  a  professorship  at  Linden,  either  in 
pfailosopby  or  the  oriental  languages.  This  he  would  have 
accepted;  though  only  two  and  twenty ;  but  his  father*s 
iH  state  of  health  would  not  allow  hirti  to  remove  so  far  from 
Amsterdam.  In  1699,  he  was  elected  professor  of  philo- 
sophy at  Harderwick,  but  did  not  continue  there  long ;  for," 
king  William  having  recommended  him  to  the  magistrates 

>  Life  ttt  tb«yd>  itLM«t3)^*a  ]U«M«,  vol.  VII.*<p-Hartotf  «le  yitii  pbilplofortttt/ 
vol.  IV.«-Saxii  Ooomast. 

1S2  R  E  L  A  N  D. 

of  Utrecht,  he  was  offered  in  1701  the  professorship  of 
oriental  languages  and  ecclesiastical  history,  which  be  rea- 
dily accepted.  In  1703,  he  took  a  wife,  by  whom  he.  had 
three  children.  In  17 13,  a  society  for  the  advancement 
of  Christian  knowledge  was  established  in  England,  as  was 
that  for  the  propagation  of  the  gospel  in  foreign  part»  the 
year  after ;  of  both  which  Reland  became  a  member.  He 
died  of  the  small-pox,  at  Utrecht,  Feb.  5,  1718,.  m  hi» 
forty -second  year.  He  was  a  man  of  an  excellent  disposi- 
tion,  and  of  great  humanity  and  modesty,  of  great  learn- 
ing, and  had  a  correspondence  with  the  most,  eminent 
scholars  of  his  time. 

He  wrote  and  published  a  great  number  of  works,  in 
order  to  promote  and  illustrate  sacred  and  oriental  learn- 
ing ;  the  chief  of  which  are  these ;  **  De  Religiooe  Mo- 
hammedica  libri  duo,*'  1705,  12mo.     The  first  book  con«» 
tains  a  short' account  of  the  faith  of  the  Mahometans,  ii> 
an  Arabic  manuscript  with  a  Latin  translation ;  the  second 
vindicates  them  from  doctrines  and  imputations  falsely, 
charged  apon  them.     A  second  edition,  with  great  addi**- 
tions,  was  printed  in  1717,  12mo.     *^  Dissertationum  Mis- 
cellanearum  Partes  Tres,"  1706,  1707,  1703, 12mo.  These 
three  parts  are  not  always,  found  together.    They  comprize 
thirteen  dissertations  upon  the  following  curious  subjects: 
«  De  situ  Paradisi  Terrestris  ;'*  "  De  Mari  Rubro  ;"  "  De. 
Monte  Garizim ;"   "  De   Ophir  ;'*   "  De  Diis  Cabiris ;" 
<*  De  Veteri  Lingua  Indica;?*  ^*  De  Samaritanis;'*  "De 
Reliquiis  veteris  lingUBB  Persicse ;"  "  De  Persicis  vocabulis 
Talmudis;*'  ^^'Dejure  Militari  Mohammedanorum  contra 
Christianos  bellum  gerentium  ;*'  '*  De  Unguis  InsuJarum 
quarundam  orientalium ;''  ^'  De  Unguis  Americaoi^  ;*'  "  De 
Gemmis  Arabicis."     His  next  work  was,  ^^  Antiquitates- 
SacrsB  Veterum  Hebrseorum,"  1708,  12mo;  but  the  best 
edition  is  that  of  1717,  12mo,  there  being  many  additions. 
He  then  published  ^^  Dissertatlones  Quiuque  de.Nummis 
veterum  Hebraeorum,  qui  ab  inscriptarum  literarum  forma 
Samaritani  appellantur.    Accedit  dissertatio  de  marmoribus 
Arabicis  Puteolahis,''  1709,  12mo.     But  his  greatest  wojrk 
was  "Pals^stinaex  monumentis  vejieribus  illustrata,  &  cbar- 
tis  Geographicis  accuratioribus  adornata,.^'  Trigect.  ,1714^ 
2  vols.  4to.     This  edition  is  superior,  in  all  respects  to  that 
of  Nuremberg,  1716,  4to.     ^' De  Spoliis  Templis  Hiero* 
solymitani  in  arcu  Titiano  Romas  conspicuis  liber,  ca A 
figuris>"  1716^  l2mo. 

R  E  L  A  N  p.  133 

lUlaiid  publisbed  qoany  smaller  tbiiigs  of  his^own,  among 
ivhicb  were  Latin  poems  and  orations;  and  was  also  con- 
cerned as  an  editor  of  books  written  by  others.  His  works 
are  all  in  Latin,  and  neatly  printed.' 

REMBRANDT  (Van  Ryn),  an  eminent  painter  and 
engrayer,  was  born  at  a  Tillage  nealr  Leyden,  in  1606. 
The  real  name  of  bis  family  was  GERR£TSZy  but  from  having 
resided  early  in-  life  at  a  village  upon  the  banks  of  the 
Rhine,  he  obtained  that  of  Van  Ryn.  Of  his  personal 
history  we  have  very  few  particulars.  His  father  was  a 
mijler.  After  an  unsuccessful  attempt  to  avail  himself  of 
the  advantages  of  a  college  education  at  Leyden,  he  is 
said  to  have  been  indebted  for  bis  earliest  instruction  as  a 
painter  to  Jacques  Vanzwaneaburg.  He  afterwards  studied 
under  Peter  Lastman  at  Amsterdam^  under  whose  name  a 
print  is  in  ^circulation,  which  the  author  of  the  supplement 
to  the  worka  ^  Rembrandt  denominates  **  Lot  and  his 
Daughter/'  but  which  is  intended  to  represent  Judah  and- 
Tamar.  Had  this  print,  says  Rembrandt's  late  biographer^ 
been  in  fact  the  production  of  Lastman,  it  would  have  ap- 
peared that  Rembrandt  had  been  much  indebted  to  his  pre- 
ceptor, as  well  for  the  manner  of  his  execution  in  his  etch* 
ings,.  as  for  the  style  of  his  design  ;  but  it  is  the  work  of 
Van  Noordt,  probably  after  a  design  of  Lastnuin,  and  is 
certainly  posterior  in  poin.t  jof  time  to  many  of  those  of 

Rembrandt  was  first  brought  into  notice  by  having  taken 
•a  picture  to  the  Hague,  and  offered  it  for  sale  to  an  able 
connoisseur;  who,  conscious  of  his  merit,  treated  him  with 
4cindnesi$,  and  gave  him  a  hundred  ftorins  for  iu  By  this 
.  incident  both  hiinself  and  the  public  were  made  acquainted 
with  his  worth  ;  and  hence  aros^  the  reputation'  and  suc« 
xess  he  afterwards  enjoyed.  Incessant  ^occupation  soon 
crowded  upon  him,  and  many  pupils  applied  for  admission 
into  his  school,  with  each  of  whom  ^he  received  100  florins 
a  year ;  and  whose  copies  of  his  pictures  he  uot  unfre- 
quently  sold  as  orig>ifials,  after  bestowing  a  short  time  upon 
them  himself.  By  these  means,  aided  by  incessant  in* 
<)ustry,  and  the  sale  of  etchings,  which  he  produced  with 
<great  facility  and  skill,  lie  accumulated  considerable 
wealth :  his  income,  according  u»  Sandrart,  being,  for  a 
length  of  time,  at  least  2500  florins  yearly, 

*  Clen.  I)ict.*-Niccron,  vol.  h — BunnaD  Trajcct.  Erudil.— rSaxii  Onomast. 

134  R  E  M  B  R  A  N  9  T. 

His  pl»ce  of  re^idence^  diiring  this  8.<ic0e$6ful  diiqplay  of 
hU  talents,  was  Amsterdam,  where  bis  peculiarities  pro-* 
cured  him  the  character  of  a  humourist,  whilst  his. abilities 
astonished  and  delighted  his  contemporaries,  and  he  pro« 
duced  those  works  which  .still  gratify  si^cceeding  ages.  The 
peculiarities  of  his  mind  are  as  much  obseryable  in  the 
manner  of  producing  his  effects,  as  in  the  choice  ofthe 
luaterials.  The  execution  of  his:  earlier  works  waa  in  a 
style  highly  laboured,  with  great  ue^cbness,  and  patient 
completion  of  the  figure^ ;  such  is.  that  of  the  pictiure  of 
the  woman  taken  in  adultery  atMnAugec^tein'^  As  .he 
advanjc^d  in  arj^  he  took  liberties  with  the  pencil,  wixstught 
lyith  all  the  broad  fnloess  of  the  brushi  aad  left  the  tohch 
iindisturbed :  he  eveti  employed  the  stick,  the  pallet-katifei 
or  his  fingers,  accor4ingly  as  they  were  most  capable  of 
producing  the  effect  he  desired  when,  seen  at  a  pi»per 
distance^  disregarding  the  ap{»earaace  of  the  mrork  upon*  a 
dosjer  inspection. 

,  la  his  pictures  is.exhibited  a  total  inattention  to  the  taste 
of  the  antique ;  he  is  e¥:eu  said  lo  hare  mcfde  it  a  subject  of 
ridicule,  and  to.  have  jocosely  denominated  a  coUeotroa  jof 
old  armoun  and  rich  jdresses,  which  he  had  collected^pd 
employed  to  study  and  paint  from,  ^^  his  antiques  J'  These 
he  evidently  used  as  his  models,  though  fi«qufSDtly  in  most 
heterogeneous  combinjition ;  but  by  an  innate  power  of  seiss*- 
ing  the  most  striking  effects  produced  by  light,  and  shade, 
superadded  to  the  most  perfect  mastery  over  the  .materials 
of  the. pallet,  healwaya  excited  an  interest,  either. by  ori^ 
gioality  or  beauty. 

It  is  not,  however,  the  approval  of  his  power  in  the  tech- 
nical part  of  the  art,  which  can  Oi  ought  to  satisfy  the  ob- 
server of  the  works  of  Rembrandt.  .He  wa^,-says  Fuseli,  a 
meteor  in  art.  Disdaining  to  acknowledge  the  usual  laws 
of  admission  to  the  Temple  of  Famej  he  hokUy  forged  his 
own  keys,  and  entered  and  took  possession  of  a  moat  coor 
spicuous  place  by  his  own  power.  He  was  undoubtedly  a 
genius  of  the  first  class  in  whatever  is  not.  immediately  re- 
lated to  form  or  taste.  :  |n  spite  of  the  most  portentous  de- 
formity, and  without  considering  the  speU  of.  his  .chiaro- 
scuro, such  were  his  powers  of  i\ature,.  such  the  grandeur, 
pathos,  or  si9iplicity,  of  his  composition,  from  the  most 
elevated  or  extensive  arrangement  to  the  ipeanest  or  jmost 
homely,  that  the  most  untutored  and  the  best  ctiltivated 
eye,  plain  common  sense  and  the  most  refined  sensibility. 


dwell  on  them  equally  enthralled.     Shakspeare  alone  ex-* 
cepted,  no  one  conrtbined  with  such  transcendant  excel- 
lence, so  many,  in  all  other  men,  unpardonable  faults,  and 
reconciled  us  to  them.     He  possessed  the  full  empire  of 
light  and  shade,    ahd  the  tints  that  float  between  them. 
He  tinged   his  pencil  with  equal  success  in  the  cool  oi^ 
dawt),  in  the  noon-tide  ray,  in  the  vivid  flash,  in  evanes- 
cent   twilight,   and  rendered   darkness  visible.     Though 
Aiade  to  bend  a  steadfast  eye  on  the  bolder  phaenomena  of' 
nature,  yet  he  knew  how  to  follow  her  into  her  calmest 
abodes,  gave  interest  to  insipidity  or  baldness,  and  plucked 
a  flower  in  ev^ry  desert.     Few  like  Rembrandt  knew  how' 
to  improve  ati  accident  into  a  beauty,  or  give  importance 
to  a  trifle.     If  ever  he  had  a  master,  he  had  no  followers. 
Holland  was  not  made  to  comprehend  his  power  :  the  suc- 
ceeding school  consisted  of  colourists,  content  to  tip  the 
cottage,  the  hamlet,  the  boor,  the  ale-pot,  the  shambles, 
and  the  haze  of  winter,  with  orient  hues,  or  the  glow  of 
setting  summer  suns. 

Mr.  Daulby,  Who,  in  his  late  **  Catalogue  of  the  works  of 
Rembrandt,''  has  appreciated  his  character  with  great  pre-* 
cision  and  perspicuity,  and  differs  not  much,  upon  the 
whole,  iirom  Mr.  Fuseli,  observes,  that  whatever  may  be 
thought  of  Rembrandt  as  a  historical  painter,  his  portraits 
are  deservedly  held  in  the  highest  esteem.  The  accuracy 
of  his  pencil  insured  a  striking  resemblance,  whilst  his  skill 
in  the  msLnagemeht  of  light  and  shadow,  and  his  thorough' 
acquaintance  with  the  harmony  and  eflect  of  his  tints, 
tabled  him  to  give  to  his  subjects  an  appearance  of  reality 
so  striking,  as  in  some  instances  to  have  actually  imposed 
on  the  senses  of  the  spectators.  Thus,  a  picture  of  his 
maid- servant  placed  at  the  window  of  his  house  in  Amster- 
dam, where  he  fixed  his  permanent  residence  about  1630, 
is  said  to  have  deceived  the  passengers  for  several  days. 
This  fact  is  at  least  authenticated  by  De  Piles,  who  bad  the 
curiosity  when  he  was  in  Holland,  to  inquire  after  this 
picture,  and  finding  it  was  well  penciled,  and  possessed  a 
great  force,  purchased  it,  and  esteemed  it  as  one  of  the 
highest  ornaments  of  his  cabinet.  All  Rembrandt's  pictures 
can  be  purchased  only  at  very  high  prices.  There  are 
many  fine  specitnens  of  them  in  this  country,  and  many  in 
the  royal  collection  at  Paris.  We  know  not,  however, 
whether  Rembrandt's  merits  are  not  more  familiar,  in  o;e- 
neral,  from  his  prints,  than  from  his  pictures.     Of  these. 

136  H  E  MB  R  A  NOT. 

ever  since  his  time,  collections  have  been  formed  in  ev^f 
part  of  Europe,  and  even  the  emulation  of  sovereigns  baa 
bpen  excited,  and  the  treasures  of  royalty  expended  in  tbcar 
acquisition.  \      .    ' 

His  prints,  which  are  partly  etchings,   and  partly  en- 
gravings, performed  with  the  point  of  the  graver  in  a  sin* 
gular  manner,  have  all  that  freedom  of  touch,  spirit,  aiid, 
greatness  of  effect,  discoverable  in  hi^  paintings,  supposing, 
them  to  be  assisted  by  the  variety  of  colours.     Considering, 
the  great  quantity  of  etchings  which  \ie  made,  we  cawnof; 
suppose  they  should  be  all  equally  well  executed,  or  equak 
in  value.     Mr.  Gilpin,  who  has  resolved  the.  expellence  :Of. 
Rembrandt  as  a  painter  into,  colouring  only,  observes  th%t 
his  prints,  deprived  of  this  palliative,  have  only  his  infe-o 
rior  quallBcations  to  recommend  them.     These,  be.  states, 
are,  expression  and  skill  in  the  management  of  light,  exe- 
cution, and  sometimes  composition.     His  expression  has. 
ipost  force  in  the  character  of  age.^    Hem^rks  as,  strongly, 
as  the  hand,  of  time  itself.     He  possesses  too,   in  a  grea^ 
degree,  that  inferior  kind  of  expresspn,  which  gives  its 
proper  and   characteristic  toqch  to  drapery,  fur,    metal^ 
and  every  object  he  represents.     His  management  of  light, 
consists  chiefly  in  making  a  very  strong  contrast,  which  b^s- 
often  a  gopd  effect ;  and  yet  in  many  of  his  prints^  therct  i^r 
1)0  effect  at  all ;  which  gives  us  reason  to  think,  he  eiiher* 
bad  no  principles,  or  published  such  prints  before  bis  prin*, 
ciples  were  ascertained.     His  execution  is  peculiar  to  him.- 
self     It  is  rough,  or  neat,  as  he  m^ant  a  sketch,  or  a^ 
finished  piece  ;  but  always  free  and  masterly^     It  produces^. 
its  effect  by  strokes  intersected  in  every  direction;  and 
comes  nearer  the  idea  of  painting,  than  the  execution  of 
any  other  master. 

There  is  perhaps  no  branch  of  collectorshipthat  exhibits 
more  caprice  than  that  of  prints  in  general,  or  of  Reqi- 
br^ndt's  prints  in  particular,  which  appears  by  the  different 
estimation  in  which  the  same  subject,  is  held,  merely  on; 
account  of  a  slight  alteration  in  some  unimportant  part. 
Mr.  Daulby  instances  this  in  tbe^  Juno  without  the  crown, 
the  Ooppenol  with  the  white  back-ground,  the  Joseph 
with  the  face  unshaded,  and  the  good  Sapnaritan  with  the., 
horse's  tail  white,  ^  which  are  regarded  as  inestimable  l 
whilst  the  sarhe  subjects,  without  these  distinctions,^  are; 
considered  as  of  little  comparative  value.  Strutt  mentions, 
that,  in  consequence  of  a  commission  from  an  eminent  coU 


lector,  he  gave  foity-MiC  guineas  for  the  Coppenol  with  the 
white  back-gfound,  i.  e.  before  it  was  dniebed  i  when,  the 
tone  evening,  at  tbe  same  Bale,  he  bought  a  moiit  beautiful 
impression  of  tbe  sf  me  print  finished,  distinguished  by  hav- 
ing a  black  back<-gjround,  &c.  which  had  an  address  to  Rem* 
brandt  at  the  bottom,  written  by  Coppenol  himself  (for  he 
was  a  writing-master  of  Amsterdam,  and  this  print  is  his 
portrait),  for  fourteen  guineas  and  a  half.  In  the  second 
instance,  he  adds,  that  he  exceeded  his  commission  by  thjo 
balf  guinea ;  but  in  the  first  did  not  reach  it  by  nearly 
twenty  guineas.  Mr.  Dauiby  s^ems  to  be  of  opinion  that 
Rembrandt,  who  loved  money,  availed  himself  of  this  hu- 
Qiour  in  collectors.  Tbe  facility  with  which  be  could 
change  tbe  eifect  of  his  etchings,  by  altering,  obliterating,, 
or  workhigon  them  again,  enabled  him  to  provide  sufficient 
amusemeut  for  his  admirers  ;  and  hence  varieties  frequently 
occur  which  are  not  easily  explicable.  He  is  even  said  to 
have  frequently  suSered  himself  to  be  solicit^ed  before  be 
would  consent  to  dispose  of  them  ;  and  it  is  a  well-attested 
fact,  that  the  print  of  **  Chrisrhealing  the  sick,'*  usually 
denominated  the  *^  Hundred  Guelder,"  was  so  called  be-* 
cause  he  refused  to  sell  an  impression  of  it  under  that 
pcice.  Of  this  print  we  may  remark  that  it  is  generally. 
esteemed  the  chef  d^oeuvre  of  Rembrandt,  being  highly 
finished,  the  characters  full  of  expression,  and  the  effect; 
of  the  chiaroscuro  very  fine.  Gilpin  mentions  twenty  gui- 
neas, as  the  price  of  a  good  impression  of  this  print;  Mr.. 
Dauiby  thirty,  to  which  twenty  more,  we  are  assured,  must 
now  be  added.  Captain  Baillie  purchased  the  plate  in 
Holland,  and  retouched  it  for  publication,  in  1776,  at  four 
guineas  to  subscribers,  and  five  to  non-subscribers.  It  has 
since  been  cut  up,  but  there  are  ipnpressions  of  the  two 
groups  from  the  left  extremity,  one  above  the  other. 
Bembrand^^s  rarest  and  most  expensive  portraits  are  those 
of  Wtenbogardus,  called  in  Holland,  **  ihe  Goldweigher,'* 
and  in  France  "  the  Banker;"  Van  Tol,  the  advocate,  sold 
as  high  as  fifty-guineas  ;  and  the  burgomaster  Six,  of  equal, 
value*  This  burgomaster  was  Rembrandt^s  particular  friend 
and  patron,  and  had  the  largest  collection  of  his  prints 
that  ever  was  formed  in  his  life-time.  Strutt^lves  340 
as  the  number  of  Rembrandt's  prints  ;  but  the  largest  col- 
lection known,  that  of  M.  De  Burjyy,  at  the  Hague,  col- 
lected between  the  years  1728  and  1755,  consisted  in  tbe 
whole,  including  the  varieties,  of  655  prints. 


This  great  artist  died  at  Amsterdam  in  1  BBS,  or,  ae6ord-' 
log  to  some,  in  1674.  The  little  known  of  his  perBonel 
eharadter  is  not  favourable.  He  was  extremely  fond  of 
money,  and  not  very  scrupulous  in  his  mode  of  procuring- 
it.  He  is  also  represented  as  being  fond  of  low  company ; 
a  degrading  taste,  which  seldom  fails  to  affect  a  man's  pro-^ 
fession,  whatever  it  may  be.* 

REMIGIUS,  or  REMI  (St.),  a  celebrated  archbishop 
of  Lyons  in  the  ninth  century,  and  grand  almoner  to  the 
emperor  Lotharius,  succeeded  Amolo,  in.  the  above  see^ 
about  the  year  853  or  854. '  There  being  other  prelates  of 
this  name,  we  find  some  confusion  as  to  their  actions  and 
writings  ;  but  it  is  supposed  to  be  this  St.  Remigius,  who, 
in  the  name  of  the  church  of  Lyons,  wrote  an  answer  to 
the  three  letters  of  Hincmar  of  Rheims,  and  others,  ii> 
which  he  defends  St.  Augustine^s  doctrine  on  grace  and 
predestination,  which  he  apprehended  to  have  been  at-^ 
tacked  by  the  condemnation  of  Godescalc.  This  answer 
may  be  found  in  the  "  Vindiciae  Predestinationis  et  Gra- 
tise,"  1650,  2  vols.  4to,  and  in  the  Library  of  the  Fathers; 
as  also  a  translation  by  the  same  author,  *^  On  the  con- 
demnation of  all  men  in  Adam,  and  the  deliverance  of 
some  by  Jesus  Christ.*'  He  presided  at  the  council  of 
Valence  in  the  year  855,  and  others  of  the  same  kind ;' 
and,  after  founding  some  pious  institutions  died  Oct  28, 
in  the  year  875.  Others  of  his  works  are  in  the  "  Library 
of  the  Fathers."  • 

REMIGIUS,  or  REMI  (St.),  a  very  celebrated  arch- 
bishop of  Rheimsj  was  born  of  an  illustrious  family,  and  heir 
to  great  wealth.  He  was  raised  to  the  see  of  Rheims  about 
the  year  460;  distinguished  himself  by  his  learning  and 
virtue,  converted  and  baptised  king  Clovis,  and  die4  about 
January  23,  in  the  year  533.  Some  Letters,  and  a  Testa-: 
ment,  in  the  library  of  the  Fathers,  and  in  Marlot's  History 
of  Rheims,  are  attributed  to  him. ' 

REMIGIUS  of  Auxerre,  was  a  learned  French  Bene* 
dictine  monk  in  the  ninth  century,  and  brought  up  in  the 
abbey  of  St.  Germain,  at  Auxerre,  whence  he  derived  that 
appendix  to  his  name  by  which  he  is  distinguished.     Hav-^ 

1  Pilkington, — Daulby*t  <^  Di*8crfptiv«  Catotogoe,**  1796,  4to  atnd  Svo. — 
StruU's  Dictionary. — Gilpin*s  Eisay  on  Prints.— Argenviile,  vol.  .111.— Sif  J. 
Keynolds's  Works  j  see  Index. 

•  Cave,  vol.  1. — Duprn. 

3  Cave,  vol.  1. — Fabric.  Bib!.  Lat.  Med. 

R  E  at  I  G  I  U  S.  139 

jn^  ma^  ^r£»t  pf bficie^jcfy  iq  profane  and  isocred  lkera« 
ture^  he  wai  appointed  principal  teacher  in  the  scfaooli 
%ietaagihg't6  his  monastery^  9ind  afterwardi  taught  at  Rbeioift 
viith- great  reputation,  until;  he  went  to  Paris,  and  opened 
tfa^.firist  public  school  in  that  city,  after  learning,  had  sunk 
unde):!tbe  jravages  of  the  Normans.  His  works  are,  U 
<'  CoDimentarius  in  omnes  Daridis  Psalmos,"  Cologne^ 
tSMf  aihfithodtzed  collection  of  opinions  from  the  fathers.. 
ii.  ^^  Enarrationes  in  posteriores  XI.  minores  Propfaetat,^ 
Aatnierp,  1545,  with  the  ^<  Commentaries'*  pf  Oecume^ 
nius  upon  the  Acts  of  the  Apostles,  and  their  Epistles, 
«|nd  ihose  of  Aretbas  upon  the  book  of  Revelation  ;  and 
^f  Exppsitio  Missa;.*'  A  ^''Conoimentary  upon  the  Epistles 
ef  St.  Paul,'^  has  been  also  ascribed  to  him,  but  on  doubt* 
ful  authority.  It  is  more  certain  that  he  left  behind  hiol 
f^  A  Commentary  on  the  Musical  Treatise  of  Martianus 
.Capella,"  which  is  among  the  MSS.  in  the  king  of  France's 
library.  No;  5304.  * 

RENAU  D'ELISAGARAY  (Bernard),  an  able  naval 
architect,  was  born  in  1^52,  in  Beam,  descended  from  the 
ancient  bouse  of  Elisagaray  iu  Navarre.     The  count  de 
Vermandois,'  admiral  of  France,  engaged  his  services  in 
16791,  by  a  pension  of  a  thousand  crowns;  and  his  opinion 
jponcerning^the  construction  of  ships  was  preferred  to  that 
of  M.  Duguesne,   even  by  that  gentleman  himself.      In 
consteqiience  of  this,  Benau  received  orders  to  visit  Brest 
and  th0  other  ports,  that  he  might  instruct  the  ship-buil- 
ders, whose  sons  of  fifteen  or  twenty  years  old  he  taught 
ito  build  the  largest  ships,  which  bad  till  then  required  the 
experience  of  twenty  or  thirty  years.     Having  advised  the 
Ibombardment  of  Algiers  in  1680,  he  invented  bomb*boats 
ibr  that  ea:peditton,  and  the  undertaking  succeeded.  After 
the  admiral's  decease,  M.  Vauban  placed  M.  Renau  in  a 
situation  to  conduct  the  sieges  of  Cadaquiers  in  Catalonia, 
of  Pfailipsburg,  Manheim,  and  Frankendal.     In  the  midst 
of  this  tumultuous  life  be  wrote  his  *^  Th^orie  de  la  ma- 
DGsuvre  des  Vaisseaux,"  which  was  published  1689,  Svo. 
The  king,  as  a  reward  for  M.  Kenan's  servicest,  made  him 
captain  of  a  ship,  with  orders  that  he  should  have  free  ac* 
cess  to,  and  a  deliberative  voice  in  the  councils  of  the  ge- 
nerals, an  unlimited  inspection  of  the  navy,  and  authority 
4;o  teach  the  pfficers  any  new  methods  of  his  invention ;  to 

A  Cave,  vol.  I.— Dupia. 


140  R  E  N  A  U. 

"whicb.-  was  added  a  pension  of  12,000  jfivret.  The  grand 
master  of  Malta  requested  his  assistaMe  to  defend  that 
island  against  the  Ttriics,  who  were  expected  to  besiege 
it;  but  the;  siege  not  taking  place,  M.  Renau  went  back 
to  France,  and  on  his  return  was  appointed  cooosellor  to 
the  iiavy,  and  grand  .croix  of  St«  Louis.  He  died  Sept. 
30,  1719.  ,He  had  been  adnutted  an  honorary  member 
of  the  Academy  of  Sciences  in  1699.  He  has  left  several 
Letters,  in  answer  to  the  objections  raised  by  Huy gens  and 
Bernouilli  against  his  Theory  abovementioned*  He  was  a 
man  of  reflection,  read  little,  but  thought  much ;  and,  what 
appears  a  greater  singularity,  he  meditated  more  deeply 
when  in  the  midst  of  company,  where  he  was  frequently* 
found,  than  in  solitude,  to  which  he  seldom  retired.  He 
was  very  short,  almost  a  dwarf,  but  adroit,  lively,  witty, 
brave,  and  the  best  engineer  which  France  has  produced, 
except  M.  de  Vaiibaa.  * 

RENAUDOT  (Eusebius),  a  French  writer,  very  learned 
]R  Oriental  history  and  languages,  was  born  at  Paris  in 
1646  ;  and,  being  taught  classical  literature  by  the  Jesuits^ 
and  philosophy  in  tbe  college  of  Harcourt,  afterwards  en- 
tered into  the  congregation  of  |pe  oratory,  where  he  did 
not  continue  long.  His  father  b^ing  first  physician  to  the 
daupbiq,  he  was  early  introdued  to  scenes,  where  his  parts, 
his  learning,  and  his  politeness,  made  him  admired.  His 
reputation  was  afterwards  advanced  aad  established  by  se- 
_vcural  learned  works,  which  he  published.  In  17O0,  heat-^ 
tende.d  cardinal  de  Noailles  to  Rome;  and  receivied  great 
bonqi^rs,  together  witli  tbe  priory  of  Frossey  in  Bretagne, 
from  popp  Clement  y.  Returning  by  Florence  be  was 
honoured  in  the  santie  manner  by  the  great  duke  ;  and  was 
also  m.ade  a  men)ber  of  the  academy  Crusca.  On  iiis 
returii  to  France  be  devoted  himself  entirely  to  letters, 
and  composed  a  great  number  of  learned  dissertations,, 
which  are  printed  in  the  "  Memoirs  of  the  Academy  of 
Inscriptions,"  of  which  he  was  a  member,  as  well  as  of  the 
French  academy.  He  died  in  1720.  Voltaire  blames  him 
for  having  prevented  Bayle's  dictionary  from  being  printed 
in  France.  This  is  v«ry  natural  in.  Voltaire  and  Voltaire's 
followersi;  but  it  is  a  more  serious  objection  to  Renaudot, 
that,  while  biB  love  of  learning  made  him  glad  to,  corre- 
spond with  learned  Protestants,  his  cowardly  bigotry  prer 

I  Cbaufepie.— Diet.  Hist. 


Tented,  him  from  avowiiig  the  connection.  Not  long  before 
Dr.  Pocock's  death  that  eminent  orientalist  received  a  letter 
from  Renaudot,  in  which  he  professes  a  very  high  esteem* 
for  the  doctor,  desires  the  liberty  of  consulting  him  in  alL 
the  doubts  that  should  occur  in  preparing  his  **  Collection 
of  Liturgies/^  &c.  and  promises,  in  return  for  this  favour, 
to  make  a  public  acknowledgment  of  it,  and  preserve  a 
perpetual  memory  of  the  obUgation  ;  yet,  when  the  above . 
work  appeared,  be  travelled  out  of  his  way  to  reproach 
Dr.  Pocock  with  a  mistake,  which  was  perhaps  the  only  one , 
that  could  be  discovered  in  his  writings. 

Renaudot  bequeathed  his  extensive  library  to  the  abbey . 
of  St.  Germain  des  Pres.     His  works  are,  a  collection  of. 
controversial  pieces  on   the  celebrated  work   respecting 
"  the  perpetuity  of  the  Faith  f  "  Historia  Patriarcharum 
Alexandrinorum  Jacobitarum,''  1713,  4to,  &c.     "  A  Col- 
lection of  ancient  Greek  and  Oriental  Liturgies,"   1716, 
2  vols.  4to.     <^  Two  ancient  Accounts  of  the  Indies  and 
China,  with   learned  remarks,' '   1718,  &vo.     "A  Defence 
of  the  Perpetuity  of  the  Faith,"  8vo,  against  Aymon's 
Book.     Several  Dissertations  in  the  Memoirs  of  the  Aca- 
demy of  Inscriptions.     *^  Defense  de  THistoire  des  Patri-  . 
arches  d' Alexandria,"  12aio.     A  Latin  translation  of  '^The  . 
Life  of  St.  Athanasius,"  written  originally  in  Arabic,  and 
inserted  in  the  edition  of  this  Father's  works  by  Muntfaa- . 
con,  &c. '  . 

RENAUDOT  (THE0PHRi5TUs),  a  physician,  and  a  man 
learned  in  many  respects,  is  said  to  have  been  the  first  au- 
thor of  Gazettes  in  France  in  1631.     He  was  born  at  Lou- 
dun  in   1583,  and  died  at  Paris,  where  he  had  spent  the. 
greatest  part  of  his  life,  in  1653.     He  left  besides  his  Ga- 
zettes, a  continuation  of  the  "  Mercure  Fran^oise"  from  , 
1635  to  1643,  in  25  vols.  8vo,  the  last  six  of  which  are  the 
worst;  but  the  most  scarce  were  published  by  Renaudot. . 
He  wrote  also  "  Abr6g6  de  la  Vie  et  de  la  mort  de  Henri  ^ 
de  Bourbon^  prince  de  Gondii"   1646,  4to;  "  La  vie  et'la 
mort  du  Mar^chal de Gassion,"   1647,,  and  "The  Life 
of  Cardinal  Michael  de  Mazarin,"  brother  of  the  prime 
minister  of  that  name,  1648,  4to.^ 

RENNIGER  (Michael),  or,  as  Wood  says,  commonly 
called  Rhanger,  a  learned  divine  and  Latin  poet,  was  born 

*  Nieefon^  YOls.  XIL  and  XX.— Moreri. — Diet.  Hist.*— Twells*s  Life  of  Pococic> 
p.  80.  «  Diet.  Hi8t.--Moreri. 

142  k  E  N  N  I  G  E  R. 

in  Hamf^irei  in  1*529,  and  educated  ait  Magcblen  bdleg^ 
Oxford.  Her6  he  took  his  bachelor's  degriee,-  in  Marcii 
T54f5*y  was  chosen  fellow  in  1547^  and  aftei^wards  completed 
bis  ihaster's  degree.  In  king  Edward^s  reign^  he  was  mudb 
esteemed  as  a  pious  preacher,  and  learned  nian;  but  as  be 
bad  embraced  the  reformed  religion,  he  was  obligied'  to' 
leave  the  kingdom  on  the  accession  of  queen  Mary,  an'tf 
lived  mostly  with  some  other  English  exiles  at  Strasburgfa., 
When  queen  Elizabeth  came  to  the  throne,  he  was  made 
one  of  her  chaplains,  and  proved  a  zealous  champion  for 
the  reformation.  Wood  says  he  refused- several  preferments, 
accepting  only  a  prebend  in  the  church  of  Winchester,  and 
about  the  same  time  the  rectory  of  Crawley  near  that  city*.' 
In  1567  he  was  installed  precentdr  and  prebendary  of  Enl- 
pingham  in  the  church  of  Lincoln.  In  1573,  he  took  his 
degrees  in  divinity,  and  in  1575  was  made  archdeacon  of 
Winchester.  In  1583,  he  had  the  prebend  of  Rjfeculver- 
land,  in  the  church  of  St.  Paul,  Londoh,' bestowed  on  bitn; 
He  died  Aug.  26,  1609,  aged  eighty-nine,  and  was  btrHed- 
in  the  church  of  Crawley,  under  the  communion  table. 

His  works  are,  1.  <^  Carmina  in  mortem  duorumfratrunt 
Suffolciensium,  Henrici  et  CaroH  Brartdon,"*  Lond.  1552, 
4to.  A  specimen  from  this  rare  volume  is  given  in  Mr. 
Bliss's  edition  of  the  ^^  Athence,**  from  a  copy  in  the  Bod- 
leian. 2.  *^  De  Pii  V.  et  Gregorii  XIII.  furoribus  contra 
Elizabetham  Reginam  Anglise,"  ibid.  1582,  8vo.  3.  *^  An 
Exhortation  to  true  love,  loyalty,  and  fidelity  to  her  ma- 
jesty," ibid.  1587,  8vo,  to  which  is  added  a  treatise  against^ 
Treasons;  and  4.  **  Syntagma  hortationumtid  Jacobum  Re- 
gem  AnglitB,"  ibid.  1604,  8vo.  He  also  translated  from 
Latin  into  English,  bishop  Foynet^s  "  Apology  or  Defence 
of  Priests*  marriages.'*  Bale,  who  gives  Dr.  R6nniger  a 
high  character,  attributes  other  works  to  him,  but  withotit 
specifying  whether  in  MS.  or  print ;  and  there  are,  if  we 
mistake  not,  some  of  his  MSS.  in  Bene*t  college  library.^ 

REQUENO  (Vincente),  a  learned  Spanish  Jesuit,  was 
born  in  Grenada  about  J  730.  After  a  liberal  education,  h\ 
which  he  made  great  proficiency  in  philosophy  and  matbe* 
niatics,  and  discovered  much  taste  for  the  fine  arts,  he 

't'  In  1561,  bishop  Qrindatl  put  choose  a  provost  of  Eton ;  but  Reniiiger, 
down  his  name  among  the  persons  being  a  married  man,  was  rejected  witU 
from  whom    queen  Elizabeth   might     some  others  in  the  same  situation. 

1  Tanner  and  Bale.-*Ath.  Ox.  toI.  L  n«w  edit.— Stryp^'g  life  jof .  Pariwr,  ^. 

R  E  Q  U  E  N  a  14$ 

tetired  to.  Italy  on  the  expulsion  of  his  order.  Tn  17  M  ha 
9^0t  to  the  society  opened  in  Madrid .  tof  the  fine  arts,  a 
oneaioir  which  gained  the  Qrst  prize;  and.  in  17S8  be  car-* 
med  off  the  prize  proposed  by  the  academy  of  Seville* 
These  two  memoirs,  which  were  printed  in  1789,  at  Seville^ 
met  with  the  approbation  of  all  the  foreign  literiiry  JQurnals; 
He  had  already  obtained  considerable  fame  on  the  conti- 
nent from  his  elaborate  work,  printed  at  Seville  in  1766, 
on  the  ^'  Roman  Antiquities  in  Spain,''  and  had  contributed 
very  much  to  Masdeu's  critical  and  literary  history  of  Spain, 
printed  in  1781,  &c.  'But  perhaps  he  is  best  known  to 
artists  and  mea  of  taste,  by  his  <^  Saggi  sul  ristabilimento 
4eir  antica  arte  de'  Greci,  e  de'  Romani  Pittori,"  vol.  I. 
Venice,  1784.  The  second  edition  of  this  elegant  work 
vas  published  in  2  vols.  8vo,  at  Parma,  by  Mr.  Joseph  Mo-* 
lini  in  1787,  The  author's  object  was,  as  the  title  indi-^ 
catea,  to  investigate  and  restore  the  ancient  art  of  Grecian 
and  Roman  painting,  and  therefore  in  his  (irst  volume  he 
give»  a  circumstantial  account  of  encaustic  painting  as 
pra4;ti^^d  by  the  ancients,  by  which  the  lustre  of  their  works 
is  preserved  to  this  day.  He  proves  that  they  not  only 
used  the  encaustic  art  in  painting,  but  em|)Ioyed  it  in  var^ 
Dishing  their  statues,  and  even  their  litensiis,  ships,  houses, 
&c.  After  descanting  on  the  disadvantages  that  arise  from 
painting  in  oil,  he  discloses  the  method  of  preparing  the 
materials  employed  in  encaustic  painting,  with  the  manner 
of  using  them.;  and  substantiates  this  system  by  the  opi- 
nions of  many  members  of  the  Clementine  academy  of 
Bologne,  and  of  several  professors  of  the  academies  of  Ve- 
nice, Verona,  Padua,  &c.  also  of  others  who,  beside  him- 
self, have  tried  them ;  particularly  at  Mantua,  where  under 
the. patronage  of  the  marcfuis  Bianchi,  many  pictures  were 
panted,  of  which  Requeno  gives  an  account.  Artists, 
however,  have  not  in  general  been  very  forward  to  adopt 
this  plany  which,  as  the  author  explains  it,  differs  very 
qauch  from  what  has  been  proposed  by  Count  de  Caylus, 
dochin,  Bachelier,  Muntz,  and  others.  The  abb6  Requeno 
vdied  at  Venice  in  1799.* 

.  RESENIUS  (John  Paul),  a  learned  Danish  divine,  was 
the  son  of  a  Lutheran  clergyman,  and  bom  in  Jutland,  Feb. 
2,  1561.  After  his  grammatical  education,  he  went  to  the 
university  of  Copenhagen,  and  was  afterwards  made  co- 

1  Diet.  Hist  Supplement. 

144  "  R  E  S  E  N  I  U  S- 

rector  of  the  school  of  Vibourg.  In  1585,'  beiiig*appoii!(^ 
tutor  to  the  young  Frederick  Koseokrantz,  be  travelled  with 
him  through.  Germany,  France,  Italy^  &c.  for  seven  yeard, 
part  of  which  we  must  suppose  was  spent'  in  studying  at 
some  of  the  universities.  On  his  return  in  1592,  he  was 
appointed  philosophical '  professor  in  ordinary,  and  after* 
wards  extraordinary  professor  of  divinity  in  the  university 
of  Copfsphagen.  In  J  594,  having -been  created  doctor  inf 
that  faculty,  he  removed  to  the  chair  of  ordinary  professor. 
In  1606,  when  the  king,  Christiern  VI.  paid  a  visit  to  his 
ralation,  king  James,  in  England,  who  had  married  his 
sister,  Resenius  accompanied  him  as  his  chaplain.  In 
1615  he. was  appointed  bishop  of  Rdscbildt  in  Zealand^ 
which  he  held  until  his  death,  Sept  14,  1638,  ag^d  seven^^ 
ty-seven.  He  was  a  man  of  great  liberality,  and  bestowed 
in  the  course  of  his  life  5500  crowns  on  schools  and  hospi^ 
tals.  Besides  a  translation  of  the  Bible  into  the  Danish 
laqguage,  published  in  1605 — 7,  he.  published  a  great  num- 
ber of  theological  dissertations  and  sermpns  in  the  same 
language ;  and  the  following  works :  *^  Parva  logica,"  La-^ 
tin  and  Danish,  1605,  1610;  *'  Institutiones  geometricae,^ 
1612;  "Parva  rhetorica,''  1619;  **  Scholia  in  arithmeti-^ 
cam  GemmaB  Fjrisii,'*  1611;  and  ^*  De  sancta  fide  in  Deum, 
libellus  apologeticus,"  Latin  and  Danish,  1614.^ 

RESENIUS  (Peter  John),  probably  of  the  same  family 
as  the  preceding,  a  counsellor  and  professor  in  Copenha^ 
gen,,  was  born  there  June  17,1625.     His  father  and  his 
grandfathers,  both  by  the  father's  and  mother's  side,  were 
bishops  of  Zealand.     He  was  appointed  subf-principal  of 
the  college  of  Copenhagen  in  1646;  and  having  quitted 
that  employment  the  following  year,  he  set  out  to  visit  fo- 
reign countries.     He  studied,   during  four  yearsj    polite 
literature  and  law  in  the  university  of  Leyden,  after  which 
lie  went  into  France,  Spain,  and  Italy.     He  remained  a 
whole  year  in  Padua,  where  he  applied  himself  chiefly- to^ 
the  study  of  the  civil  law  ;  was  elected  counsellor  of  the 
Oerman  nation  in  that. city ;  and  vice-syndic  of  the  univer-' 
sity,  in  which  quality  he  made  a  speech  in  the  senate  ot 
Venice,  and  obtained  a  privilege  for  that  university;  and 
before  he  left  Padua  he  took  bis  doctor's  degree  in  law,  the 
i  ith  of  September,  1653.    He  returned  to  Denmark  by  the: 
way  of  Germany,  and  was  appointed  professor  of  moral- 

'  Morert.  • 

ft  £  S  E  N  I  U  9.  Hi 

philosophy  in  the  university  of  Copenhagen,  Noremi>er 
^25^  1657 f  afterwards  consul  of  that  city,  counsellor  of  ihe 
supreoie  council ;  and  lastly,  president  of  Copenhagen^ 
jand  counsellor  of  justice.  He  was  ennobled  the  18th  of 
.January,  1680,  and  treated  counsellor  of  state  the  6th  of 
May,  1664.  He  formed  a  very  fine  library,  which  he  left 
to  the  university  of  Copenhagen,  the  catalogue  of  which 
.was  printed  at  Copenhagen,   1685,  4to. 

His  works  are,  1.  **  Edda  Snorronis  Sturlesonii  triplici 
lingua  Islandica  &  LatinV  1665,  4to.  2.  <V£dde  S«- 
mundiance  pars  dicta  havamaal,  complexa  Ethicam 
Odini:  estque  &  islandic^  &  Latine,'*  1665^  4to.  3» 
**  Eddoe  Sseoiaudianee  voluspa,  continens  Philosophiam 
Danorum,  Norvegorumque  antiquissimam,  additis  Gudmun- 
di  Andrese  Islandi  annotationibus,**  1665,  and  1673,  4to» 
4.  <<  Inscriptiones  Havnienses,  Latinee,  Danicae,  &  Gerr 
manic® ;  una  cum  addita  narratione  de  Tycbone  Braheo 
diversisque  ipsius  et  sororis  ipsius  SophisB  Brahese  epistolis,** 
1668,  4to.  5.  <*  Jus  aulicum  vetus  Regum  Norvegorum^ 
dictum  HIRDSKRAA,''  1673,  4to,  6.  *<  Havnise  deline^ 
atio  topographica  in  esre  expressa,  un^  cum  brevi  partium 
&  locorum  enarratione,  Danice  &  Germauice,^*  1674.  7. 
*^  Samsoee  descriptio  &  delineatio  cum  figuri^,**  1675,  foK 
8»  *^  Friderici  II.  Hist  Danice. in  folio  cum  figuris,**  1675» 
9.  *<  Lexicon  Istandicum  Gudmundi  Andrees  Islandi,  cuni 
pra;fatione  de  ejusdem  vita,*^  1683,  4to.  10.  **  Leges 
Cimbricae  Valdemari  secundi  Regis  Danici,  Germanice,  in- 
terprete  Erico  Krabbio,  equite  Danico,*'  1684,  4to.  Ih 
*^  Legea  civiles  &  ecclesiasticse  Christian!  Secundi,'*  &c. 
1684,  4to.^ 

RETZ  (John  Francis  Paul  De  Gondi),  a  celebrated 
cardinal,  was  born  in  161^.  He  was  a  doctor  of  the  Sor-*- 
bonne,  and  afterwards  coadjutof  tobis  uncle  the  archbishop 
of  Paris ;  and  at  length,  after  many  intrigues,  in  which  his 
restless  and  unbounded  ambition  engaged  him,  became  a 
cardinal/  This  extraordinary  man  has  drawn  his  own  cba«^ 
racter  in  his  Memoirs,  which  are  written  in  a  very  unequal 
manner,  but  are  generally  bold,  free,  animating,  and  pleas- 
ing, ^nd  give  us  a  very  lively  representation  of  bis  conduct. 
He  was  a  man  who,  from  the  greatest  degree  of  debauchery, 
and  still  languishing  under  its  consequences,  preached  to 
the  people^  and  made  himself  adored  by  them.  He  breath- 

*  Moreri.-^6eD4  Diet— Freberi  TheatrQm.-^Sax}l  Onomftitiooft. 

Vol.  XXVL  L 

146  -         H  E  T  Z. 

ed  nothing  but  the  spirit  of  faction  and  sedition.  At  the 
hge  of  twenty-three^  he  had  been  at  the  head  of  a  conspi- 
racy against  the  life  of  cardinal  Richelieu.  It  has  beeh 
«aid  that  he  was  the  first  bishop  who  carried  on  a  war  with- 
out the  mask  of  religion  ;  but  his  schemes  were  so  unsuc- 
cessfuli  that  he  was  obliged  to  quit  France.  He  then 
went  into  Spain  and  Italy,  and  assisted  at  the  conclave  at 
Rome,  which'  raised  Alexander  YIU  to  the  pontificate ; 
but  this  pontiff  not  making  good  his  promises  to  the  cardi- 
nal)  he  left  Italy,  and  we^t  into  Getmany,  Holland,  and 
England.  A(^er  having  spent  the  life  of  an  exile  fbr  five 
or  six  years,  he  obtained  teave  upon  certain  terms  to  return 
to  his  own  country;  which  was  the  more  safe^  as  his  friend 
cardinal  Mazarine  died  in  1661.  He  wa^  afterwards  at 
Rome,  and  assisted  in  the  conclave  which  chose  Clement 
IX. ;  but,  upon  his  return  to  France,  gave  up  all  thoughts 
t>f  ptxblic  affairs,  and  died  at  Paris,  Aug.  24,  1679.  The 
latter  part  of  his  life  is  said  to  have  been  tranquil  and  ex«- 
emplary.  At  this  period  he  wrote  his  Memoirs,  in  which 
there  is  a  considerable  air  of  impartiality.  In  order  to  judge 
of  this,  however,  the  reader  is  advised  to  compare  them 
with  those  of  Claude  Joti,  his  private  secretary.  Both 
works  have  been  published  in  English,  the  former  in  1774, 
4  Vols,  the  latter  in  1775,  3  vols.,  l2mo.  Some  friends, 
with  whom  the  cardinal  entrusted  the  original  MS.  fix^d  a 
mark  on  those  passages,  where  they  thought  he  had  disfao*^ 
noured  himself,  in  order  to  have  them  omitted,  as  they 
were  in  the  first  edition  ;  but  they  have  since  been  restored. 
The  best  French  editions  of  these  Memoirs  are  those  of  Am* 
sterdam,  1719,  7  vols.  12mo,  and  1731,  4  vols,  small  8vo.. 
This  cardinal  was  the  author  of  other  pieces;  but  these, 
being  of  a  temporary  kind,  v^iitten  as  party  pamphlets  to 
aerve  particular  purposes,  are  forgotten.* 

REUCHLIN  (John),  a  learned  German,  who  contributed 
tnnch  to  the  restoration  of  letters  in  Etirope,  was  born  at 
Pforzheirtx  in  1450.  His  parents,  perceiving  his  talents 
and  turn  for  books,  were  easily  persuaded  to  give  him  a 
liberal  education,  and  sent  him  to  Paris,  then  the  Seat  of 
literature  in  these  western  pafts^  with  the  bishop  of  Utrecht} 
where  he  studied  grammar  under  Joannes^  Lapide,  rheto** 
ric  under  Gaguinus,  Greek  under  TIphernas,  and  Hebrew 
tinder  Wesselus.     Being  returned  to  his  own  country^  b^ 

-1  Mor6ri.-^Dict.  Hi^t.^VoStaiv^a  i^iecle  de  lifttris  XiV. 


took  the  degree  of  doctor  in  philosophy  at  Basil,  where  be 
lived  four  years;  then  went  to  Orleans  to  study  the  law, 
and  was  admitted  doctor  in  1479.  He  taught  the  Greek 
language  at  Orleans,  as  he  had  done  at  Basil ;  and  com- 
posed and  printed  a  grammar,  a  lexicon,  some  vocabula' 
ries,  and  other  works  of  a  like  nature,  to  facilitate  the  study 
of  that  language.  By  ell  this  he  gained  extraordinary  re- 
putation; for,  the  knowledge  of  the  two  languages  was  at 
that  time  so  rare  an  accomplishment,  that  it  was  actually 
made  a  title  of  honour.  This  appears  from  the  following 
inscription  of  a  letter :  *^  Andronicus  Contoblacas,  natione 
GraecuB,  ntriusque  linguae  peritu?,  Joanni  Reuchiino,^'  &c. 
that  is,  <<  Andronicus  iContoblacas,  a  Greek,  skilled  in  both 
languages,  to  John  Renchlin,*'  &c. 

After  some  time,  Eberhard,  count  of  Wirtemberg,  being 
to  make  the  tour  of  Italy,  Reuchlin  was  chosen  among 
others  to  attend  him ;  chiefly  because,  during  his  residence 
in  France,  he  had  corrected  bis  own  Gi^rman  pronianciatioh 
of  the  Latin,  which  appeared  so  rude  and  savage  to  the  Itar 
liians.  They  were  handsomely  received  at  Florence  by  Lo- 
renzo de  Medicis,  the  father  of  Leo  X.  and  became  ac- 
quainted wfth  many  learned  men  there,  as  Chatcondylas^ 
Ficinus,  Politian^  Picus  earl  of  Miranduta,  &c.*  They  pro- 
ceeded to  Rome,  where  Hermolaus  Barbarus  prevailed 
with  Reuchlin  to  change  his  name  to  Capnio,  which  signi- 
fies the  same  in  Greek  as  Reuchlin  does  in  German  ;  that 
is,  iw^kt.  Count  Eberhard  entertained  so  great  an  estieem 
for  Capnio,  so  he  Was  afterWards  called,  that,  upon  his  re- 
turn to  Germany,  he  made  him  ambassador  to  the  etnperoir 
Frederic  IIL;  who  conferred  many  honours  upon  him,  and 
made  him  many  presents.  He  gave  him  in  particular  ah 
ancient  Hebrew  manuscript  bible,  very  neatly  written, 
with  the  text  and  paraphrase  of  Onkelos,  &c.  Frederic 
died  in  1493;  and  Capnio  returned  to  count  Eberhard, 
who  died  also  about  three  months  after  the  emperor :  when, 
an  usurpation  succeeding,  Capnio  was  banished.  Here- 
tired  to  Worms,  and  continued  his  studies  :  but  the  elector 
Palatine,  having  a  cause  to  defend  at  Rome  sorte  time 
after,  selected  him  as  the  ablest  man  for  his  purpose ;  and 
accordingly,  in  1498,  Capnio  made  ati  oration  before  the 
pbpe  .arid  cardinals  concerning  the  rights  of  the  German 
princes,  and  the  privileges  of  the  Gerriaan  churches.  He 
remained 'more  than  a  year  at  Rome ;  and  had  so  much  lei- 
ftmre  as  to  perfect  himself  in  tbe^  Hebrew  tongue  tinder  Ab- 



^Urnh  ft  Jew,  and  also  in  the  Greek  under  Argyroipylris.  He 
had  some  trouble  in  bis  old  age  by  an  unhappy  differeaetf 

'  with  the  divines  of  Cologne,  occasioned  by  a  Jew  named 
PfeiSerkofn.  This  man,  of  whom  we  have  already  given  a 
brief  adcodnt  (see  PFEFFRRCoaN),  to  shew  his  zeal  for 
Cbristiaftity,  advised  that  all  the  Jewish  books,  except  the 
Bible,  should  be  burnt;  but  the  Jews  having  prevailed  on 
the  emperor  to  allow  them  to  be  examined  firs^  Capnio, 
who  was  tiniversally  acknowledged  lo  excel  in  this  kind  oJF 
learning,  was  appointed  by  the  elector  of  Mentz,  under 
the  authprity  of  the  emperor,  to  pass  a  judgment  upon  theses 
writings.  Capnio,  who  bad  too  much  gooil  sense  to  adopt, 
in  its  full  extent,  this  wretched  policy,  gave  it  as  hisopi-^ 
nion,  that  no  other  books  should  be  destroyed,  but  those 
which  were  found  to  be  written  expressly  against  Jesuf 

^Christ,  lest,  with  the  Jewish  books  on  liberal  arts  and  ser- 
ences,  their  language  itself,  so  important  to  the  churchy 
should  perish.  This  opinion  was  approved  by  the  emperor, 
and  the  books  were  by  bis  authority  restored  to  the  Jews. 
Pfefferkorn  and  bis  supporters  were  exceedingly  enraged 
against  Cs^pnio,  and  pursued  him  with  invectives  and  accu- 
sations even  to  the  court  of  Rome.  His  high  reputation  in 
the  learned  world,  however,  protected  him ;  and  bigotry 
met  witbn  mosi  mortifying* defeat  in  hii  honourable  ac-» 

The  spleen  of  the  ecclesiastics  against  Capnio  was  stiU 
ftirtber  increased  bj  ft  comedy  abounding  with  keen  satire,- 
which  this  writer,  whose  genius  was  not  inferior  to  bt» 
learning,  ptoduced ;  the  chief  design  of  which  was  to  e«* 
pose  the  ignorance  of  the  monks.  It  was  at  fir^t  only  cif* 
culated  in  manuscript,  but  afterwards  found  its  way  into 
the  press,  and  was  published  in  1507.     In  the  latter  part  of 

'  his  Ufe/  the  advafrsaries  of  Capnio  had  too  much,  reason  to 
exult  over  him  ;  for  notwithstanding  all  his  learning  and 
celebrity,  be  was  scarcely  able,  by  teacbipg  the  Greek  and 
Hebrew  languages  (which  he  did  in  several  different  schools) 
to  preserve  himself  from  absolute  want;  nor  must  it  be 
forgot  that  be  was  th«  preceptor  of  Melancthon.  He  spent 
his  las<  days  at  Trebingen,  where  he  died  in  1522..  His 
.faculties,  which  were  naturally  vigorous^  were  cultivated 
with  great  industry;  His  mind  was  richly  stored  with  vari- 
joua  eruditior^and  bis  character  was  eminently  distinguished 
l^y  probity  and  urbanity.  His.principal  wprks.were,  "  An 
Epitome  of  the  History -of  the  four  £mpires;"  the  ^'Life 


0f  Constantine  tbe  Great,"  fr6in  Eusebios;  "  De  VeAo 
mififico/-  "  De  Arte  Cabalistica,*'  and  **  Letters  from 
teamed  meny*^  Zurich,  1558.  He  is  also  supposed,  but 
unjustly,  to  have  been  the  chief  author  of  the  celebrated 
iirork,  entitled  **  Epistolae  Obscurorum  Virorum,"* 

REVES  (James  de),  or  Revius,  a  learned  Dutch  divine, 
the  son  of  a  burgomaster  of  Deventer,  was  born  in  1586, 
and  educated  at  Amsterdam,  Leyden,  and  Franeker.     In' 

^  1610  he  travelled  into  France  for  farther  improvement,  and 
resided  two  years  at  Saumur,  Rochelle,  and  Orleans. 
Having  taden  orders,  be  was,  in  1641,  chosen  principal 
and'  first  professor  of  the  theological  college  of  the  states 
of  Holland  and  West  Friedand  at  Leyden.  He  died  at 
.Leyden  in  1658,  at  the  age  of  72.     His  works  five  very 

'  iHHneroos ;  the  principal  are,  **  Belgicarum  Ecc1esiastjica«> 

"rum  Doctrina  et  Ordo,"  &c.;  ".  Historia  Pontificam  Ro- 

manorum  contracta,  et  ad  Annum  1632  continuata  ;*'  '^Da* 

.  Ventrite'  illustrates,  sive  Histories  Urbis  Daventriehsis,'* 
Lib.  vi.  1 65 1,  4to.  He  also  pubiished  ^n  improved  edition 
cf  "The  Book  of  Psalms,"  in  Dutch  verse,  by  Pjstcr  I?.a- 
thenas,  and  be  was  concerned  in  revising  the  Dutc^  yer- 
sMn  of  the  CHd  Testament^ .  which  wm  prin.ted  at.  Leyden 
in  1637.* 

REVI€KZKY,  or  REVITSKY  (Count  Charles),  a 
German  statesman,  but^  more  known  as  an  accomplished 
scholar  and  bibliographer,  was  bori^'  if)  Hungary  Nov.  4, « 
1787.  Among  bis  other  diplomatic  appointnients  he  re* 
sided  for  some  years  in  London  as  envoy  from  tbe  Imperial 
court,  and  afterwards  in  a  private  capacity.  He  died  at 
Vienna  in  August  1793. 

With  great  judgment,  and-  at  a  considerable  expence, 
be  collected  a  library  most  rich  in  scarce,  valuable,  and 
beautiful  books,  and  obtained  suph  fiime  in  this  depart* 
ment  of  literature,  as  to  be  ranked  with  the  Vallieres, 
Pinellis,  and  Lomenies  of  tbe  day.  Of  thii  excellent  li- 
brary, he  printed  a  deiBcriptive  catalogue  under  the  title  of 
^  BibKotheca  Greca  et  Latina»  compTectens  auctores  fere 
omnes  Gp^ecise  et  Latii  veteris,  &c.  cum  delectu  editionum 
turn  p'rimariarum,  principum^  et  rarissimariifny  quum  etiam 
optimarum,  splendidissimarum,  atqae  nittdissimarum,  quas* 
Usui  mei  paravi  Periergus  DfiLTOPHiLtTSy**  Berlin,    1784^ 

»  Melchior  Ad«iD«^Nicefoii»  vol.  XXV^^Hody  de  Gmeis  liliiAriVM.-->]>«. 
jiin. — CaVe. — Saxit  Onboiftst. — Brack«r. 

*  Nio$roii»  vol.  XXX.— Foppen  B;M.  B«lf  ,— ||[«Ywi. 

150  R  E  V  I  C  K  Z  K  V. 

1794,  8yo*  To  some  of  these  catalogues  Were  prefixed  a 
letter  to  M.  L..A.  D.  ^»  tf.  Denina,  and  a  preface.  Three 
aupplements  to  this  catalogue  were  afterwards  published  by 
him,  which  are  not  easily  procurable.  Although  the  su* 
perlatives  in  the  title  smack  a  little  of  the  dealer,  rather 
than  the  private  gentleman,  the  count  has  not  exceeded 
the  bounds  of  truth,  and  perhaps  few  men  were  better 
qualified  to  form  a  collection  deserving  of  such  praise^ 
with  the  boundless  zeal,  he  had  also  the  extensive  know-^ 
ledge  of  a  collector,  and  understood  and  spoke  readily  the 
principal  ancient  and  modern  languages.  His  frequent 
removes  made  him  acquainted  with  every  public  and  pri* 
vate  library  on  the  continent ;  and  he  never  missed  an  op*^ 
portunity  to  add  to  his  collection  whatever  was  most  curi-» 
ous  and  valuable  at  sales,  or  booksellers*  shops.  Tbb 
library  is  now  in  England,  and  in  the  possession  of  a  noble* 
man  who  knows  its  value,  and  whose  own  library  at  pre- 
sent exceeds  that  of  any  subject  in  Europe.  When  cQunt 
Revickzky  came  to  London,  he  made  an  offer  to  earl 
Spanser  to  dispose  of  the  whole  collection  to  his  lordship. 
What  the  terms  were  is  variously  reported.  It  seems 
^reed,  however,  that  it  was  for  a  sum  of  money  to  be  paid 
immediately,  and  an  annuity,  which  last  the  count  did  not 
live  long  to  enjoy.  The  count  was  himself  an  author,  and 
published  the  **  Odes  of  Hafez,*'  known  here  by  Richard-* 
son's,  translation ;  a  treatise  on  Turkish  tactics ;  and  an 
edition  of  Petronius,  Berliti,  1735,  Svoj  formed  oq  the 
editions  of  Burman  and  Antonius.  ^ 

REYHER  (Samuel),  a  German  lawyer  and  mathemati^ 
cian,  was  born  April  19,  1635,  at  Schleusingen  in  the  county 
of  Henneberg,  and  was  educated  at  Leipsic  and  Leyden. 
Be  was  afterwards  appointed  preceptor  to  the  young  prince 
of  Gotha,  then  professor  of  matbems^tics  at  Kiol,  16,55, 
and  some  years  after  professor  of  law  in  the  same  place, 
where  be  died  Nov.  22,  1714,  being  then  counsellor  to 
the  duke  of  Saxe  Gotha,  and  member  of  the  Royal  Academy 
of  Sciences  at  Berlin.  Reyber  translated  Euclid's  works 
into  Germap  with  algebraical  demonstrations,  and  wrote 
aeveral  works  iu  Latin,  among  which,  that  entitled*  **  Ma^ 
thesis  Biblica/'  and  a  very  curious  Dissertation  on  the  Io« 
scriptious  upon  our  Saviour's  cross  and  the  hour  of  bis 
crucifixion,  are  particularly  esteemed.^ 

1'  Gent.  Mag.  vol.  LXIV.— Dibdin's  Bibliomania  ami  Classics. 
9'  Moreri.— 'Diet.  Hist. 

R  E  Y  N  E  A  U,  151 

KEYNEAU  (Charles-Rcne),  commonly  called  Fat^ec 
ReyneaUy  ^  noted  French  mathematician,  was  born  at 
Bris^ac^  in  the  province  of  Aiyou,  in  1656.  At  twenty 
years  of  ^ge  he  entered  himself  in  the  congregation  of  the 
Oratory  at  Paris,  and  was  isqou  after  sent,  by  his  superiors, 
to  teach  philosophy  at  Pejsenas,  and  then  at  Toulon.  His 
employment  requiring  some  acc^uaintance  with  geometry^ 
he  contracted  a  great  affection  for  this  science,  which  he 
Qultivated  and  improved  to  so  great  an  extent,  that  he  was 
called  to  Angers  in  1683,  to  nil  the  mathematical  chair ; 
and  the  acadamy  of  Angers  elected  him  a  member  in  1694. 

In  this  occupation  Father  Reyueau,  not  content  with 
making  himself  master  of  every  thing  worth  knowipgi 
vjrhipb  the  modern  analysis,  so  fruitful  in  sublime  specula- 
tions and  ingenious  discoveries,  had  already  produced, 
undertook  to  reduce  into  one  body,  for  the  use  of  his  scho<r 
lars,  the  principal  theories  scattered  here  and  tber^  in 
Newton,  Descartes,  Leibnitz,  3ernouilli,  the  I^eipsic  Acts, 
the  Memoirs  of  the  Paris  Acad^^my,  and  in  other  works ;, 
treasures  which  by  being  so  widely  dispersed,  prpved 
much  Icisg  useful  than  they  otherwise  might  have  been. 
The  fruit  of  this  undertaking,  was  bis  "  Analyse  Demon- 
tr^^,*'  or  Analysis  Demonstrated,  which  he  published  in 
1708|  3  vols,  4to,  He  gave  it  the  n^me  of  *' Analysis 
Demonstrated,''  because  he  demonstrates  in  it  aeveral  me- 
thods  which  had  not  been  handled  by  the  authors  of  the(n| 
with  sufficient  perspicuity  and  exactness.  The  book  wa$ 
so  well  approved,  that  it  soon  becarne  a  ^laxjm,  at  least  in 
France,  that  to  foUov^  him.waa  the  best,  if  not  the  only 
wayi  to  make  any  extraordinary  progress  in  the  mathema* 
tics  I  and  be  was  considered  as  the  first  master}  .a^  the 
Euclid  of  the  sublime  geometry. 

Reyneau,  after  thus  giving  lessons  to  those  who  uiider-> 
stood  something  of  geoipetry,  thought  proper  to  draw  up 
some  for  such  as  were  utterly  unacquainted  with  thf^t 
science,  This  produced  in  1714,  a  Tolume  in  4to,  on  cal- 
qulntion^  under  the  title  of  ^^  Science  du  C^lcul  des  bran- 
deur»»"  of  which  the  then  censor  royal,  a  very  intelligent 
apd  impartial  judgCi  says,  in  his  approbation  of  it,  that 
<<  though  several  books  had  already  appeared  upon  t!^^ 
si^me  9ubjeptf  such  a  treatise  as  that  beror^  him  was  still 
vfanting,  as  in  it  every  thing  was  h^indled  in  a  manner  suf- 
ficiently extensive,  and  at  the  same  time  with  all  possible 
exactness  and  perspicuity.^'     In  fact^  though  most  branches 

152  R  E  Y  N  E  A  U. 

of  tbe  mathematics  bad  been  well  treated  of  before  that 
period,  there  were  yet  no  good  elements,  even  of  practical 
geometry.  Those  who  knew  no  more  than  what  precisely 
such  a  book  ought  to  contain,  knew  too  little  to  complete 
a  good  one ;  and  those  that  knew  more,  thought  tbem« 
selves  probably  above  the  task,  for  which  Reyneau  was  well 
qualified.  In  17 16  he  was  admitted  into  the  royal  academy 
of  sciences  of  Paris,  as  what  was  then  called  a  free  assq* 
ciate.  The  works  already  mentioned  are  alt  he  published 
except  a  small  piece  on  *^  Logic/^  He  left,  however,  in 
MS.  materials  for  a  second  volume  of  his  ^^  Science  du 
Calcul.''  He  died  much  regretted,  as  he  bad  always  been 
highly  respected,  in  1728,  at  the  age  of  seventy-two.  ^ 

KEYNOLDS  (Edward),  an  English  prelate  of  great 
eminence  and  talents,  the  son  of  Austin  Beyuolds,  one  of 
the  customeiB  of  Southampton, '  was  born  there  in  Novem-^ 
ber  1599^  and  educated  at  the  free-school.  In  1615  he 
became  post*master  of  Merton-college,  Oxford,  and  in 
]62Q  probationer^fellow,  for  which  preferment  hie  was  in*: 
debted  to  his  proficiency  in  the  Greek  language,  and  bis 
talents  as  a  disputant  and  orator.  After  he  had  taken  his 
master's  degree  he  went  into  orders,  and  was  made  preacher 
at  Lincoln's-inir,  where  he  acquired  much  popularity.  He 
^Iso  was  preferred  to  the  rectory  of  Braynton  in  Northamp- 
tonshire. Finding  himself  inclined  to  acquiesce  in  tfae:^ 
breach  that  was  to  be  made  in  the  church  at  least,  if  not' 
tbe  state,  when  the  rebellion  broke  out  in  1642,  he  joined 
the  presbyterian  party,  and  in  1643  was  nominated  one  of- 
the  assembly  of  divines,  took  the  covenant,  and  frequently 
preached  before  the  long  parliament.  That  he  was  in  their 
eyes  a  man  of  high  consideration,  appears  from  their  nam-^ 
ing  him,  in  September  1646,  one  of  the  seven  divines  au* 
thorized  by  parliament  to  go  to  Oxford,  and  to  preach  in 
any  church  of  that  city,  in  lieu  of  the  preachers  appointed 
by  the  university.  -  , 

In  this  mission  he  and  bis  colleagues  were  at  first  inter* 
rupted  by  certain  enthusiasts  among  the  soldiers,  headed 
by  one  Erbury,  who  maintained  that  the  ordination  of  these 
divines  was  unlawful,  and  that  no  ordination  was  necessary 
for  any  man  who  had  gifts.  Thiff  was  a  favourite  topic  in 
those  days,  and  is  not  yet  exhausted.  In  the  foUo  whig  year 
he  was  nominated  to  thel  more  obnoxious  office  of  one  of 

'  *  .  t 

*.  MartiQ'ff  Biog.  FliUM»-^HattdS*8  DicU-^M.oreru  ^ 


the  visitors  of  the  university,  and  in  Feb.  1 648  was  chosen 
vice-ohaneellor,  on  the  recommendation  of  the  earl  of 
Pembroke,  then  chancellor  of  the  university.  In  this  last 
office  he  was  to  continue  until  August  1649.  He  was  also^ 
by  a  mandate  from  parliament,  which  now  was  supreme  in 
ail  matters,  created  D.  D.  In  March  1 648  he  was  ap- 
pointed dean  of  Christ  church,  in  the  room  of  Dr.  Fell^ 
who.  was  ejected  with  no  common  degree  of  violence,  Mrs. 
Fell  and  her  family  being  literally  dragged  out  of  the 
deanery  bouse  by  force.  Dr.  Reynolds  being  admitted  into 
office  in  form,  Wood  says^  *^  made  a  polite  and  accurate 
ontition,^'  in  Latin,  in  which^  ^'  he  spoke  very  modestly  of 
himself,  and  how  difficult  it  was  for  a  man  that  had  ses 
questered  himself  from  secular  employments  to  be.  called 
to  government,  especially  to  sit  at  the  stern  in  the&e  rough 
and  troublesome  times;  but  since  be  bad  subjected  himself 
to  those  that  have  authority  to  command  him,  he  did  de-^ 
sire  that  good  «i(ample  and  counsel  might  prevail  more  ia 
this  reformation  than  severity  and  punishments^**.   . 

Notwithstanding  bis  acting  with  bis  brother-visitors  in 
all  the  changes  and  ejectments  they  brought  about  in  the 
university,  he  at  length  refused  the  erigagement  <'  to  be 
true  and  faithful  to  the  commonwealth  of  Englaud,  as  esta- 
blished without  a  King  and  a  House  of  Lords,**  and  there- 
fore was  in  his  turn  ejected  from  his  deanery,  in  165i« 
H«  lived  afterwards  mostly  in  London,  and  preached  there, 
as  vicar  of  St.  Lawrence-Jury.  On  the  prospect  of  the 
restoration  he  joined  with  general  Monk,  to  bring  in  the 
king,  using  his  interest  for  that  purpose  in  London,  where 
be  was  the  pride  and  glory  of  the  presbyterian  party.  Tiu 
Pierce,  in  the  ii^troduction  to  bis  **  Divine  Purity  defend- 
ed,** says  he  was  a  person  of  great  authority  as' well  as 
fame  among  tiie  Calvinists. 

When  the  secluded  members  were  admitted  ag^in  to 
parliament,  they  restored  him  to  his  deanery  of  Christ- 
cburcb,  in  May  1659.  And  in  May  following,  1660,  be^ 
whh  Mr.  Edmund  Calamy,  was  made  chaplain  to  his  ma- 
jesty, then  at  Canterbury.  After  this  he  preached  several 
times  before  the  King  and  both  Houses  of  Parliament ;  and 
in  the  latter  end  of  June,  being  de^ed  to  quit  his  deanery, 
he  was  the  next  month  elected,  by  virtue  of  the  k4ng*r 
letter,  warden  of^^le£ton*college,  and  was  consecrated 
bishop  of  Norwieh  Jan.  6,  the  same  year.  Sir  Thomas 
prowne,  who  knew,  him  well,  gives  bim  the  character  pf  91 


person  of  singular  affability,  in^knes9»  and  bumibiy,  of 
great  learning,  a  frequent  preacher,  and  constant  resident, 
Bnt  a  more  full  account  of  our  author  is  given  in  a  funeral 
sermon  preached  at  Norwich  by  the  reverend  Mr,  Riveley, 
in  July  1676,  in  which  his  character  as  a  man  of  piety  and 
learning,  and  as  a  divine  and  prelate,  is  highly  praised. 
Wood,  in  his  *^  Athenoe,"  says  he  was  "  a  person  of  ex^- 
cellent  parts  and  endowments,  of  a  very  good  wit^  fancy, 
and  judgment,  a  great  divine,  and  much  esteemed  by  ail 
parties,  for  his  preachings  and  fluid  style.''  In  his  ^^  An* 
nals"  he  is  incHned  to  be  less  favourable.  It  was  perhup^ 
naturally  to  be  expected  that  one  who  had  taken  so  active 
a  part  in  the  revolutionary  changes  of  the  times,  and  yet 
afterwards  accepted  a  bishopric,  should  not  be  much  a 
favourite  with  either  party.  Wood  also  insinuates  that 
Dr.  Reynolds  was  much  under  the  government  of  his  wife, 
whom  be  calls  **  covetous  and  insatiable,"  and  concludes 
in  these  words :  ^^  In  this  I  must  commend  him,  tliat  be 
hath  been  a  benefactor  (though  not  great)  to  Merton-col- 
lege,  that  gave  him  all  his  academical  education  (for  which 
in  some  manner  the  society  hach  shewed  themselves  grate^ 
ful),  ai)d  'tis  very  probable  that  greater  he  would  have 
been,  if  not  hindered  by  his  beloved  consort." 

Dr.  Reynolds  assisted  at  the  Savoy  conference,  and  on 
the  first  day,  according  to  Neal,  spoke  much  for  abate* 
ments  and  moderation,  *^  but  afterwards  sitting  among  tbo 
bishops,  he  only  spoke  now  and  then  a  qualifying  word, 
but  was  heartily  grieved  for  the  fruitless  issue  of  the  con«* 
ference."  The  same  author  says  that  he  was  *^  prevailed 
with  to  accept  a  bishopric  on  the  terms  of  the  king's  de- 
claration, which  never  took  place,"  But  another  of  bia 
biographers  says,  *^  His  education  gave  him  no  prejudice 
to  monarchy  or  episcopacy ;  and  when  a  man  can  ad* 
vance  himself  with  a  good  conscience,  why  may  he  not 
leave  what  interest  only  had  engaged  him  in  i  Let  theo^ 
that  blame  his  last  turn,  justify  him,  if  tbey  can,  in  the 
former.  He  was  now  submitting  to  authority,  however  be 
had  opposed  it.  Their  standing  out,  and  keeping  up  e 
schism,  when  they  were  put  upon  nothing  but  what  they 
owned  indifferent,  has  a  worse  look  than  returning  frotn 
wrong  to  right,"  &c.  Dr.  Reynolds,  however,  after  the 
government  was  completely  re-establisbed,  became  a  con*' 
stant  resident  in  his  diocese,  and  mixed  no  more  with 
affairs  of  ttete.    He  died  at  the  episcopal  palace  at  Nor* 

R  R  y  N  O  L  D  S.  16$ 

wicbjan.  16,  1676|  ftg^d  seventy <>six.  He  was  bdrieid  at 
the  upper  end  of  the  chape)  (buUt  by  hirnseif  in  i662) 
joi^niog  to  the  bishop's  palace  in  Norwich.  Over  bis  grave, 
^pn  after  bis  death,  was  fastened  to  the  wall  a  niaiH>le 
table,  on  which  bis  epitaph  in  Latin  was  engraven. 

His  works  are,  "  The  Vanity  of  the  Creature,"  on 
Ccelfs.  i.  14.  ^*  Sinfulness  of  Sin,"  on  Rom.  vii.  9,  and 
on  vi.  13.  "  Use  of  the  Law,"  on  Roro.  vii.  13.  "  Life 
of  Christ,"  on  )  John,  v.  12.  '^  An  ExpU<:ation  of  the  ex 
Psalm.''  '*  Meditations  on  the  Holy  Sucrament  of  the 
Lord's  last  Supper,"  **  Explication  of  the  14  Chapter  of 
Uosea,  in  seven  Humiliation  Sermons."  <^  A  Treatise  of 
the  Passions  and  Faculties  of  the  Soul  of  Man;"  all  or  most 
of  which  having  been  printed  several  times  in  4to,  were 
collected  in  one  lar^e  folio  at  London  in  1658,  with  the 
author's  portrait,  and  w^nt  by  the  name  of  '^  Bishop  Rey- 
nolds'^ Works,"  They  were  much  bought  up,  read  and 
recomaiended  by  men  of  several  persuasioiis ;  and  are 
written  in  a  style  superior  to  the  generality  of  works  of 
divinity  in  that  age.  "  Thirty  Sermons"  preached  on 
several  occasions,  betweea  1634,  and  bis  death,  some 
of  ^bich  bad  been  printed  several  times,  were  reprinted 
in  the  second  edition  of  his  works,  at  London,  1979,  folio. 
Among  them  is  bis  Latin  Sermon  preached  at  Oxon.  1649^ 
entitled  **  Animalis  Homo,"  on  1  Cor.  ii.  14.  He  also 
wjTOte  the  '^  Assembly  of  Divines'  Annotations,"  on  Eccle* 
ais^tes,  which  were  so  much  admired  that  many  learned 
m^D  of , the  presbyterian  persuasion,  wished  that  the  rest 
had  been  all  wrote  parish  K  firuditione.  He  also  was  the 
author  of  the  '^  Epistolary  Preface  to  William  Barlee's  Cor* 
reptory  Correction,"  &c,  of  some  notes  of  Thomas  Pierce 
concerning  God's  decrees,  espec  id  tiy  of  reprobation ;  which 
booky  with  the  Epistolary  preface,  a  second  of  Thomas 
Whitfield,  and  a  third  of  Daniel  Cawdrey,  sometime  of 
jCambridge,  were  <  printed  at  London,  1656,  4to.  He  is 
abo  said  to  be  the  author  of  ^'  The  bumble  Proposals  of 
aiHidry  learned,  pious  Divines  within  this  Kingdom,  coot 
cerning  the  engagement  intended  to  be  imposed  on  them 
for:  their  subscriptions,"  London,  1650,  4to,  One  sheet 
iwas  published  in  December  1649.  John  Ducy  pub<» 
jisbed  an. answer,  entitled  ^^  Just  Re^proposaU  to  bum^ 
ble  Proposals:  or,  an  impartial  consideration  of,"  &c. 
London,  1650,  4to,  four  sheets.  And  it  is  probable  that  he 
wrote  several  other  things  besides  those  above-mentioned ; 


particularly  his  ^^  Meditations  on  tb^  Fall  of  Peter,^*  a 
short  twelves,  never  inserted  in  any  of  the  folio  editions. 

Of  the  family  of  bishop  Reynolds  we  find  mention  of  hit 
son  Edward,  who  was  educated  at  St.  Paul's  school,  and  a 
fellow  of  Magdalen-college,  Oxford,  archdeacon  of  Nor« 
wich,  and  prebendary  of  Worcester.  He  was  also  for  forty 
years  rector  of  St.  Peter's  Northampton,  and  died  in  hii 
sixty-ninth  year,  June  28,  1698.  He  was  buried  in  Kings- 
thorpe  church,  near  Northampton,  where  is  a  monument 
and  inscription  to  his  memory.  Dr.  Knight  says,  he  was 
^  a  very  able  and  judicious  divine,  and  a  very  worthy  son 
of  so  good  a  father.''  Some  notices  of  two  of  the  bishop's 
descendantfi  may  be  found  in  Cumberland's  life.  \ 

REYNOLDS  (Henry  Revell),  a  late  eminent  physi- 
cian, was  born  in  the  county  of  Nottingham,  Sept.  26, 
1745;  and  his  father  having  died  about  a  month  before^ 
the  care  of  hin  devolved  on  his  maternal  great-uncle  and 
godfather,  Mr.  Henry  Revell,  of  Gainsborough  ;  by  whom 
he  was  sent,  at  an  early  age,  to  a  school  at  Beverley  in 
Yorkshire,  then  in  great  repute  under  the  government  of 
Mr.  Ward.  Having  early  shewn  a  disposition  for  his  pro- 
fession, his  uncle  placed  him,  at  the  age  of  eighteen,  a^  a 
commoner  at  Lincoln  college,  Oxford.  It  was  in  the  se- 
cond year  of  his  residence  at  this  university  that  he  bad 
the  misfortune  to  lose  his  uncle  and  benefactor,  the  die^ 
mory  of  whom  was  ever  cherished  by  him  with  a  bious  iLnd 
grateful  affection,-  and  who  left  him  a  small  landed  property 
in  Lincolnshire,  by  which  he  was  enabled  to  prosecute  the 
object  that  he  bad  in  view.  He  continued  at  Oxford  till 
the  early  part  of  1766,  when,  in  order  to  the  pbtaining  6f 
bis  medical  degrees  sooner,  he  was  admitted,  by  a  bene 
decessit  from  Oxford,  ad  eundem  to  Trinity  college,  Cam- 
bridge, and  he  kept  a  term  at  that  univefsity.  In  the 
summer  of  thro  year  he  went  to  Edinburgh,  and  resided' 
there  two  years,  and  after  attending  a  course  of  medical 
studies,  returned  in  1768  to  Cambridge,  when  the  degree 
of  bachelor  of  physic  being  conferred  upon  him,  he  went 
to  London,  and  attended  as  pupil  at  the  Middlesex  hospital. 

The  following  year  he  became  a  resident  physician  at 
Guildford;  and  married  Miss  Wilson,  in  the  oiionth  of 
April  1770.     By  the  advice,  however,  of  his  friend.  Dr. 

*  Atb.  Ox.  Tol.  II. — Wood*f  Annals. — Neal'i  Paritani. — Gent.  Mag.  toU 
LXX:Vlir.  p.  29^«LiTe8  of  English  Blsbopi,  1733,  Sto,  by  SaliQoiu^Kjiight't 


ttilcky  afterwards  Dr.  Hack  Saunders,  be  settled  in  Lon- 
don, in  Lamb's  Conduit-street,  in  the  summer  of  1772. 
Tbe  next  year  be  took  tbe  degree  of  doctor  of  physic  at 
Cambridge^  and  was  immediately  afterwards  elected  pby- 

''sician  to  the  Middlesex  hospital.  In  1774  he  was  chosen 
f  fellow,  and  at  tbe  same  time  a  censor,  of  the  college  of 
physicians.  He  soon  became  the  object  of  particular  no- 
tice and  regard  by  tbe  eminent  physicians  of  that  day,  doc- 
tors Huck,  Fothergill,  and  sir  Richard  Jebb ;  and  tbe  high 
opinion  which  tbe  latter  gentleman  bad  formed  of  bis  pro- 
fessional abilities,  and  personal  character  and  manners, 
and  tbe  consequent  expression  of  that  opinion,  and  recom- 
mendatipn  of  Dr.  Reynolds  to  bis  majesty,  were  the  ori- 
ginal cause  of  bis  being  called  into  attendance  upon  tbo 
king  in  the  memorable  period  of  1788.  In  1776  he  wim 
appointed  to  speak  the  Harveian  oration ;  and,  although 
his  modesty  would  not  suffer  biro  to  print  it,  it  has  been 
thought  worthy  of  being  compared  with  the  most  classical 
of  these  harangues.  In  the  course  of  it,  he  exactly  dor 
scribed  that  mode,  which  he  ever  observed,  of  performing 
the  various  duties  of  his  profession,  and  of  dispensing  its 
various  benefits.  In  1777  Dr.  Reynolds  was  elected  phy- 
sician to  St.  Thomas's  hospital ;  and  from  this  period  his 
business  gradually  increased,  till,  in  tbe  progress  of  a  few 
years,  he  attained  to  the  highest  fame  and  practice  in  his 

^.profession.  In  every  successive  illness  of  our  revered  so- 
vereign since  1788,  Dr.  Reynolds's  attendance  on  his  ma- 
j<^sty  was  always  required;  and  his  public  examinations 
before  parliament  are  recorded  proofs  of  his  high  merits  as 
a  physician,  a  gentleman,  and  a  scholar;  while  his  ap- 
pointments to  the  situations  of  physician  extraordinary  to 
the  king  in  1797,  and  physician  in  ordinary  in  1806,  evince 
the  estimation  in  which  his  sovereign  held  his  character 
and  his  services.     When  he  was  called  into  attendance  at 

'  Windsor,  he  was  suffering  under  a  rheumatic  affection, 
which  h^d  been  oppressing  him  for  some  time.  The 
anxiety  attiiched  to  such  an  attendance  as  tbe  illness  of  his 
xnajesty  required,  had  on  this  occasion  a  very  powerful,  if, 
not  a  fatal,  influence.  Tbe  first  day  that  he  seriously  felt 
the  fatigues  of  mind  and  body  was,  after  bis  examination 
before  the  House  of  Lords,  the  etiquette  of  this  branch  of 
parliament  not  allowing  a  witness  to  sit  down,  Dr.  Rey- 
nolds, who,  in  consequence  of  his  having  attended  his 
majesty  in  all  his  previous  similar  illnesses,  w»    examined 


at  greater  length  than  his  other  brethren  were,  was  kept 
st^ndingTor  t«ro  hours,  and  the  next  day  waii  reloctdmly 
compelied  to  remain  the  whole  of  it  in  his  bed.  Oft  the 
folioiying,  however,  he  retorned  to  Windsor ;  but  from 
this  time  hid  appetite  began  to  fait,  and  bis  strength  and 
flesh  visibly  to  diminish.  In  the  month  of  March,  181!, 
these  symptoms  had  sp  much  inereased,  that  his  (tiends 
besought  him  to  retire  from  his  anxious  attendance  at 
Windsor,  to  spare  his  mind  and  body  entirely,  ahd  to  dti- 
Tote  himself  solely  to  the  re-establishment  of  his  own 
health;  but  unfortunately  for  his  family,  his  friends,  and 
the  public,  he  would  not  be  persuaded.  While  any  powers 
were  left,  to  his  majesty's  service  he  resolved  that  they 
should  be  devoted  :  and  thus  he  persevered  till  the  4th  df 
May,  when  he  returned  to  London  extremely  ill ;  and 
from  that  day  his  professional  career  was  stopped.  Hav- 
ing been  confined  to  his  room  for  nearly  three  weeks,  he 
was  prevailed  upon,  by  his  excellent  friends  Dr.  Latham 
and  Dr.  Ainslie,  to  go  to  Brighton,  where  he  remained 
two  months.  Sometimes  during  this  anxious  period  h^ 
would  seem  to  rally,  but  the  appearances  were  deceitful ; 
they  were  the  mere  struggles  of  a  naturally  good  constitu- 
tion, unimpaired  by  any  intemperance,  against  the  inroads 
of  a  disease.  At  the  eiTd  of  the  month  of  July,  he  re- 
turned to  his  house  in  Bedford-square,  where  he  lingered 
until  Oct.  23,  on  which  day  he  expired,  very  deeply  re- 
gretted for  his  talents,  virtues,  and  professional  skill  and 
humanity  ' 

Rl.YNOLDS  (Sir  Joshua),  the  most  illustrious  painter 
of  the  English  school,  was  born  at  Plympton,  in  Devon- 
shire, July  16,  1723,  His  ancestors  on  both  sides  were 
clergymen.  His  father  had  no  adequate  provision  for  the 
maintenance  of  his  large  family,  but  appears  to  have  libe- 
rally encouraged  his  son's  early  attempts  in  that  art,  of 
which  he  afterwards  became  so  illustrious  a  professof. 
When  but  eight  years  of  age,  Joshua  had  made  himself 
master  of  a  treatise,  entitled  "  The  Jesuit's  Perspective,*' 
and  increased  his  love  of  the  art  still  more,  by  studying 
Richardson's  "  lYeaiise  on  Painting."  In  his  seventeen|:h 
year,  he  was  placed  as  a  pupil  under  his  countryman,  Mr. 
Hudson,  whom,  in  consequence  of  some  disagreement,  he 
left  in  1743,  and  removed  to  Devonshire?  for  three  years, 

1  Gent.  Maf.  vol.  LXXXII.  Part  If.  p.  82. 


during  which,  after  some  waste  of  time,  which  he  ever  la*- 
mented,  he  sat  down  seriously  to  the  study  and  practice  of 
his  art.  The  Brst  of  his  performances,  which  brought  him 
into  notice,  was  the  portrait  of  ca])tain  Hamilton,  father  of 
the  present  marquis  of  Abercorn,  painted. in  1746.  About 
this  time  he  appears  to  have  returned  to  London. 

In  1746,  by  the  friendship  of  captain  (afterwards  lord) 
Keppel,  he  had  an  opportunity  to  visit  the  shores  of  the 
Mediterranean,  and  to  pass  some  time  at  Rome.  The 
aketch  he  wrote  of  his  fetplings  when  he  first  contemplated 
the  works  of  Raphael  in  the  Vatican,  so  honourable  to  his 
modesty  and  candour,  has  been  presented  to  the  public 
by  Mr.  Malone,  and  is  a  present  on  which  every  artist  must 
set  a  high  value.  He  returned  to  LondoU  in  1752,  and 
soon  rose  to  the  head  of  his  profession  ;  an  honour  which 
did  not  depend  sottiuch  on  those  he  eclipsed,  as  on  bis 
retaining  that  situation  for  the  whole  of  a  long  life,  by 
powers  unrivalled  in  his  own  or  any  other  country.  Soon 
after  his  return  from  Italy,  his  acquaintance  with  I>r. 
Johnson  commenced.  Mr.  Boswell  has  furnished  us  with 
abundant  proofs  of  their  mutual  esteem  and  congenial 
spirit,  and  Mr.  Malone  has'  added  the  more  deliberate  opi- 
thion  of  sir  Joshua  respecting  Dr.  Johnson,  which  may  be 
introduced  here  without  impropriety.  It  reflects  indeed  as 
Much  honour  on  the  writer  as  on  tfale  subject,  and  was  to 
have  formed  part  of  a  discourse  to  the  academy,  which, 
from  the  specimen  Mr.  Malone  has  given,  it  is  much  to  be 
rec;retted  he  did  not  live  to  finish. 

Speaking  of  his  own  discourses,  our  great  artist  says, 
"  Whatever  merit  they  have,  must  be  imputed,  in  a  great 
measure,  to  the  education  which  I  may  be  said  to  have  had 
under  Dr.  Johnson.  I  do  not  mean  to  say,  though  it  cer- 
tainly would  be  to  the  credit  of  these  discourses  if  I  could 
say  it  with  truth,  that  he  Contributed  even  a  single  senti- 
ttient  to  them :  but  he  qualified  my  mind  to  think  Justly. 
No  man  had,  like  him,  the  faculty  of  teaching  inferior 
minds  the  art  of  thinking.  Perhaps  other  men  might  have 
equal  knowledge,  but  few  were  so  communicative.  His 
great  pleasure  was  to  talk  to  those  who  looked  up  to  him. 
It  was  here  he  exhibited  his  wonderfql  powers.  In  mixed 
company,  and  frequently  in  company  that  ought  to  have 
looked  up  to  him,  many,  thinking  they  had  a  character  for 
learning  to  support,  considered  it  as  beneath  them  to  en*- 
list  in  the  train  of  his  auditors :   and  to  such  persons  he 

60  ft£VN0LD8. 

certainly  did  not  appear  to  advantage,  being  often  idipe^ 
tuous  and  overbearing.  The  desire  of  shining  in  conver- 
sation was  in  him  indeed  a  predominant  passion  ;  and  if  it 
miist  be  attributed  to  vanity,  let  it  at  the  same  time  be 
recollected,  that  it  produced  that  loquaciousness  from 
which  bis  more  intimate  friends  derived  considerable  ad- 
vantage. The  observations  which  be  made  on  poetry,  on 
life,  and  on  every  thing  about  us,  I  applied  to  our  art, 
with  what  success  others' must  judge*^'  This  sh6rt  e:xtract 
is  not  unconnected  with  a  conjecture  which  many  enter- 
tained, that  sir  Joshua  did  not  compose  his  lectures  him- 
self. In  addition  to  his  own  declaration  here,  as  far  as  re- 
spects Dr.  Johnson,  who  was  chiefly  suspected  as  having  a 
hand  in  these  lectureS}  Mr.  Northcote,  who  lived  some 
years  in  his  house,  says,  in  his  memoirs,  '^  At  the  period 
when  it  was  expected  he  should  have  composed  them,  I 
have  heard  him  walking  at  intervals  in  his  room  till  one  or 
two  o^clock  in  the  morning,  and  I  have  on  the  following 
day,  at  an  early  hour,  seen  the  papers  on  the  subject  of 
bis  art  which  bad  been  written  the  preceding  night.  I 
have  had  the  rude  manuscript  from  himself,  in  his  own 
hand-writing,  in  order  to  make  a  fair  copy  from  it  for  him 
to  read  in  public  :  I  have  seen  the  manuscript  also  after  it 
bad  been  revised  by  Dr.  Johnson,  who  has  sometimes  al- 
tered it  to  a  wrong  meaning,  from  his  total  ignorance  of 
the  subject  and  of  art;  but  never,  to  my  knowledge,  saw 
the  marks  of  Burke's  pen  in  any  of  the  manuscripts  Th^ 
bishop  of  Rochester,  also,  who  examined  the  writings  of 
Mr.  Burke  since  his  death,  and  lately  edited  a  part  of  them, 
informed  a  friend  that  he  could  discover  no  reason  to  think 
that  Mr.  Burke'  had  the  least  hand  in  the  discourses  of 
Reynolds.**  And  Burke  himself,  in  a  letter  to  Mr.  Ma- 
lone,  after  the  publication  of  sir  Joshua's  life  and  works, 
says,  **  I  have  read  over  some  part  of  the  discourses  with 
an  unusual  sort  of  pleasure,  partly  because  being  faded  k 
little  in  my  memory,  they  have  a  sort  of  appearance  of 
novelty  ;  partly  by  reviving  recollections  mixed  with  me^ 
lancholy  and  satisfaction.  The  Flemish  journal  I  had  never 
seen  before.  You  trace  in  that,  every  where,  the  spirit  of 
the  discourses,  supported  by  new  examples.  He  is  always 
the  same  man ;  fhe  same  philosophical,  the  same  artist-liko 
critic,  the  same  sagacious  observer,  with  the  same  minute- 
ness, without  the  smallest  degree  of  trifling.**  We  may 
safely  say,  this  is  not  th6  language  of  one  who  had  himself 

R  E  Y  N  O  L  P  S.  l«l. 

coAtributed  much  to  those  discourses.  Aad  if  neither 
Johnson  nor  Burke  wrote,  for  Reynolds,  to  whom  else 
among  his  contemporaries  shall  the  praise  due  to  those  in* 
valuable  compositions  be  given,  if  Reynolds  is  to  be  de* 
prived  of  it ! 

In  consequence  of  his  connexion  with  Dr.  Johnson,  Mr. 
Reypplds  furnished  three  essays  in  the  Idler,  No.  16^  on 
false  criticisms  on  painting,  which  may  be  recommended 
to  the  serious  perusal  df  many  modem  connoisseurs ;  No« 
79,  on  the  grand  style  of  painting ;  and  No.  82,  on  the , 
true  idea  of  beauty ;  of  which  Mr.  Boswell  informs  us  the 
last  words,  '*and  pollute  his  canvass  with  deformity,*'  were 
added  by  Dr.  Johnson.    These  essays  have  been  very  pro- 
perly incorporated  with  sir  Joshua's  works,  by  Mr.  Malone^ 
as  they  were  his  first  literary  attempts,  the  earnest  of  those 
talents  which  afterwards  proved  that  he  was  as  eminent  in 
the  theory  as  in  the  practice  of  his  art. 
.  It  is  much  to  be  lamented,  that  the  world  was  deprived 
of  this  great  artist  before  he  had  put  into  execution  a  plan, 
which  bis  biographer,  Mr.Malone  says,  appears,  from  some 
loose  papers,  to  have  been  revolved  in  his  mind.     ^*  I  have, 
found,''  says  that  author,  ^*  among  sir  Joshua's  papers,  some, 
detached  and  unconnected  thoughts,  written  occasionally, 
as  hints  for  a  discourse,  on  a  new  and  singular  plan,  wbich^ 
he  seenis  to.  have  intended  asa.history  of  his  mind,  so  far 
as  concerned  bis  art;  and  of  his  progress,  studies,  and 
practice;  together  with  a.  view  of  the  advantages  he  had 
enjoyed,  apd  the  disadvantages  he  had  laboured  under,  in 
the  course  that  he  had  run  :  a  scheme,  from  which,  how- 
ever liable  it  might  be  to  the  ridicule,  of  wits  and  scoffers 
(of  which,  he  says,  he  was  perfectly  aware),  he  conceived 
the.  students,  might  derive  some  useful  documents  for  jthe. 
regulation  of  their  own  conduct  and.  prac^ce."     Suoh.  a 
cpiDposition,,  fropa  such  a  man,  written  after  he  had  spent 
a'long  life. in  successful  practice,  with  none  to  guide  him  i 
who  had  chosen  a  line  of  art  for  himself,  stfimped  with  ori* 
ginality ;  and  in  which  he  had  to.  unfold  principles,  and 
elucidate  them  by  practice;  and.cpmpetent  as,  he  was  to^ 
explain  the.  operations  of  his  own  miud;  could  not  fail  of 
b^ing  Jnteresting  and  useful  in  the  highest  degrep^  .  ,  - 

In. 1781,  during  the  s^ummer,  be  a  tour  through. 
Hpliaiid  and  the.  Netherlfmds,  wiUi  a  view  of  examining: 
critically  the,  ii^rks  of  the  celjebrated  masters  of  the  Dutch 
and  Flemish  schools.     An  account  of  this  journey,  written 

Vol.  XXVI.  M 


by  hifliself,  eontaiaiog  much  lexceHent  criliciiin  on  the 
^«of hs  tff  Hufbens,  VMuiyk^,  RemWaiMlty  fte«  in  tfa«  churched 
ftfidk  diffittfent  ooUeotions  at  AMwerpi  Brussab*  Ghent,  the 
BufiseMoii^f  f  ailerf,  and  at  AMtterdaoi,  wa»  poblbhed  after 
bis  death ;.  it  concludes  with  a  masterly-drawn  character  at[ 
Rubens.  In  IT^S,  in  cofMeqoeace  of  the  emperor's  9op- 
pressaen  ef  some  feligfous  beeses^  be  again  visited  Plan* 
devS)  pmiebftsed  aome  ptcturea  by  Rubens,  and  devested 
sererai  mere  days  to  the  contemplation  and- further  lates^ 
trgation  of  (he  perfovmauces  of  that  great  man.  On  his 
retiirfti  he  remarked  that  bis  own-ptctures^  wanted  fbree 
and  brilUaney^  and  he  appeared^  by  hna  subsequent  prac* 
tioe^  to  hate  benefited  by  the  observations  he  had  made* 
This  year,  on  the  death  of  Ramsay,  he  was  made  principal 
painoer  in  ordinary  to  his  majesty,  and  conttdued  so  till 
bia  diMn^ 

For  a  very  long  period>  he  had  enjoyed  an  almost  unin<« 
t^ropted*  state  of  good  health,  except  that  in  17SQ  he  was 
for  a  short  time  afflicted  with  a  paralytic  stroke.  A  few 
weeks,  however,  perfectly  restored  him,  and  he  suffiered 
no  inconvenience  from  it  afterwards.  But  iiv  July  1789, 
whilst  be  was  painitng  the  portrait  of  lady  Beaaehamp,  he 
found  his  sight  so  much  affected,  that  it  was  with  difficulty 
be  could  proceed  with  his  work  ;  and  notwithstanding  every 
assistance  that  eould  be  procured,  he  was  in  a  few  months 
totally  deprived  of  the  use  of  his  left  eye.  After  some 
struggles^  he  determined,  l^at  his  remaining  ej'e  should 
atse  suffer,  to  paint  no  more :  and  though  be  w^s  thus  de- 
prived of  a  constant  employment  and  amusement,  hei^ 
tained  his  usual  spirits,  and  partook  of  the  society  of  b^ 
friends  with  apparently  the  same  pleasuve  to  which  be  bad 
been  accustomed ;  and  was  amused  by  reading,  or  hearing 
others  read  to  him.  In  October  1791,  however,  bis  spirits 
began  to  fait  him,  and  he  became  dejected^  fucHii  an  ap- 
prehension tbat  an  inflamed  tumour,  which  took  place  over 
the  eye  tbat  bad  perished,  might  occasion  the  destruetten 
of  the  other  also.  Meanwhile  be  laboured  under  a  more 
dangerous  disease,  which  deprived  him  both  of  his  spirits 
and  his  appetite.  Ihiring  this  period  of  great  aAictien  td^ 
all  his  friends,  his  malady  was  by  many  supposed  ti^  be 
imaginary^  and  it  was  en^neousty  eoUoeived^  that  by  eirer* 
tion  he  might  shake  it  off;  for  he  was  wholly  iimable  to^ 
e^l^ain  to  the  physicians  the  nature  or  seat  of  tA^  disorder. 
It  was  only  about  a  fortnight  before  bis  death  that  it  was 

fojuodt  to  be  in  the  li^eri  the  ipordinate  growth  of  vihiebi 
n  it  a£beicwarda  appef^redy  had  in^oiaiiieded  all  the  fiioo- 
liooB  of  life*  Of  this  disease,  %vbich  be  bpre.  with  great 
fortitude  aed>  pa&ience^  be  died^  after  a  coofineioeBt  of  three 
jMondM,  at  bis  home  in  Leieester-square^  on.  Tbertdajr 
eTeniogy  February  33>  1792,  at  the  age  of  sixtjMiine. 

In,  ttature>  sir  Joshua  ReynoUU  was  rather  ^ixief  the 
middie:  siae^  Qf  a  flerid  Qompleyion,  roandisbi  blunt  fea** 
tures,  and  a  lively  pleasing  aspect ;  not  corpulent,  though 
somewhat  iaolined  to  it(  and  extremely  active.  With 
osaoners  imcooiaionly  polished  and  agreeable,  he  possessed 
a  ooQstant  flo w  of  spkits,  which  rendered  him  at  all  times  a 
most  detimhle  Qompauion :  always  ready  to  be  amused,  and 
to  contribute  to  the  amusemeut  of  others,  and  anxious  to 
receive  information  on  every  subject  that  presented  itaalf  s 
and  though  he  had  been  deaf  almost  from  the  time  o£  his 
return  from>  Italy  ;  yet,  by  the  aid  of  an  ear-trumpet,  he 
was  ei^bled  to  partake  of  the  conversation  of  his  friendt 
with  great  facility  and  convenience.  On  the  3d  of  March 
his  remains  were  interred  in  the  crypt  of  St.  PauPs,  near 
the  tomb  of  sir  Christopher  Wren,  with  every  honour  that 
could  be  shewn  to  worth  and  genius  by  an  enlightened  na<« 
lion ;  a  great  number  of  the  mDst  distinguished  persons 
attending  the  funeral  ceremony,  and  his  pall  being  sup- 
ported by  three  dukes,  two  marquisses,  and  .five  other  no-* 

In  oiany  respects,  both  as  a  man  and  a  painter,  air 
Joshua  Reynolds  cannot  be  too  much  studied,  praised,  and 
imitated  by  every  one  who  wishes  to  attain  the  like  emu 
Aence.  His  incessant  industry  was  never  wearied  into  de« 
•pondency  by  miscarriage^  nor  elated  into  neglect  by  sue* 
cess.  Either  in ,  his  painting-room,  or  wherever  else  he 
passed  his  time,  his  mind  was  devoted  to  the  charms  of  his 
professipn*  All  nature,  and  all  art,  was  his  academy,  and 
his.  reflection  was  ever  en  the  wing,  oompreheoatve^  vi* 
goiDus,  diacfiminatittg,  and  retentive.  With  taste  to  per- 
cftsre  all  the  varieties  af  the  picturesque,  judgment  to  se^ 
tect,  and  ed^ill  to  combine  what  would  serve  bis  piirpos^^ 
few  have  ever  been  empowered  by  nature  to  do  more  from 
the  fund  of  their  own  genius.:  ami  none  ever  endeavoured 
Bsore  to  take  advantage  of  the  labours  of  others^  He  made 
a  eplehdid  and  useful  collection,  in  which  no  expenee  was 
spared*  His  house  was  filled,  to  the  remotest  comers,  with 
easts  ffMi.  the  antique  atatues,  pictures,  drawing^,  ajid 

M   2         . 

164  R  K  Y  N'  O  L  D  S! 

prints,  by  various  masters  of  aU  the  diflFerent  sbhools; 
Those  he  looked  upon  aft  his  library,  at  once  objects^  of 
amusement,  of  study,  and  eompetitionf.  After  hit  death 
they  were  sold  by  auction,  with  his  miclaimed  and  ud«* 
finished  works,  and,  together,  produced  the '  sum  of 
16,947/.  Is.  6d.  The  substance  of  his  whole  property,  ac-^ 
euinulated  entirely  by  his  pencil,  and  left  behind  after  a 
life  in  which  be  freely  parted  with  his  wealth,  amounted  <to 
about  80,000/. 

The  acknowledged  superiority  of  sir  Joshua  Reynoids'st 
professional  talents,  and  the  broad  basis  on  which  it  is 
founded,  makes  it  tiow  unnecessary  to  be  collecting  suf- 
frages to  add  weight  to  the  general  opinion ;  but  a  review 
of  those  powers  which  rank  him  as  a  man  of  genius,  and 
distinguidi  him  among  the  most  eminent  of  his  profession,: 
may  not  be  without  its  interest. 

His  early  education  was  not  strictly  academic,  at  he 
himself  regrets ;  nor  to  any  extent  did  he  ever  eultivater 
the  elementary  principles  of  design,  but,  as  portraits  were 
to  shape  bis  fortune^  faicility  of  composition,  or  laborious 
application  to  the  refinements  of  an  outline,  were  'less  ne«- 
cessary.  Whether  he  would  have  been  as  eminent  in  his-> 
torical  painting  as  he  was  in  that  department  which  it  was 
his  lot  to  pursue,  would  be  now  an  inquiry  as  useless  a» 
unsatisfactory.  That  his  powers  Were  gre«Lt  in  whatever 
way  they  were  employed,  will  be  readily  acknowledged ; 
his  tscste  was  too  refined,  and  his  judgment  too  correct^  to 
tolerate  defects  which  were  not  counterbalanced  by  some 
advantages;  but  as  his  early  practice  was  exclusively  de-^ 
voted  to  portraits,  and  as  it  was  the  chief  employment:  of 
his  whole  life,  it  cannot  remain  asubject  of  choice  to  whar 
branch  of  his  profession  a  fair  analysis  of  his  merit  ought 
to  be  refehred. 

From  the  first  examples  of  sir  Joshua,  as  well  as  from 
his  own  confession,  on  seeing  the  works  of  Raphael  in  the 
Vatican,  it  would  seem  evident  that  the  ornamental  parts 
of  the  art  had  absorbed  his  previous  studies,  audi  made  the 
deepest  impression  on  his  mind.  Little,  therefore,  coukl 
be  wanting  to  induce  him  to  pursue  that  plan  of  study, 
which  at  the  same  time  that  it  was  the  most  congenial  to 
bis  feelings,  was  in  the  highest  degree  important  to  give 
interest  to  individual  representation.  In  pursuing  histstu* 
dies  when  abroad,  he  embraced  the  whole  field  before  him  r 
but  bis  time  was  not  spent  in  collecting  or  making  servile 



.copies,  but  in;  cofiteroplating  tbe  principles  of  the  gre^t 
maaters^  that  he  might  the  more  effectually  do  what  he 
-has  cecomQiended  to  others,  follow  them  in  the  road  with- 
<Kii  treading  in  their  steps;  and  no  man  ever  appropriated 
to  himself  with  more  admirable  skill  their  extensive  and 
var4ed  powers* 

The  style  of  portrait-painting  by  Hudson  and  Ramsay^ 
.who  were  the  only  persons  of  any  practice  when.  sir.  Joahpa 
returned  from  abroad,  was  uniformly  dry  and  hard,  with*- 
4>utany  feeling  for  chiar-oscura,  and  with,  little  diversity  pf 
.attitude  and  expression  ;  the  full  dress,  which  the  custom 
of  the  day  prescribed,  prescribed  also  limits  to  their  imar 
ginatioasy  and  they  never  gave  themselves  the  trouble  to 
.diacrimfinate  betweea  the  character  of  nature,  and  the.  cha- 
racter of  iiAshtOQ^  Sir  Joshua,  with  a  more  comprehensive 
view  of  his  art,  shewed  how  portrait  might  be  geneTa^^edy 
so  ias  to  identify  the  iadividual  man  with  the  dignity  of  bis 
•  thinking  powers.  In  dre9s,  be  selected  and  adopted  what 
was  most  conformable  to  the  character  of  his  subject,  withr 
out  implicitly  following  the  fashion  or  offending  tjiie  pre^ 
judice  which  it  begets.  . 

In  the  pursuit  of  those  high  attainments  to  which. he 
.arrived,  he  evidently  had  Rembrandt  and  Correggio.more 
particularly,  in  his  mind.  The  magical  effect,  and  richness 
of  colouring  of  the  I>utch  master,  seems  to  have  be^n  with 
!!him  a  constant  source,  of  reflection  and  experiment  to  rival 
bis.,  inimitable  powers.  Co.rreggio  gayO'  all  that  grace  and 
harmony  could  supply,  and  sir  Joshua  in.  .his  infantine  por- 
traits, is^beyood  all  competition  without  an  equal.  His  fe- 
,male  pprtraits  are  also,  desigiiad  wjth  an  exqui.«iite  feeling  of 
^aate  and .  elegance ;.  and  for  that  variejty  of  compositipn 
which  pervades  his  works,  it  will  be  in  vajin  to  seek  a  rival 
in  the  most  illustrious  of  his  predecessors. 

His  works  of  the  historical  kind  shew  great  strength  of 
-mind,  and  leavet  us  to  regret  that  thi^  land  of  pprtrait  paintr 
ing  bad  not  given  him  equal  opportunity  to cultivatcr it; 
but,  from  the  want  of  that  habit  which  practice  would  .hajire 
;giveu  him,  he  was  used  to  say  that  historical  effort  cost  him 
too  mi^ch*  He  better  knew  what  he  wan  ted.  than  pQssess^d 
a  promptitjude  of  giving' form  and  substance  tp  bis  feelingi. 
.His  count  U^lino,  for  pathos  and  grandeur  of  design,  p^rr 
haps  yields  to  no  composition  that  was  ever  made  of  that 
subject  5  and  bis  Holy  FamiK,  when  eombiued  with  it,  v-^ilj 


terve  to  fthow,  al  one  view^  the  oomprehenftiveneM  ttnd  dl- 
Tersity  of  his  genius.  ' 

The  colouring  of  sir  Joshua,  which  has  been  ^esewedif 
Ihe  subject  of  the  highest  admiration  and  praise,  has  also 
been  the  most  familiar  topic  of  animadversion  and  eensur^. 
By  the  jocose  be  has  been  charged  with  ^^  coining  off  with 
Dting  colours,"  but  by  less  indulgent  friends,  with  the  more 
aerious  accusation  of  having  made  experiments  at  their  e3(« 
jietMie.  In  the  pursuit  of  exoellence,  he  war  oertalnly  no^ 
content  with  the  common  routine  of  pmotice ;  and,  as  be 
thought  for  himself,  so  be  inv^entMKl  new  nvethods  of  ea^ 
Vodving  those  thoughts.  That  he  was  sometimes  unsuc^ 
>Mssnit  eannot  be  dented  ;  but  one  failure  seems  to  bave 
-kid  a  hfumhred  TOices  to  report  it,  and  in  lirit^metical  pwK 
IMWtion  to  bave  increased  aa  envy  ^raa  created  by  his  tfrni^ 
scendafnt  superiority.  Upon  due  reAeotion,  bewetrer^  wheh 
«he  apace  is  considered  through  wbieh  he  passed  to  arrive  aft 
^e  high  professional  rank  he  acquired,  there  can  be  lit«te 
tioobttbat  the  astonishment  will  be,  net  at  the  many,  b«vt 
ib/&  few  txceptidnable  works  be  produced;  and  ev^n  €ff 
these  it  is  no  hyperbole  to  say,  that  as  king  as  the  true 
principles  Of  iMTt  are  admired,  his  ^<  faded  pictures**  will  be 
Ibund  to  pesftess  a  power  of  mind  which  has  not  often  beM 
stiffpasoed  even  by  the  best  productioni^  of  his  own  time. ' 

REZ20NI00  (AKTHOVY  Jk^SlSPH,  count)  an  e^sccelient 
Kfhoba*,  marshal  of  the  camp,  obamberkin  to  bis  royal  bigb- 
nets  tfete  infbnt  duke  of  Parma,  ahd  governor  of  that  citadel, 
ivM  born  at  Camo  in  1709.  He  acquired  diatinetion  in  the 
aviiiy  and  ^  eoart,  but  muat  bate  devoted  much  of  bis  life 
to  literary  |lursuit».  Hia  fSfrst  publication  was  a  folio  volume, 
tainted  at  Cemo  in  1742,  entitled  ^  De  aoppositia  mihtafH 
'BUe  itipt^iit  Benedicti  Od^esdiatci^  qui  pontifex  maKimus 
anno  1676,  Innoiseotii  prcenomrne  ifuit  renunciatits.''  Hm 
-neM  Was  a  volttme  of  poetry,  **  Musaram  Epinicia,*'  ad- 
^l^ned  to  Louts  XV.  Paima,  1757;  but  that  siAikik  m<m 
-eiatitlefei  bkn  tb  aotice  was  his  ^*  Disquisitienes  PlrAianss,  silve 
dto  tilriuvque  Plinii  patria,  scriptis,  codicibus,  editionibu^, 
atque  ititerpretibus,**  Parma,  17'63,  2  vols.  fol.  Of  tbaa 
Ernest!  speitks  Tory  bigbly  in  hia  ecKtien  of  Fabrieius*s  Bibl. 
Latina.  Brunet  mentions  some  *^  Aeademioal  Dtseetmie^* 
in  Italian,  ptibtished  by  count  Reaseonico  in  1779,  8vo.  He 

1  Life  prefixed  to  hie  works  by  M^loDeff-Ltfe  hy  ^rihoote.— Pilhin|lotk.-^ 
Per  the  character  of  lir  Joshua  as  an  artist  we  were  indebted  to  Rich.  DDpp^, 
cfq,  who  drew  it  up  for  the  British  Essayists,  vol.  XXXJU.  preface. 

R  P  Z  Z  O  N  I  C  O.  i^7 


4ieA  Mar<^  l^,  1785.    jHis  sou,  the  Couvt  (^astone  i^h- 
-JU  TowjE  Rezzonico,  was  born  in  Paroa  abotit  1 74^.  Up 
j|Fa«  ^rly  initiated  i^tp  scieaoe  aiid  poiUe  }jt^atura>  aiMl 
«Q  c0n9i«I«rab]e  were  kh  attainmentSi  that  in  bis  earlii^i^t 
yaouth  he  was  chosen  fellow   of  the  poetical  acaden^y  i\\ 
.itoi»ef  known  binder  the  name  ol;  Arcadia.    The  reigQii^ 
4jake  of  Patvna  having  erected  in  his  nketrcpoUs  air  Acadi^nay 
of  fine  artSy  count  IUzkoihco  was  ap>pointed  its  pr^sadeat ; 
hikt,  by  some  vicis&itudesy  was  uUerly  disgraced  at  cQurt^ 
und  deprived^  not  only  of  ibe  place  of  president  of  the  aca^ 
deiiiyi»  b4it  even  of  that  of  beredijtary  cbai»b«eTlali;).     Ufi  w^ 
th^ietoxe  obliged  to  leave  Parnaa-    He  ^rst  undertook  h^t^g 
4Qurs  tbrQogh  £urope«  especially  in  France  and  £nglap4» 
during  which  he  be^apie  coflipieltely  ^a^ter  o^  both  lan*- 
guages ;  and  «.t.bjbs  relnrn  to  UtAy  he  A>ed  bi»  gre»idepi^  ifi 
•Home,  though  he  often  made  loo^  excursions  itg  Naplea  a^fl 
Florence.    AfmUskg  biniaeif  of  btis  aia^ple  lei^r^,  be  wrote 
several  works  m  prose  and  poetry^  ^h<e  former  of  no  great 
verity  bvt  from  bis  poeiiio^l  works  be  de^rves  to  be  placed 
iwoftong  ibe  best  Italiim  poe^ts  of  bi^  ige.     He  was  disl^ii^ 
^uished  by  livelinesis  of  iiOiBgeryi  profNriety  of  d)iction,  e^ 
ACtness  of  epi^bett  and  by'  a  e(94>leees^  of  ^^pros^ion  aiK- 
tfjmred  by  d^eep  stud^y  o|  iheOreek  md  JLatin  ii^mii^,    {Ijia 
Y'ersi&cation,  bowefier^  wns  iNimotbuig  barsb>«and  the  mwn- 
iog  of  soai^  pbraoes  obsci»ro»    0e  died  in  \79Mf  Jkftf^fiye 
years  of  agf .    He  ^9fi  bigbly  .  enier^med  by  itbe  Itajiap 
aobiMty,  and  men  of  JleUeirs»  for  Abo  el^gaoee  ^^f  ^U  mat^ 
aers  and  the  ejof)ue»ce  of  *his  cpoveiwtion*  Tbe^e  .^aalitie^ 
were,,  howei^er,  in.  ^e  opioiw  of  #ome»  obaour^d  by  m 
iffimoderftte  selff  lov«»  fWd  ao.  irrati^^al  predilecuw  for  Ms 
owiQ.woirk^.    A  c0mpietie  coileotjo9  of  his  poetical  vfmki^ 
in  two  veliueses  i^]a#  i^mnt^d  nt  Ptaropa  by  ibe  o^]obi:fU;e4 

RHAJZES^  galled  etso  Albnbecvnr  Mpibagied»  oiie  of  tb^ 
jOQsfe  idis<;iagiyabcdi  of  tbe  Arabif^n  pfoysaci^n^y  w9^b<^H^t 
Saif  m  iho  previooe  K>f  <^rasani  abpat  ^b^  year  859. 
He  watis  first  mttob  addicu^  tp  wnsic,  ^nd  i§  f»id  oot  vp 
bave  amdied  mediaine  u«til  h^  was  tj^iriy  years  of  ^^ 
when  he  removed  to  Bagdad,  become  inde&(tigqJ]^  m  k'v^ 
afipiicaiiom  aad  l^aYing  obt^ir^  4he  ihigbe#l:.  repn^a^on, 
was  aelec^  o»t  of  a  hi%i%dred  .eininmt  pby«iqia449, .  who 
lyere  tbea  i«sideni  elb  &gdad,  to  superiBtend  tl>e  ce}^- 

1  Diet,  Hist. — Sa^cii  Onooaast. 

109  R  H  A  Z  E  S. 

*  • 

brated  hospital  of  that  city.      His  biographers  speak  of 
him-  as  the  Galen  of  the  Arabians ;  and  from  his  long  life 
and  constant  p^^ctice,  during  which  he  paid  the  most  assi- 
duous attention  to  the  varieties  of  disease,  he  obtained  the 
appellation  of  the  experimenter,  or  the  experienced.     He 
viras  said  also  to  be  profoundly  skilled  in  all  the  sciences, 
espepially  in  philosophy,  astronomy,  and  nrusic.     He  tra-  . 
veiled  much  in  pursuit  of  knowledge,  andmade  frequent 
journies  into  Persia,   his  native  country,    and  was  much 
-consulted  by  several  princes,  particularly  by  Almansqr, 
the  chief  of  Chorasan,  with   whom  he  frequently  corre- 
sponded, and  to  whom  he  dedicated  several  of  his  .writ* 
ribgs.    Two  hundred  and  twenty-six  treatises  are  said  to 
hate  been    composed  by  Rhazes,  amoiig  which  the  ten 
books  addressed  to  his  patron' Almanzor,' were  designed 
as  a  complete  body  of  physic,  and  n^ay  be  deemed  the 
great  magazine  of  all  the  Arabian  medicine;   the  ninth 
book,  indeed,  which  treats  of  the  cure  of  diseases^  was  in 
such  general  estimation  for  several  centuries,  that  it  was  the 
text'book  of  the  public  schools,  and  was  commented. upon 
'by  the  most  learned  professors^  -  Yet,  like  the  rest  of  the 
Arabian   writings,  it  contains  very  little    more   than  the 
substance  of  the  works  iof;Ahe  Greeks,   from  whom  the 
Arabians  borrowed   almost  all  their  medical  kiwwledge. 
Theyhiave,  indeed,  and  Rhazes  in  particular,  given  the 
^first  disitinct  accQunt^of  the  small-pox ;  and- Rhazes  wrote 
also- the  first  treatise  ever^composed  respecting  the  diseases 
of  children.     His  book  on  the  affecttons'of -rthe  joints  con- 
tains an  account  of  some  remarkable  cures,  effected  chiefly 
by  copious  blood-letting.     He  des(»'ibes  the  symptoms  of 
hydrophobia  very  well ;  and  also  some  diseases  peculiar  to 
-ei^stern  countries,  and  first  noticed  the  disease  called  spina 
ventosa.    Rhazes  had  the  reputation  of  being  a  skilful  al« 
chemist ;  and  is  the  first,  as  Dr.  Freind  haa  shewn,  who 
mentions  the  use  of  chemical,  preparations  in  roedicioe. 
•He  has  a  chapter  on  the  qualifications  of  a^physician  ;  and 
a  singular  tract  on  quacks '  and  impostors,  who  appear  to 
baye  been  at  least  as  numerous,  and  ingenious  in  their 
contrivances  as  in  more  recent  times. 

Rhazes  lived  to  the  age  of  eighty,  and  lost  his  sight :  b« 
died'  in  the  year  932.  His  works  that  have  come  down  to 
us  through  the  medium  of  translations  in  Latin  ai^/  U  A 
sort  of  common-place  book,  entitled  "  Continens,"  or 
^*  Libri  Continentes."     2.  A  much  more  perfect  work,  the 

R  H  A  Z  E  S.  169 

'**  Libri  Decern,  ad  Alihansorem/'  publiabed  mt  VeatM, 
I  ^10.  3.  Six  books  of  aphorisms,  published  under  the  title 
of  *' Liber  de  Secretis/ qui  Aphorismorum  appeUatur/' 
Bononis,  1489.  4.  A  tract  on  the  small-pox,  often  trans- 
lated, and  printed  with  the  title  of  ^  De  Pestileotia :"  the 
best  translation  is  by  Chanuing,  London,  1766.' 

RHENANUS  (Beatus),  a  very  eminent  scbcdar'  and 
editor,  was  bom,  in  1485,  at  Schelestat,  a  town  of  Alsace. 
The  name  of4iis  family  was  Bilde;  that  of  Rbenaoos  had 
been  adopted  by  Ins  father,  who  had  considerable  property 
at  Rhenac,  his  native  place.  His  mother  died  in  his  infiui- 
cy,  and  his  father,  who  never  married  again,  bestowed  bis 
whole  attention  for  some  years  on  bis  education.  After 
some  instruction  in  his  own  country,  he  was  sent  to  Paris, 
Avhere  he  studied  Grreek,  rhetoric,  and  poetry,  under  the 
best  masters.  He  then  pursued  his  studies  for  someyears 
"at  Strasburgh,  and  afterwards  at  Basil,  where  he  contracted 
an  intimacy  with  Erasmus  that  lasted  during  their  lives, 
accompanied  with  mutaal  respect  and  friendship.  In  1 520, 
he  returned  to  Schelestat,  in  his  thirty-fifih  yeAr,  just  iu 
time  to  take  leave  of  bis  father,  who  died  the  day  after  his 
arrival.  .    . 

Dupin  remarks,  that  Rbetianus  was  one  of  those  learned 
then,  who  embrace  no  particular  profession,  and  whose 
"only  business  it  is  to  cultivate  the  sciences,  and  Jtheir  only 
ambition  to  become  behefiactors  to  the  republic  of  letters. 
Rbenahus  was  so  much  disposed  to  this  kind  of  life,  that  he 
'Obtained  from  Charles  V.  an  exemption  from  ail  empk>y«- 
ment  of  a  public  nature.  He  had  even  no  thoughts  of 
marriage  until  near  the  end  of  his  life,  nor  was  that  made 
public,  as  soon  after  hotfound  himself  attacked  by  the  dis*- 
order  which  at  last  proved  fatal.  His  physicians  prescribed 
the  waters  of  Baden,  in  Swisserland,  but  finding  his  disor- 
der increase,  he  returned  to  Strasburgh,  where  he  died, 
'May  20,  1547,  in  his  sixty-^second  year.  He  made  no 
will- but  a  verbal  one.  He  left  his  library  to  bis  native 
'place,  Schelestat.  He  was  a  man  of  extraordifnary- mild« 
ness  of  temper,  an  enemy  to  contests,  and  of  singular  mo* 
desty  and  probity.  Although,  by  bis  intiiisacy  with  Eras- 
^mtls,  and  some  of  the  early  Reformers,  he  was  enabled  to 
*  see  many  of  the  errors  of  the  church  of  Rome,  he  adhered 
to  her  communion  to' the  last:  he  said  and  wroteenougb, 

J  Fr^P(i>  Hist,  of  Pbysic— ]S!(>yj  Diet.  Hist,  de  Medicint?. — Ree«'ii  Cyclopad. 

170  R  H  E  N  A  N  U  S. 

boweyer,  to  be  classed  with  some  ppotesitant  writets  ou  tbetr 
•ide.  Bessa,  If  ko  in  oae  of  those,  attempts  to  di»tingvi«b 
Itie  shave  he  bad  in  eacoamn^ing  the  efforts  of  the  refgrinem^ 
with  that  more  geeeral  fiftoie  he  derived  from  his  services  to 
iitterature»  Aodjoins  cordiallj  in  the j>raises  bestowed  on  his 
talents  and  ttmiable  disposition.  One  only  objection  is 
mentioned  by  most  of  ius  biogmpbers,  and  that  }s  his  par- 
simony, of  which,  however,  no  very  clear  proof  is  afforded, 
0Heefit  E  pua  upon  his  nam^  *^  Seatus  est  ^tuSf  attameii 

'  Hn  works  are,  I.  a  very  valuable  edition  of  ^^  Tertullian^ 
Opera,^'  Basil,  l£r21,  £ok.  from  original  MSS.  Dnpin  speaki^ 
IdgUy  of  the  notes  aad  pre&ces,  as  well  as  of  the  author  of 
them.  2.  ^^Auctores  bistori®  Eoclesiasticse,''  vis.  £use- 
bias,  Pamphilas,  Nicephorns,  Theodore^  &c.  Basil,  1 523^ 
I.SS5,  and  Paris,  1541,  2  vols.  fol.  3.  <^  S.  Basil.  Sermo 
ide  diflerentia  Usise  et  Hypostasisit"  Paris,  1513,  foL  4. 
^  Synopsis  de  laudibvs  Calvitii  com  scboliis,'^  Basil,- 1519, 
4tx>j  1521  and  1551,  ^vo,  added  also  at  the  end  of  Eras* 
snus's '^MorisB  Enoomium.'*  5.  ^  S.  Gregorii  Nanziaozeni 
mcitjb  et  Epistol®  Tbemistoum,''  Paris,  1513, 
foi.  6.  *^A  Latin  translation  of  the  works  of  OrigeSQ)" 
•whieh  Erasmus  left  unfinished,  and  was  completed  by  oor 
jmthor,  at  Basil,  1536,  fol.  with  a  preface  addressed  lo 
flevman,  arcfabittbop  of  Cologne,  containing  a  life  of  Erasr 
mas.  This  last  be  abo  kioorporated  in  the  dedication  tp 
Charles  V.  of  tbe  edition  of  Erasmus's  works,  printed  at 
Basil  in  1540.  7.  '' Maximus  Tyri4i^''  Basil,  1519,  fo). 
with  Paccius's  tranalation,  and  a  preface  and  corceetious 
by  Rbenantts.  8.  ^<  Baptista  Gaairinus  de  modo  et  ordine 
docendi  ac  disoendi,"  Str^burgb,  1514,  8yo.  9.  ^^Mar^ 
eeili  Vb^lii  de  maiitise  laudibus,''  &c.  Basil,  1518,  4to. 
10.  ^^  Lud.  Bigs  opasculorum  metricor^im  bbri,  et  Pontii 
Faulini  carmefi  Janibicnm,'VilSttasbttfgb,  1509,  4to.  11* 
«<  Thomas  Mori  epigfaoimata  Latins,  pleraqne  e  Gmeis 
^ersa,  ad  enoevdaftiim  ipaias  exemplar  e^cusa,''  Basil,  1580* 

12.  '' VelleisM  PkteneuliM,!'  Basi4  1^20,  foL  tbe  princeps 
-mliit^i  primed  by  f  roben,  and  CnroAed  by  tbe  editar  fmm 
4be  Codex  Murhaoeasis ;  it  is  an  edition  of  eMUeme  caritgr* 

13.  ^'^Tsuiitas,"  Baaii^  1633  and  1541).  14.  <' Li vi^  deca- 
des, feres,'^  fiasiJ,  15JS5,  M.  often  reprinted,  and  bis^noMfs 
added  to  subaeqneiit  editions.  15.  *^  Senecm  de  morie 
Claudii  Indus,'*  in  Erasmus's  and  some  other  editions  of 
Seneca.     16.  <<  C^nintus  Curtius,'^  Basil,  1517>  and  Stras- 



fciii^j  1$18,  fbl.  17.  "  PliDii  Hist  Nat/*  Basil,  li2e, 
^ol.  J 6.  ^^Joannis  Geileri  Keiserbergii,  &c.  vita,"  pre- 
£Ked  to  the  <<  Navicula  fatnorum,"  1510,  4fco.  19.'  <<i£-. 
neie  PUtottict  Chriitiani  de  immortaUitate  animse,"  Basil, 
1516,  4ta  20.^<Xysci  EncbindioB,"  ibid.  1316^  printed 
with  the  preceding.  21.  <*  Liceiuii  Erangeli  Sacerdotis, 
praeffttio  in  Mfirsilii  defensorem  pacis  pro  LudpTicp  IV.  Itnp. 
4MlTersus  iniquas  usurpatiooes  ecdesiasticoxam,"  1522,  fol. 
This  is  onei  of  the  wof  ks  which  broagbt  on  Rbenaous  the 
charge  of  timidity,  tii  not  avowing  his  aversion  to  the  usur-' 
-paltiiMiis  of  his  church.  He  assumes  here  the  name  of  Licen- 
tius  JEvanffdus.  22.  ^'Illyrici  provinciarumatrique  imperio, 
cum  Romano,  turn  ConstantiaopoJitano  aervientis deacriptio,'^ 
published  with  the  ^^Notitia  dignitatom  Imp.  Romaini,?' 
Parts,  1602,  Svo«  23.  ^^  Procopii  Ceesariensis  de  rebus 
ijiotboorum,''  &c.  Basil,  1531,  fol.  24.  ^^  Reram  Gemui- 
Bicarom  libri  ires,*'  Basil,  1531,  fol.  Of  this,  which  is 
mteemed  one  of  his  best  works,  there  have  been  several 
editions,  the  last  by  Otto,  1693,  4to.^ 

RH£NF£RD  (James),  a  celebrated  oriental  scholar,  was 
Jboro  ac  Mulheim,  in  Westphalia,  Aug.  15,  1654«  After 
studying  at  the  college  of  Meuis,  a  city  in  the  duchy  of 
Cleves,  and  travelling  for  some  time,  be  accepted  an  invk- 
'  nation  to  becofue  rector  of  the  Latin  collie  in  the  city  of 
Fvaneker ;  but  resided  it  in  16SO,  and  removed  to  Amster- 
dam, where  he  was  einployed  in  the  capacity  of  tutor,  and 
enjoyed,  at  the  same  time,  a  ikvourable- opportunity  for 
conversing^  with  learned  rabbis,  and  improving  his  know- 
ledge of  rabbinical  learning.  In  1688  he  was  appointed 
pK>fessor  of  the  oriental  languages  and  philosophy  at  the 
university  of  Franeker ;  and  remained  in  this'  olEBce  nearly 
thirty  yeai^s,  during  which  he  was  thrice  chosen  reo* 
tor  of  the  university.  He  died  Nov.  7,  1712,  in  the  5dth 
year  of  his  age.  His  learning  was  extensive ;  but  most 
pfofoond  ifii  the  Hebrew,  iochiding  the  Rabbinical,  the 
Cbaldee,  and  Syriac  languages.  Among  his  wodcs  maybe 
fiientioned,  1.  *^  De  Antiquitate  Chavacteris  hodierni  Jo- 
<daiici,''  1696,  4to,  iu  which  be .  endeavoured  to  esublish 
the  claim  of  jdie  prescot  Hebrew  characters  to  the  highest 
antiquity,  and  to  prcwe  that  the  SaSMwitan  ckamoters  weve 
bonf6wed  from  the  Hedbrewl  ;'*  S«  **  Gomparatio  Expiatio- 

1  Melcbior  Adam. — Vreheri  Tbeatram.— •Dnpin.— Bullart  Academie  det  Sci- 
jtnces.  Vol.  il.'^Bezse  Icones.— vNiicerpm  vo^  XX^VilL— Jortin's  I^ife  of  Erin!' 
nms.    See  Index.  /«• 

172  R  H  E  N  A  N  U  S. 

,Tiis  anniFersariffi  Pontificis  maximi  in  Vet.  Test,  com  utlicn 
acque  asterna  ExpiationisChristi  Domini/'  1696.  -S.  '^  In- 
vestigatio  Praefectonihi  et  Ministrorum  Syuagogae/'  1700, 
4to.  4.  **  Disserlatioiiuin  Theologico-philolegtcarum  de 
Stylo  Novi  Testamenti  Syntagma,  quo  continentur  Olearii, 
Cocceii,  &c.  de  hoc  genere  Libeili/'  &c.  1701,  4to;  5. 
^'Arabarcbai  sen,  Ethnarcba  Judasorum/*  1702,  4to.  6. 
'^  De  Statdis  et  Aris,  falsis  verisque  Dei  et  Hominum  Inters 
nunciis,''  in  illustration  of  Exod.  zx.  23,  24,  1705,  4to. 
7.  *'  Observationum  selectarum  ad  Loca  Hebrsea  Nov.  Test, 
partes  sive  Disput.  Tres,"  1705,  4tb,  &c.  He  also  left 
unfinished,  but  partly  printed,  a  work,  entitled  <^  Rudi* 
men ta  Grammatics  Harmonics^  Linguarum  Orientalium, 
HebrtBse,  Chaldaicse,  Syriacae,  et  Arabics^."  ^ 

RHETICUS  (Georgb  Joachim),  a  celebrated  German 
astronomer  and  mathematician,  was  bom  at  Feldkifk  in 
Tyrol,  February  15,  1514.  After  imbibing  the  elemenl» 
of' the  mathematics  at  Zurick  with  OswaJd  My  cone,  be 
went  to  Wittemberg,  where  be- diligently  cultivated- that 
sciencie,  and  was  made  master  of  philosophy  in  15S5,  and 
professor  in  1537.  He  quilted  this  situation,  however,  two 
years  after,  and  went  to  Fruenburg  to  profit  by  the  instroic* 
tions  of  the  celebrated  Copernicus,  who  had  then  acquired 
great*  fame.  Rheticus  assisted  this  astronomer  for  some 
years,  aad  constantly  exhorted  him  to  perfect  his  wofk 
V  De  Revolutionibus,''  which  he  published  after  the  death 
of  Copernicus,  viz.  in  1543,  folio,  atNorimberg,  together 
with  an .  illustration  of  the  same,  dedicated  to  Scboner. 
Here  too,  to  render  astronomical  calculations  more  accurate, 
•he  began  bis  very  elaborate- canon  of  sines,  tangents  and 
secants,,  to  15  places  of  figures,  and  to  every  lOsecomis 
of  the  quadrant,  a  design  which  he  did  not  live  quite,  to 
complete. .  The  canon  of  sines  however  to  that  radius,  Jcht 
every  10  seconds,  and  for  every  single  second  in  Ae  first 
•  and.  last  degree  of  the  quadrant,  computed  by. him,  was 
published  in  folio  at  Francfort,  1613,  by  Pitiscos,  who 
himself  added  a  few  of  the' first  sines  computed  to  22  pkces 
of  figures.  But  the  larger  work,  or  canon. of  sines,  tann 
gents,  and  secants,  to  every  10  seconds,  was  perfected  soikl' 
publisbed  after  bis  death,  vis;  ia  1506,  by  his  discipleiVa;- 
Jentine  Otbo,  mathematician  to  the  electoral  prince  pah- 
tine^  a  particular  account  and  analysis  of  which  work  nisy 

*  Niceron^  toIs.  I.  and  X.— Morcri. 

R  H  E  T  I  C  U  S.  175 

be  seen  in  the  Historical  lAtroduction  to  Dr.  Rotton^s  Lo» 

After  the  death  of  Copernicus,  Rbeticus  returned  to 
Wittemberg,  viz.  in  1541  or  1542,  and  was  again  admitted 
to  his  office  of  professor  of  mathematics.  The  same  year, 
by  the  recommendation  of  Melanctbouy  he  went  to  Norim-^ 
berg,  where  he  found  certain  manuscripts  of  Werner  and 
Regiomontanus.  He  afterwards  taught  mathematics  at 
Leipsic.  From  Saxony  he  departed  a  second  time,  for 
what  reason  is  not  known,  and  went  to  Poland ;  and  from 
tbence  to  Cassovia  in  Hungary,  where  he  died  December 
4,  1 576,  near  sixty'-three  years  of  age. 

His  ^^  Narratio  de  Libris  Revolutionum  Copernici,''  waitf 
first  published  at  Dantzick  in  1 540,  4to ;  and  afterwards 
added  to 'the  editions  of  Copernicus's  work.  He  composed 
and  published  **  Ephemerides,*'  according  to  the  doctrine 
0f  Copernicus,  till  1551,  and  projected  other  works,  and 
partly  executed  them,  though  they  were  never  published^ 
of  various  kinds,  astronomical,  astrological,  geographical, 
i^hemical,  &c.  All  these  are  mentioned  in  his  letter  to 
Peter  Ramus  in  the  year  1568,  which  Adrian  Romanusin- 
serted  in  the  preface  to  the  first  part  of  his  Idea  of  Matbe* 

RHODIGINUS  (LuDOVicusCcEUUs),by  Scaligernamed- 
ibe  Varro  of  the  age,  was  a  learned  Italian,  whose  proper 
name  was  Ludovico  Celio  Richeri*  He  was  born  at  Rovigo 
about  1450,  and  studied  at  Ferrara  and  Padua,  and  France. 
On  his  return  to  Italy,  he  filled  the  office  of  public  professor 
at  Rovigo  for  some  years,  but  in  1503  opened  a  school  at 
Vicenza,  where  he  continued  till  1508,  when. he  was  in- 
vited to  Ferrara  by  duke  Alfonzo  I.  In  the  year  1515, 
Francis  I.  nominated  him  to  the  chair  of  Greek  and  Latin 
eloqtience  in  Milan,  as  successor  to  Demetrius  Chalcoody- 
lay.  In  1521  be  returned  to  Padua,  and  in  1523  he  was 
deputed  from  his  native  place  to  Venice,  to  congratulate 
the  new  doge.  In  1525  he  died  of  grief,  on  account  of  the 
defeat  and  capture  of  Francis  at  the  battle  of  Pavial  His 
principal  work  is  entitled  ^^  Antiquse  Lectioues,*V  of  which 
he  published  sixteen  books  at  Venice,  in  1516,  fol.  and 
*  fourteen  more  were  added  after  his  death  in  the  editions  of 
Basil,   1566,  and  Francfprt,  1^66.     Vastus  expresses  bfe 

1  Hntton'a  Diet.— >Vossi«if  dc  Scienf.  Mathemat— Melobior  AdMn.-^Morari. 

17*  K  fi  O  D  O  M  A  N: 

wonder^  aodi  even  indignation^  that  saleartfed  a  ixfiycdlaagr^ 
was  so  little  known.^ 

(  RHOOOMAN  (LAUR£NC£)y  a  leai'ned  German,  was  bom 
ifi  154^9.  at  Sassowerf,  belonging  to  the  counts  of  Stoifoerif 
in  Upper  Saxony,  wbo,  induced  by  an  early  dicpiay  of  ta«« 
}eiit%  bore  the  expence  of  his  education  at  the  college  «f 
Dfield.     He  continued  there  sis  years ;  and  made  so  great 
SI  progress  in  literature,  that  be  was  thought  fit  to  teach  in 
the  n»ost  eminent  schools  and  tbet.uTost  flourishing  universi^ 
ties.     He  was  especially  skilled  in  tbe  Greek  tongae,  and 
composed  some  Greek  verses,  wb'teb  were  much  adixHre<^> 
but  Scaliger  did  not  think  him  equally  bapf>y  in  Lati»^ 
poetry.     He  was  very  successful  in  a i  Latin  translations  of 
*^  Diodorus  Siculus,^'  which  Henry  Stepfhens  prevailed  otk 
him  to  undertake;  and  it  was  puUisbodin  16M,  with  Ste« 
pbens's  text.  He  translated  also  into  Lsitiri  the  Greek  poiefa 
of  Qnintus  Galaber,  concerning  the  taking  of  Troy;  and 
added  some  corrections  to  it.     At  last,  he  was  appointed 
professor  of  bistory  in  tbe  university  <^  Wittemberg,  and 
died  there  in  1606.     His  other  works  were,  1.  *^  Hiiatorid 
vitas  &  doctrrnas  Martini  Lutberi  carmine  heroico  descrip^ 
ta«'^     2.  ^^  Descriptio  Historiae  Ecclesiae,  sive  populi  Dei,^ 
PolitisB  ejusdem,  &  rerum  praecipuarum  quse  in  illo  populo 
acciderunt,  Grseco  carmine,  cum  versione  Latina  e  regione 
t^xtus  GraBci,"    Francof.  1581,  8vo.     3.  *^  Poesis  Chris* 
tiana,  id  est,  PalestinaB  sen  Histortae  sacras  Gra^o-Latinas* 
libri  9,"  Marpwrgi,  15S9;  Francof.   1590,  1630,  4lo.     4, 
*<  Tabulae  Etymologise  Grascae,'*  Francof.  1590,  ftvo.     A^ 
*f  Memnonis  Historia  de  IlepublicaHeraolieiisiiimy&  reh\» 
Popticis  EclogsB :  sen  excerptae  &  abbreviatae  narratiiMoes 
in  Sermonem  Latinum  translatae^,"  Helmstadii,  1591,  4to«. 
a.  "  Epitbalamia  sacra,"  Jenas,  15i94,  4to;     7.  **  Ex  Mem- 
none,  de  Tyrannis  Heracleae  Pontics  Ctesia  &  Agatbar-*- 
chide  excerptae  Historiae  Gree«^  &  JLatine  partim  ex  Laur^ 
Rhodomani    interpretatione,"    Geneva,    1593,    8vo.      8w 
*^  Theologiae.  Christianae  tyrocinia,  catdnine  betoico  Gva^ 
co-Latino  in  5  libros  digesta,"  Lips.  1597,  8va' 
.  RH  LINK  EN  (David),  an  eminent  scholar,  was  born  afe 
Stoipe  in  Ponierania,  on  tbe  2d  of  January,  1723.   .  Hirt 
parents,  being  in  good  circumstances,  and  of  the  belter 
order  of  tbe  b«irgesse8,.destioed  him,  from  his  early  years»  lor 

I  Vossiu»  Hist.  Lat Moreri.— Tirabos«hs.^Bb«Bi's  edMafa.*— £nui  Oo«- 

^  Gen.  Diet. — Bailiet  Jugemeos.—- Saxii  Oaornkst.    - 


R  H  U  N  K  E  N.  175 

the  okif rcbr  After  receiviag  sotne  inttruotioa  io  tbe  3obool 
of  Stolpe,  in  tbe  priocipies  of  his  mother-tongue,  be  was 
sept  first  to  Scblave,  and  afterwards  to  Koenigsberg,  for 
edtiCftiion  in  the  classical  languagesy  tiie  usoal  course  of 
wbicb  stodies  be  finished  attbe  age  of  twenty -two.  Witb 
some  diffiealty  he  then  obtained  bis  parents'  consent  to  re- 
pair to  Gottingen,  and  study  Greek  nndqr  Matthew  G^s* 
Der^^at  that  time  tbe  great  ornaraent  of  that  university.  On 
his  way  to  Gottingen^  he  passed  through  Berlin^  and  went- 
te«  ^sit  the  Saxon  university  of  Wiuenoberg.  There  be 
was  so  oiiich  pleased  with  the  lectures  and  conversation  of 
J*  D*  Kntter,  professor  of  history  and  civil  law,  and  of 
J.  W«  Berger,  professor  of  oratory  and  antiquities,  that  be 
persanded  his  parents  to  allow  him  to  continue  his  studies^ 
for  some  time  at  Wittemberg,  before  he  should  proceed  to 
Gotitingen.  He  remained  with  these  professors  two  yearSi- 
ftiid,  under  their  aaspices,  took  a  degree  in  laws.  He  went 
then  to  perfect  bis  knowledge  of  Greek,  not  with  Gesnerat 
Gottingen,  as  be  intended,  but  under  the  celebrated  Hem* 
sterhuis  of  Leyden.  Hemsterhurs  received  this  ingenuous- 
youth  with  great  kindness,  gave  him  the  readiest  a6sisuiiice> 
in  bis  favourite  studies,  recommended  him  to  good  employe 
ment  as  a  tutor,  and  at  length  used  e^^ery  means  to  -secure- 
tiis  af^ointment  toa  professorship  in  the  university  in  which 
he  himself  taught*  Hbunken  appUed  with  great  seal  t<> 
Gveek  >and  Roirian  literature,  and  at  the  same  time  made- 
bkaself  highly  acceptable  by  tbe  gentleness  of  bis  manners, 
tbe  liveliness  of  his  conversation,  and  by  his  taste  anc)  skill 
in  the  favourite  amusements  of  the  place*  . 

His  6rst  printed  display  of  critical  Greek  erudition,  was 
ip^an  epistle  upon  certain  Greek  commentaries  on  the  title 
in  the  Digest  De  Adtocatis  et  Procuratoribust  He  gave 
next,  at  Hemsterhuis's  persuasion,  an  edition  of  the  Greek 
LaxieoD  of  Timsus,  for  the  illustration  of  words  and  phrases 
peculiar  to  Plata  ThiBivas  published  in  1754,  8vo.  Next 
year  be  went  to  Pafis^  with  a  view  chieBy  to  inspect  the 
libraries  of  that  city  and  their  manuscript  treasures.  Here 
he  formed  an  acquaintance  with  Dr.  S.  Musgrave  and -Mr. 
T.  Tyrwbitt,  who  was  then  examining  some  of  the  MSS.^ 
particvlarly  those  of  Euripides.  During  a  year's  residence 
in  that  metropolis,  Rhunken  passed  most  of  bis  time  in  the 
king's  library,  and  in  that  of  the  Benedictines  of  St.  Ger-> 
main's ; '  transcribed  a  number  of  unprinted  remains  of  an. 
eient  Uterature,  and  ooH&ted  many  manuscripts  and  rare 

176,  R  H  U  N  K  E  N. 

editions  of  the  most  popular  classical  authors..    Ih  Ocfobef  > 
1 757  be  was  appointed  reader  in  Greek  lit^ature,  .and  thus 
became  assistant  to  Hemsterbuis  in  the  university  of  Ley*, 
den,    and  upon  the  death  of  peudendorp,  professor  of 
.Latin  oratory  and  history,  be  was  advanced  to  the- vacant,, 
chair  of  that  eminent  scholar.     In  1763,  be  married  Ma-, 
rianne  Heirmans,  a  young  lady  of  uncommon  beauty  and 
accomplishments,  the  daughter  of  a  gentleman  who  bad, 
long  resided  as  Dutch  consul  at  Leghorn. 

In  the  course  of  his  studies  he  discovered  in  Aldus's  coI«  ^ 
lection  of  the  "  Rbetores  GrsBci,^'    a  valuable  fragment,, 
unknown  to  modern  scholars,  of  the  treatise  of  Longinusoa. 
the  Subljime,  which  was,  by  his  favour,  afterwards  pub- 
lishied  in  Toup's  excellent  edition  of  that  work.     On  the 
death  of  his  old  master  Hemsterhuis,  be.  did  justice  to.  his. 
memory  in  an  elaborate  eulogy,  from  which  our  account  of 
Hemsterhuis  was  taken.     He  soon  after  published  an  excel-, 
lent  edition  of  the  rhetorical  treatise.of  Rutilijas  Lupus,  andi 
in.  17.79,  a  most  valuable  edition  of  Velleius  Paterculus» 
Next  year  be  gratified  the  learned  world  with,  the-  Hymoa. 
of  Homen     One  of  his  last  labours  was, the  supetintending 
a  new. edition  of  Scheller^s  Latin  dictionary^  With. all  these, 
studies,  as  well  as  his  professional  engagen^ents,  hefaundi 
leisure  to  attend  to  the  pleasures  of  the  chase,  of  whicb  he. 
was  very  fond.     He  died  May  14,  1798,.  in.  the  76tb. year. 
of  his  age.     He  left  a  niece  and  a  daughter  tptally  uupror 
vided  for,  but  the- government. of  Batavia  purchased  bi^i 
library  for  a  pension  granted  to  tbem.    This  library « was. 
rich  in  scarce  books,  and  valuable .  transcripts  from  otbor. 

Wbyttembacb,  whom  we  have  followed  in,  this,  sketch,;. 
draws  the  character  of  Rbunkenius  at  some  length*.    His. 
knowledge  and  hi$  learning  are  unquestioned.     In  otb^r 
respects  be  was  lively,  cheerful,  andga)'',  almost  to >crimi-«. 
nal  indifference,  but  he  knew  bis  own  value  and  conse*, 
quence.     He  said  once  to  Villoison,  '^  Why  did  not  yj^VL 
come  to  Leyden  to  attend  Valckenaer  and  me  ?*'  He  ooce< 
showed,  with  pride,  a  chest  of  MSS.  of  Joseph  Scaiiger  to 
a  Swede    called.  Biornsiball — '<  Ah!"    said  Biornsthall, 
^^Ihis  is  a  man  who  wants  judgment,'*  alluding  to  his.epi- 
taph,  but  playing  a  little  too  severely  on  the  equivoque. 
Rbunkenius  grew  angry,  and  replied  with,  warmtbr  ^^  Be^ 
gone  with  your  ignorance-'^ — "  aufer  te  bine  ciam,  tuo  slu-. 
pore.''    A  German  professor,  to  whom,  b^ showed  th^  same 

R  m;  14  s:  f:  N.  m 

colliittkHi^  oWferted,  «  We  i<6w  write  in  Qetx^Xij  mtht 
own  language,  and  cannot  comprehend  the  ob«titiacy  of 
those  who  continue  to  write  in  Latin***  **  Professor,'*  re- 
plfed'  Rhfurikeniils,  <«  look  thert  fbr  a  lihtarjr  bf  Getman 
bd6ks,*'  i-eftssing  to  show  Mm  ^y  thing  iifiot«.*  ^ 

KIBADENEIRA  (PiftEti),  a  celebrated  Spartish  Jesnltl^ 
wcfcs  botn  at  Toledo,  in  1^27;  fend  was  enrolled  liy  St.  Igw' 
imtitls  Among  bis  fevonrite  di4*i^l64  in  1540,  before  thft'. 
socidtjrbf  the  Je^stiits  had  received  the  papal  ^nctioii.'    Iti' 
1*542  be  studied  ftt  Paris,  dtid  feftei^wferdsf  at  Padufe,  whef^^ 
be  was  sent  to  Palenrio  ib  tendh  rb^oric.    After  many,  and 
long  travds  for  fh6  prdpagati^h  of  thi*  interestar  of  ttie'  so-' 
ciety  in  vdiriott^  prirts  of  Eui^obe,  h^  died  dt  MadHd,  Oct. 
Ji   1611.     One  of  \i\i  Visits  was  with  the  duke  6f  Fefii  td' 
England,  in  1558,  Md  bis  inquiries  ben^,  or  what  he  mside' 
8ul^eqti6hrly,  c^Cotffaged  hihi  to  publish  a  treatise  "Oi^ 
tbe^  English  schism/^'  1594,  Bi^o,  in  which,  it  is  said,  theiTeT 
is  less  rancour  abdAbrichony  than  might  have  been  expect-' 
edj '  sihti  iome  ciurlatfs  anecdotes  respecting^  the  piersonal 
cbara6t<hr  6f  que^ii  Mary.     He  is,  howevier,  chitfly  known 
for  bfs 'Lires  of  vfeiious  Saints  a^d  J^sttits,  and  as  thefotin- 
dc^r  6f  tbdt  biography  of  the  Jesuits  which  Alegambe  iind 
otb^ti^aflerwiirds  idiprdi^eil  itit^d^a  work  of  s6me  importance/ 
Oflfe  df  hi&  priiidpal  li^^s,  pfdblished  se^ratdy,  is  that  of 
the  founder,  St.  fgnalius  de  Loyola.    Oi?  this  work  there^ 
bav6  been  se^ei^l  editions,  the  first  iii  1572,  and  the  se-^* 
dond  with  addtttons  in  1 5S7,  in  neither  of  which  he  ascribes' 
any  miracles  td  his  master,  and  is  so  far  frbmi  supposing  ^^i^' 
tbaf  he  enters  into  an  itiquiry,  whence  it  couM  happen  thatr 
so  holy  a  man  had  not  the  gift'of  miracles  bestowed  upon 
bim,  tod  really  assigns  very  sensible  ireasohs.    But  notwith* 
standing  all  this,  in  an  abridged  edition  6f  his  life  of  Igtia- 
tius,  published  at  Ipresin  1612,  miracles  are  ascribed  to 
Ignatius,  and  Ribadeneira  is  nlade  to  assign,  as  fais^  reason' 
for  ndt  in^rting  sucU  aecoiints  before,  that  though  h^  heani 
dftbetid  iti  1572,  dieywere  not  Sufficiently  authenticated. 
Bishop  Douglas,  who  i^  inclined  to  blame  Rib^d^neira  for 
this  insufficient  apology,  ha$  omitted  to  notice  that  jfchid' 
Ipres  edition  of  the  life  was  published  a  ye^r  after  Ribade- 
neirk'is  ddatfit,  and  therefore  it  i^  barely  possible  that  the 
miracles,  and  all  that  is  said  aboiit  thefm,  might  have  been* 

supplied  by  some  zealous  brother  of  the  order*  His  ^'  Lives 


>  yil*  RhnnkMii,  by  Whyttenbaeh. 

Vol.  XXVI.  N 

179  \R  I  e  A  R  D.    : 

of  the  Saints^*  were  translated  into  EagHsb^  and  published 
in  2  vols,  8vo.* 


RICARD  (Dominic),-  a  learned  French  writer,  was  born 
at  Toulouse, 'March  25,  1741,  aod  entered  into  the  con- 
gregation of  the  Christian  doctrine,  and  became  a  distin^ 
guished  professor  in  it. .  He  quitted  the  society  after  some 
years,  and  took  up  his '  residence  at  Paris,  where  he  em- 
ployed himself  in  instructing  youth,  and  in  literary  pur8uit3« 
He  was  celebrated  for.  bis  deep  knowledge  in  the  Greek 
langui^e,  and  engaged  in. the  great  task  of  translating  tb€^ 
whole  works,  of  Plutarch;  .  .Between  the  years  1783  and 
1795  he  publbhed  bis  version  of  that  philosopher's  moral 
works,  hi  17  vol$..12nio;  of  the  Lives  be  only  published  4 
vols.  12mo.  He.published  likewise  a  poem,  entitled  **  La 
Sphere,"  in  eight  cantos,  .1796,  8vo,  which  contains  a 
system  of  astronomy  and.  geography,  enriched  with  notes, 
and  notices  of  Greeks  Latin,  and  French  poems,  treating 
on  astronomical  subjects.  Ricard  died  in  1803,  lament^ 
as  a  fnan  of  most  friendly  and. benevolent  disposition.* 

RICAUT,  or  RYCAVt  (Sir  Pjciii),  an  English  tr^veU 
ler,  was  the  tenth  son  of  sir  Peter  Ricaut,  probably  a  .mer- 
chant in;  London,,  and  the  author  of  some  useful  worksy 
who  was  one  of  the  persons  excej^ted  in  the  /^  Propositions 
of  the  Lords  and  Comtnons^ '  assen^bled  in  parliament,  *^  for 
1^  safe  and.  well* grounded  peace,  July  11,  164^,  sent  tp 
Charles  I.  at  Newcastle."  He  also  paid  .<£.  1500  for  his 
composition,  and  taking. part  with  his  unhappy  sovereign^. 
Ais  son  Paul  was  born  in  London,  and  admitted  scholar  of 
Trinity  college,  Cambridge,  in  1647,  where  he  took  hi^ 
bachelor's  degree^  in  1650.  After  this  he^ravelled  many 
years,  not  only  in  Europe,  but  also  in  Asia  and  Africa  | 
s^nd  was  employed  in  soinp  public  services.*  In  166 1,  when 
the  earl  of  Winchelsea  was  sent  ambassador  extraordinary 
to  the  Ottoman  Porte,  he  went  as  his  secretary;  and  vvhile 
he  continued  in  that  station,  which  was*  eight  years^  he 
^  wrote  **  The  present  State  of  the  Ottoman  Empire,  in  three 
books ;  containing  the  Maxims  of  the  Turkish  fplitie,  their 
Religion,  and  Military  £>iscipUne,"  illustrated  with  figures, 
^nA  printed  at  London,  1670,  in  folip,  and  16?5  in  Svp, 
and  translated  into  French  by  Bespier,  with  notes^  andani? 

_  '  Alegam)>e. — ^OougUs's  Crilerion,  p.  64.— Diet.  Hitt:— Freheri'Tbeatnidir 
'«  Diet.  HUt. 

R  I  '6  A  tJ  T.  i|d 

tufladyersions  on  some  mistakes.     During  the  same  time,  he; 
htid  occasion  to  take  two  voyages  from  Constantinpple  to 
L-ondon ;,    one  of  them  was  by  land,   through  Hungary, 
wjiere  he  remained  some  time  in  the  Turkish  camp  with  the 
famous  vizier,  Kuperlee,  on  business  relating  to  England, 
in  1663  be  published  the  ^^  Capitulations,  articles  of  peace,^* 
&c.  concluded  between  England  and  the  Porte,  which  were 
very  much  to  our  mercantile  advantage,  one  article  being 
that  English  ships  should  be  free  from  search  or  visit  under 
pretence  of  foreign  goods,  a  point  never  secured  in  any 
former  treaty.     After  having  meritoriously  discharged  his 
office  of  secretary  to  lord  Whichelsea,  be  was  made  consul 
for  the  English  natidn  at  Smyrna ;  and  during  his  residence 
tb^re,  at  the  command  of  Charles  II.  composed  "  The  pre- 
sent Slate  of  the  Greek  and  Armenian  ChQrches,anno  Chris- 
ti  1678,''  wbi^h,'upon  h'is  retuVn  to  England,  h^  presented 
with  his  own  hands  to  his  majesty;  and  it  was  published  in 
1679,  8vo.     Having  acquitted  Fumself,    for  the  space  of 
eleven  years,  to  the  entire  satisfaction  of  the  Turkey  com- 
pany, he  obtained  leave  to  return  to  England,  where  he 
lived  in  honour  and  good  esteefn.     The  earl  of  Clarendon, 
being  appointed  lord  lieutenant  of  Ireland  in  1685,  made 
him  his  principal  secretary  for  th^  provinces  of  Leinster 
abd  Connaught;  an'd  James  II.  knighted  him,  constituted 
Kim  one  of  the  prJvy  council  for  Ireland,  and  judge  of  the 
high  court  of  admiralty,-  which  h^  enjoyed  tilt  the  revolu- 
tion in  1688.     Soon  after  this,  he  was  employed  by  king 
William  as  his  resident  with  the  Hanse-towns  in  Lower 
Saxony,  namely,  Hamburg,  Lubeck,  and  Bremen  ;  where 
he  continued  for  ten  years,  and  gave  the  utmost  satisfac- 
tion.    At  lengthy  worn  out  with  age  and  inBrmities,  he 
bad  le^ve  in  1700  to  return  to  England,  where  he  died, 
I)ec.  16  oF  that  year.'    He  wis  fellow  of  the  Royal  Society 
for  many  yeai^s  before  his  decease;'  and  a  paper  of  his, 
upon  the  **  Sable  Micd,'*  or  "  Mures  Norwegici,'*  is  pub- 
lished in  the  Philosophical  Transactions.     He  understood 
•perfectly  the  Greek,  both  ancient  and  modern,  the  Turk- 
isb^  Latin,  Italian,  and  French  languages. 
,  H^  was  the  author  of  other  productions,  besides  those' 
ajready  mentioned.     He  wrote  a  continuation  of  Knolles^s 
^*  history  of  the  Turks,"  from   1623  to  16-77,  1680,  in 
folio;  and  again  from  1679  to  1699,   1700,  in  folio,  mak- 
itig,  together  with  Knolles's,  three  volumes.     He  was,  from. 
Urn  fptdk  knowtedge  of  Turkish  affairsi  better  qualiNv 

1^  2 

ISO  R  I  C  A  U  T* 

than  any  other  person  for  this  work,  but  he  is  inferio;*  ia 
Koollest  in  historical  naerit  He  continued  Platina's  '*  LiveM 
of  the  Pqpes^*'  from  1471  to  his  own  time,  and  translated 
from  the  Spanish  of  Garcilasso  de  la  Vega,  into  English, 
^*  The  Royal  Commentaries  of  Peru,  in  two  parts,*'  folio ; 
and  "li'hjB  Spanish  Critic,'*  1681,  8vo,  from  Gratian.' 

RICCATI  (VinceNiT),  an  able  mathematician,  was  born 
in  17Q7  at  Castel. Franco,  in  the  territory  of  Treviso,  and 
in  1726  entered  among  the  Jesuits,  and  taught  mathematics 
at  Bologna,  till  the,  suppression  of  his  order  in  1773.  At 
this  period  he  returned  to  his  native  place,  and  died  there 
of  acholic,  in  1775,  aged  sixty-eight,  leaving  some  good 
mathematical  works ;  among  others,  a  large  treatise  on  the 
''  Integral  Calculus,**  3  vols.  4to.  He  had  been  much  em^ 
ployed  in  hydraulics,  and  such  was  the  importance  of  his 
services  in  this  branch,  that  the  republic  of  Venice  or* 
dered  a  gold  medal,  worth  a  thousafod  livres,  to  be  struck 
in  honour  of  him,  in  1774.* 

RICCI.     See  CRINITUS,  Peter. 

RICCI  (Matthew),  a  celebrated  Jesuit,  was  bom  Oct« 
6,  1552,  of  a  good  family  at  Macerata.  He  went  to  the 
Indies,  finished  his  theological  studies  at  Goa,  taught  rhe- 
toric there,  and  being  in  the  mean  time  appointed  mis^ 
sionary  to  China,,  learnt  the  language  of  that  country,  nor 
did  he  neglect  mathematics^  which  be  had  studied  at  Rooae 
under  the  learned  Clavius.  After  many  troubles  and  diffi- 
culties, he  arrived  at  Pekin,  where  he  was  esteemed  by 
the  emperor,  the  mandarins,  and  all  the  learned,  acquii^sld 
great  reputation,  drew  a  map  for  the  Chinese,  and  was 
permitted  to  preach  the  Cbx'iscian  religion.  He  purchased 
a  house  at  Pekin,  where  he  built  a  church,  and  died  there, 
in  1610,  aged  fifty-eight,  leaving  some  very  cirrious  me<- 
moirs  respecting  China,  which  &ther  f  rigaalt  has  made 
use  of  in  writing  his  history  of  that  vast  empire.  Father 
d^Orleans^  a  Jesuit,  who  published  a  ^*  Life  of  Ricci,**  In 
)693,  12mo,  says,  that  this  father  drew  up  a  short  cate* 
cbism^^for  the  Chinese,  in  which  he  introduced  scarcely  afiy 
but  such  points  of  morality  and  religion  as  are  most  con« 
fiormable  to  Christianity.  These  words  of  father  d*Orleafis, 
aays  L*Avocat,  have  furnished  the  eaemies  of  the  Jesuits^ 
with  abundant  patter  for  critical  reflectrona.* 

'  Y  Biog.  Brit.— Cold's  MSS.  Atheuae  Cantab,  in  Brit  Mus.— Henry  Clarendoi^j 
estate  Lettera." — Granger. 
,  »  VaVffMi  Vta  lnOoruaw  vol.  XVI.         »  Marefi-^aict.  Hte  dkli^Atodib 

R  I  C  C  I.  ill 

RICCI  (Michael  Angelo),  a  learned  Italian  eccte* 
siasticy  was  born  at  Rome  in  1 6 1 9.  He  was  created  a  car- 
dinal in  168 1,  but  did  not  long  enjoy  that  dignity,  as  he 
died  in  1689,  at  the  age  of  sixty-four.  He  was  well  skilled 
in  the  pnre  mathematical  sciences,  and  published  at  Rome, 
in  4to,  "  Exercitatio,  Geometrica,"  a  small  tract,  x^-hicfh  was 
reprinted  at  London,  and  annexed  to  Mercator's  *^  Logarith«* 
motechnta,''  chiefly  on  account  of  the  excellency  of  the 
argument  *' de  maximis  et  minimis,^'  or  the  doctrine  of 
limits;  where  the  author  shows  a  deep  judgment  in  ex- 
iiibiting  the  means  of  reducing  that  lately  discovered  doc<^ 
trine  to  pure  geometry.  * 

RIOCI  (Sebastian),  an  artist  of  temporary  feme,  was 
born  at  Belinno,  near  Trevisano,  in   1659;   and  having 
discovered  an  early  genius  for  painting,  was  conducted  bv 
his  father  to  Venice,  and  placed  as  i,  disciple  with  Fred. 
Gervelli,  a  Milanese  artist  of  good  reputation,  with  whom 
he  studied  for  nine  years.     He  afterwards  improved  hi9 
"practice  at  Bolo^a,  &c.  by  copying,  and  obtained  the  fa- 
vour and  patronage  of  Rannuccio,    the  second  duke  of 
I^arma.     By  the  liberality  of  that  prince,  he  was  honour^ 
ably  maintained  at  Rome,  studying  the.  productions  of  the 
best  ancient  and  mx)dern  masters ;  and  there  he  formed  that 
manner  which  distinguishes  his  productions,  and  for  a  while 
raised  hint  into  the  highest  esteem.    Having  quitted  Rome, 
iie  retunied  to  Venice,  where  be  was  so  eageriy  solicited 
for  his  paintings,  that  he  had  scarcely  time  to  take  even 
necessary  refreshment.     His  fame  spread  through  Europe^ 
axid  he  received  an  invttation  to  the  court  of  the  emperor 
at  Vienna,  to  adorn  the  magnificent  palace  of  Schoenbrun^ 
From  thence  he  was  encouraged  to  vi^it  London,  where  he 
was  immediately  and  incessantly  employed  by  the  court, 
the  nobility,  and  persons  of  fortune.     Here  he  remained 
ten  years,  with  his  nephew  and  coadjutor,  Marco  Ricci, 
who  painted  skilfully  scenes  of  architecture  and  landscape 
at  Burlington  house  /and  Bulstrode.     He  acquired  great 
wealth  by  the  immense  opcupa^on  be  found ;  and  then 
returned  to  Venice,  where  be  remained  until  his  dejeith, 
in  1 734,  tn  the  seventy-fifth  year  of  his  age. 
"    Ricci  was  one  pf  the  few,  comparatively  speaking,  who 
enjoy  during  their  livefi  ttie  utmost  extent  of  their  fam^. 
In  bis  history,  that  portion  of  renown  which  attaches  to 

1  HtttCon'i  I>ict.«-^Ufidi  Hilt.  Lit.  d'luUe.-^FAbrottt  VHil  tXtX.  tol.  II. 

182  RICO  I.* 

bim  4^ei  with  him,  or  nearly  so.     In  fact,  be  «iras  a  ina^. 

phinist,  one  who,  being  conversant  in  the  rules  of  art,  and 
skilful  in  the  application  of.  the  means,  dazzled  where  be. 
could  not  instruct,  and  deluded  by  ingenuity  without judg«^ 
ment,  and  art  without,  expression.  His  works  ..ace  to  be 
found  in  many  of  our  great  bouses,  as  svell  as  tboae^  of  his 
nephew.  At  Chelsea,  where  be.  painted  the  altar-piece, 
and  at  the  British  ]M[useiiiii|.the]:.e.a][^. considerable  pictures 
of  bis  p^inting^  bijit  they  do  not  ris^  in  esteem  by  continued 
observat^n ;  and  yet,  unfortunately,  they  had  sui&cient 
influence  in  their  day  to  lead  the  artists  astray  frofp  the 
contemplation  and  imitation  of  the  works  of  KaphaeK  and 
the  greater  masters  of  the  Italian  school.  Walpole  informs 
us  that  Sebastian  excelled  particularly  in  imitations  of  Paul 
Veronese,  many  of  which  he  sold  for  originals ;  and  onc4^ 
deceived  even  La  Fossjs.  When  the  latter  was  conviiicecl 
of  the  imposition,  be  gave  this  severe  but  just , reprimand 
to  Sebastian  :  ^'  For  the  future  take. my  advice;  paint  no-^ 
thing  but  Paul  Veroneses,  and  .no  more  Ri<x;is/'  ^0)^4 
Orfprd  adds  that  Ricci  left  England  on  finding  it  d^ter^ 
mined  ^'  thp.t  ^jr  James  Thornhill  should  paint  the  cupda 
of  St  Paul  V"'     ■   '  ;  '  .   ,    ? 


RICCIOLI  (John  Baptist),  a  learned  Italian  astirono* 
mer,  philosopher,  and  mathematician^  was  born  in  1598, 
at  Ferrara,  a  city  in  Italy,  in  the  dominions  of  the  pppcf* 
l^t  sixteen  years  of  age  be  was  admitted  into  th^  society  o^ 
the  Jesuits,  and  the  progress  he  made  in  every  branch  c^ 
literature  and  science  was  surprising.  He  was  first  appointed 
to  teach  rhetoric,  poetry,  philosophy,  and  scholastic  divi- 
pity,  in  the  Jesuits*  colleges  at  Parma  and  JBoIogna ;  yet 
applied  himself  in  the  mean  time  to  making  observations 
?f}  geography,  chronology,  and  astronomy.  This  was  his 
li^turaj  ijent,  and  at  lengtMie  obtained  leave  from  his  sii«t 

Seriors  to  qujt  all  other  employment,  that  he  might  devote 
imself  entirely  to  those  sciences.  , , 

He  projected  a  large  work,  to  be  divided  ^ntQ  three 
parts,  and  to  cont^n  a  complete  system  of  philosophical^ 
mathematical,  and  astronoinicall  knowledge. .  The  first\f>f 
these  parts,  which  regards  astronomy,.. came  out  at  Bo* 
logna  in  1651,  2  vols,  folio,  with  this  title, .  ^f  J.  B.  RiccioU 
Almagestum   Novum,    Astronomiam   yeterem  novamcju^i 

^  Piftinston.— WalpolVs  Aneodotft.— fieeB*t  Cydopsdia. 

R  I  C  C  I  O  L  I.  185 

ctuoaplectens,  ^objservatioDilHis  uliofuin  et  propriu/DoVisque' 
tbeorematibus,  picobjem^tihus  ac  ta^yqlis  promotam:*' .  lUc* 
cdoli  ifQiutied  Ptolemy  in  this  work,  by  collecting  dod.di*. 
gj^sUng  into  proper  order,  with  observations,  every  thing* 
ifiiqient  and  mpdern,  which  related  to  bis  subject ;  so  that 
Qjffi^endus  very  justly  called  his  work,  ^^  Promptuarium  et 
thes^uruQi  iugentem  Aatronomiia.*'  In  the  first  volume  of 
this  work,,  he  treats  of  the  sphere  of  the  world,  of  the  sun 
and  moon,  with  their  eclipfiies ;  of.  the  fixed  stars,  of  the 
planets,  of  ttve  comets,^  and  newst^rs,  of  the  several  m^iin- 
dane  sy^ms,  and  six  sections  of  general  problems  serving' 
tp  astronomy,  &c.  In  the  second  volume,  be  treats  of. 
t^-igqnometry,  or  the  doctrine  of  plane  and  8phei'ic9l  txian-- 
gles ;,  proposes  to  giye  a  treatise  of  astronomical  igsitri^-. 
Qiepts,  and  the  optical  part  of  astronomy-  (which  part  was: 
never  published) ;  treats  of  geography,  hydrography,  witbt- 
an  epitOirne  of  chronology.  The  third  conipi^bcnds  ob- 
seivi^tions  of  the, sun,  moon,  eclipses,  fixed  stars,  and  pla«r 
sets,  with  precepts  find  tables  pf  tbp  primary  and  seqpn-. 
flary  motions,  and  other  astronomical  tables..  Bij[:ci(olji 
printed  also,  two  jofiher  works,  in  folio,  a,t  Bologna,  viz. 
2,  ^^Astronomia  ^efprmata,"  166jf;  the  design  of  which 
was,  that  of  considering  the  various  hypotheses  of  several 
astronomers,  and  the  di^culty  thence  arising  of  concljiding 
^ny  thing  certain,  by  comparing  together  all  the  best  ob-i 
nervations,  ^nd  eix^mining  what  is  most  certain  in  them, 
thence  to  reform  the  principles  of  astronomy.  3.  **  CbrO'* 
fiologta  Reformata,"  1669.  Riccioli  died  in  1671,  atse-» 
yenty-three  years  of  age.*       » ,  . 

RICCOBONi  (Louis),  a  com^c  actor  and  writer,  bora 
at  Modenain  ]1674,  came  to  France  in  1716,  and  distin* 
guished  himself  as  the  best  actor  at  the  Theatre  Italien. 
Religious  motives  induced  him  to  quit  the  stage  in  1729  ; 
and  be  died  in  1753,  much  esteemed  for  the  decency  of 
his  manners,  and  bis  amiable  disposition. .  He  was.  the  an* 
thor  of  a  number  of  comedies,  which  Ijad  a  temporary  suc- 
cess, and  which  contain  much  comic  humour.  One  of 
them,  entitled  **  Les  Coquets,*'  was  revived  a  few  yearf 
since.  He  also  wrote  ^^  Pens^es  sur  la  Declamation ;'' 
**  Discours  sur  la  Reformation  du  Theatre ;''  **  Observa'* 
tions  sur  la  Comedie  et  sur  ie  Genie  de  Moliere  ;"  "  Re* 
^exions  Historiques  et  Critiques  sue  les  Theatres  de  TEu- 

I  FabroBt  Vila  italoron,  toL  U.— Hnttoa^t^DicUoMrj. 

]f4  R  1  C  C  O  B  O  1*  I. 

rope;**  and  ^'Histoire  da  Theatre  Itaties,-'  t  Tdsi  S##; 
which,  with  bis  **  Reflections  Historical  and-Griticat  ujfKMI 
all  the  Theatres  of  Europes'*^  which  appearedin  17S8|  ooft- 
tains  tpaoy  judicious  observations  relative  to  the  stage  iW 
general,  and  to  the  lyric  theatre  in  particular.  His  second 
wife,  Marie  Laboras  de  Meziek£s,  was  also  an  actress 
on  the  Italian  theatre,  which  she  quitted  with  her  husband  i 
but  her  writings  are  novels,  the  scenes  of  which  she  fre- 
quently laid  in  England.  They  are  all  of  the  sentitAental 
csM.  She  also  translated  Fielding^s  *^  Amelia/*  Her  works 
were  printed  collectively  in  10  volunoes,  Neufehatel,  .l2ino, 
and  Paris,  9  vols.  i2mo,  and  some  of  her  novels  have  beeto 
translated  into  English.  She  died  Dec.  6,  1792,  reduced 
by  the  troubles  of  the  time  to  a  state  approaching  to  want; 
aad  soon  after  a  new  edition  of  her  works,  with  a  life,  ap* 
J^ared  in  18  vols.  12mo.^ 

RICHARD,  abbot  of  St.  Victor  in  the  twelfth  cehfciiry, 
was  a  native  of  Scotland.  After  such  education  as  his 
country  afibrded,  in  polite  literature,  the  sacred  Wriptures, 
and  mathematics,  which  we  are  told  were  the  objects  of  his 
early  studies,  he  went,  as  was  much  the  custom  then,  to 
Pans.  Here  the  fame  of  Hugh,  abbot  of  St.  Victor,  in- 
<ltlced  him  to  retire  into  that  monastery,  that  he  might 
l^ursue  bis  theological  studies  under  so  great  a  master.  At 
the  regular  periods  be  took  the  habit,  was  admitted  into 
holy  orders,  and  so  mueh  acquired  the  esteem  of  his  bre- 
thren, that  in  1164,  upon  the  death  of  Hugh,  they  tinani- 
mously  chose  him  their  prior,*  in  which  station  he  remained 
until  his  death,  March  10,  1173.  During  this  time  he 
composed  many  treatises  on  subjects  of  practical  divinity, 
and  on  scripture  criticism,  particularly  on  the  description 
of  Solomon's  temple,  Ezekiel's  temple,  and  ontheappa* 
rent  contradictions  in  the  bboks  of  Kings  and  Chrontcies, 
respecting  the  reigns  of  thie  kings  of  Judah  and  Israel. 
Dupin  speaks  rather  favourably  of  these  treatises.  They 
were  all  published  at  Paris  in  1518,  and  1540,  in  2^  vols, 
folio,  at  Venice  in  1592,  at  Cologne  in  1621,  and  at  Rouen 
in  1650,^  which  is  reckoned  the  nest  edition.* 

RICHARD,  called  ANGLICUS,  was  an  English  pby- 
stcian,  who  flourished  about  1230.  He  is  said  to  have  stu- 
died first  at  Oxford,  and  then  at  Paris,  and  attained  a  high 
degree  of  eminence  in  his  profession.     Tanner  giveti  a  list 

J  Diet  l!$8e.  ♦C>iye.--IhipW.--Btacienk!«'s  Scotch  tTritew,  toI.  I, 

R  I  C  H  A  R  D.  185 

of  bis  works,  none  of  which  appear  to  have  been  published. 
Some  of  his  MSS.  are  in  the  New  college  library,  Oxford.' 

RICHARD,  archbishop  of  Armagh  in  the  fourteenth 
<:entury,  called  sometimes  Armachanus,  and  sonietimes 
FiTZ-RALPH,  which  was  bis  family  name,  is  supposed  to 
have  been  born  in  Devonshire,  or,  according  to  Harris,  at 
Dundalk,  ib  the  county  of  Louth.  He  was  educated  partly 
at  University,  and  partly  at  Balliol,  college,  Oxford,  under 
the  tuition  of  John  Baconthorp,  whom  we  have  already  no- 
ticed as  an  eminent  scholar  of  that  age.  He  made  great 
progress  in  philosophy,  divinity,  and  civil  law,  and 'became 
BO  great  a  philosopher  and  logician,  ^'  and  in  both  sorts  of 
theology  so  famed,  that  the  whole  university  ran  to  his 
lectures  as  bees  to  their  hive.''  He  commenced  doctor  of 
divinity  at  Oxford,  and  in  1333  was  commissary-general 
of  that  university,  whence  some  authors  have  called  him 
chancellor;  but,  according  to  Collier,  the  office  he  held 
was  only  somewhat  superior  to  that  of  vice-chancellor.  Hit 
first  church  promotion  was  to  the  chancellorship  of  the 
church  of  Lincoln,  in  July  1334  ;  he  was  next  made  arch- 
deacon of  Chester  in  1336,  and  dean  of  Lichfield  in  April 
1337*  These,  or  some  of  them,  he  owed  to  the  favour  of 
Edward  IIL  to  whom  he  was  recommended  as  well  deserv- 
ing his  patronage. 

While  at  Oxford  he  bad  distinguished  himself  by  his 
opposition  to  the  mendicant  friars,  whose  affectation  of 
poverty,  and  other  superstitions  and  irregularities,  he  ex- 
posed in  his  lectures.  They  were  therefore  not  a  little 
alarmed  when,  iu  1347,  he  was  advanced  to  the  arch- 
bishopric of  Armagh ;  and  with  some  reason  ;  for,  when 
about  ten  years  afterwards,  he  returned  to  England,  and 
found  the  contest  very  warm  concerning  preaching,  hear- 
ing confessions,  and  other  points,  in  which  the  friars  en- 
croached on  the  jurisdiction  of  the  parochial  priests,  he 
preached  several  sermons,  the  substance  of  which  was ; 
that  in  cases  of  confession  the  parish  church  is  to  be  pre-^ 
ferred  to  the  church  of  the  friars  ;  that  for  confession  the 
parishioners  pught  rather  to  apply  to  the  parson  or  curate 
than  to  a  friar;  that  notwithstanding  our  Lord  Jesus  Christ 
was  poor,  when  he  conversed  on  earth,  yet  it  does  not  ap- 
pear that  be  affected  poverty ;  that  he  did  never  beg,  nor 
make  profession  of  voluntary  poverty  ;  that  he  never  taught 

1  LelaiMi— B«le.— Pitt.— Ttnner, 

fSfi  R  I  C  H  A  R  D. 

Pi^ople  to  mj^kie  a  choice  and  profession  of  beggary ;  tba^. 
on  tbe  contrary,  he  held  that  men  ought  not  to  beg  by  in-, 
cjlination,  ^or. without  being  forced  to  it  by  neeesfity  ;  jtbat' 
there  is  neither  sense  nor  religion  in  vowing  voluntary  and 
perpetual  beggary ;  that  it  is  not  agreeable  to  the  rule  of 
Obsery.ant  or  Friars  Minorites,  to  be  under  engagemjents 
of  voluntary  pov^ty,  &c.  &c.  The  friars  were  so  enraged 
at  these  propositions,  which  certainly  shew  considerable 
freedom  of  sentiment^  tha);  they  procured  him  to  be  cited, 
before  pope  Jnnoceut  VI.  at  Avignon,  where  he  defended 
his  opinions  with  great  6rmness,  and  maintained  them,, 
although  with  no  littl/e  danger  frop  the  malice  of  his  op- 
ponents, to  the  end  pf  his  life.  The  age,  however,  was 
not  prepared  to  listen  to  him,  and  the  pope  decided  in 
favour  of  the  friars. 

He  died  Nov.  16,  1360,  at  Avignon,  not  without  sus^^ 
picion  of  poison.  Fox  says  that  a  certain  cardinal,  hear- 
ing of.  his  death,  declared  openly,  that  a  mighty  pillar  of 
Christ^s  church  was  fallen.  He  was  unquestionably  a  man. 
of  great  talents  and  sound  judgment.  Perhaps  his  be§|: 
panegyric  is  his  being  ranked,  by  some  catholic  writers, 
among  heretics.  Archbishop  Bramhall  had  so  great  an 
opinion  of  him,  that  in  returning  from  a  visitation  by  Dun-^ 
dalk,  he  made  inquiry  where  he  was  buried,  and  deter- 
mined  to  erect  a  monument  to  his  memory,  which  it  is' 
supposed  his  death,  which  happened  soon  after,  prevented* 
Richard^s  body  was  brought  over  by  Stephen  de  Valle, 
bishop  of  Meath,  about  1370,  and  interred  at  Dundalk, 
where  sir  Thomas  Ryves  says  there  was  a  monument  visi- 
ble^  although  much  defaced^  in  1624. 

His  printed  works  are :  1.  "  Sermones  quatuor,  ad  cru- 
cem  Londinensem,*^  &c.  Paris,  1612.  2.  "  Defeiisio  cura- 
torum  adversus  fratres  mendicantes,'^  Paris,  1496.  This 
was  the  substance  of  the  defence  of  his  principles  at  Avig- 
non. Bale  mentions  the  New  Testament  translated  into 
Irish  by  Armachanus,  which  was  found  in  the  wall  of  his 
cathedral  in  1530;  but  Fox,  in  his  Martyrology,.  asserts 
that  the  whole  Bible  was  translated  into  Irish  by  him,  and 
preserved  in  the  sixteenth  century  ;  and  arphbishop  Usher 
says  that  there  were  several  fragments  of  this  translation  in 
Ireland,  in  his  time.  Bale,  &c.  mention  several  MSS.  left 
t>y  him.* 

: '  Collier's  Dictionary  and  Ecclesiastical  History.«-Whart6o*8  Appendix  tQ 
jCaye.— >Fox's  Acts  and  Bfonuments.— Wood's  AoDal«.-*Dupin.— Harris's  Wvoe.' 

RICH  A  R  D.  1ST 

HiQHA]^  of,ClRENCE8TER,ran»  English  histprlaiu 
f^o  nanped  ^rom  his.  bi^rtb-fila'ce^  Nourished  in  the  faurteenth 
century.  No  traces  of  his  faipily  9r  cooriecti vis 
j^iscovered,  bxic  they  appear  to  haise  been. such  as  tp  alFor^ 
faim  a  liberal  education.  In  1350  be  entered  into, the  fie- 
pedictipe  monastery  of  St.  Peter,  Westminster,  and.hU 
name  occurs  in  various  documents  of  that  estai)lisbment  in 
J387,  i397,  and  1399.  He  devoted  his  leisure  hours  to 
th^  study  of  British  and.Anglo-Sa^on  history  and  antiqui*- 
ties,  in  which  he  made  such'  proficiency,  that  he  is  said  to 
have  been  honoured  with  the  name  of  the  Historiographer. 
Pits  info;;ms  us,  wii^hQut  i^pecifying  his  authority,  that 
Richard  visited  different  libra^i^s  ind  pccle$iastic|l  e^ta^ 
blishments  in  England,  in  order  to  collect  materials.  It  i^ 
^t.  least  certain  that  he  obtained  a  licence  to  visit  Rome^ 
from  his  abbot,  William  of  Colchester,  in  1391,  and  there 
can  be  little  doubt  that  a  man  of  his  curiosity  viroUld  im* 
prove  his.  knowledge  on  such  an  occasion.  He  is  sup- 
poseci  ^^  ^^^^  performed  .this  journey  in  the  interval  be*^ 
tween  1391  and  1397,  for  he  appears  to  have  been  con* 
fin^d  in  the  abbey  infirmary  in  1401,  ,and  died  in  that  or 
t)|,e  following  yean  His  works  are,  *^Historia  ab  Hen- 
gis^ta  ad  aqn..  :(348,'' in  two  parts,  The  first  contains  thf 
'period,  from  the  coming  of  the  iS^xons  to  the  death  qf  H^^ 
rol^y  and  is  preserved  in  the  public  library  pf  Cam|)ridg^. 
Whitaker,  the  historian  of  Manchester,  speaks  of  this .  as 
evincing  very  little  knowledge  or  judgment;  the  second 
part  is  probably  a  MS.  in  the  library  of  the  Royal  Society, 
p.  137,  with  the  title  of  "  Britonum  Anglorum  et  Saxouum 
Historia."  In '  the  library  of  Bene't  college,  Camhridg^ 
is  "  Epitome  Chronic.  Ric.  Cor.  West.  Lib.  I.".  Othef 
Wofks  of  oqr  author  are  supposed  to  be  preserved  in  the 
Lambeth  library,  and  at  Oxford.  His  theological  writings 
were,  ;**  T^ractatus  super  Symbolum  Majus'et  Minus,"  and 
**  Liber  de  OfiSciis  Ejcclesiapticis,"  in  the  Peterborough 
library.  But  the  treatise  to  which  he  owes  his  celebrity, 
is  that  on  the  ancient  state  of  Great  Britain,  **'0e  situ 
Bi^t^nniae,"  first  discovered  by  Charles  Julius  Bertram,^ 
projEessqr  of  the  English  language  in  the  royal  marine  aca*- 
demy' at  Copenhagen,,  who  transmitted  to  Dr.  Stukeley 
a  ti;an3cript  of  the  whole  in  letters,  together  with  a  copy  of 
the  .map.  From  this  transcript  Stukeley  published  an  ana- 
lysis of  the  work,  with  the  itinerary,  first  in  a  thin  quartp, 
1757,  andl  afterwards  jio  the  second  volume  of  bis  ^^  ItiaQf« 

188  RICHARD. 

rarium  Curiosum/'  In  the  same  year  the  original  iUelf 
was  published  by  professor  Bertram  at  Copenhagen,  in  a 
small  octavo  volume,  with  the  remains  of  Gildas  and  Nen- 
nius,  under  the  title  **  Britannicarum  gentium  Historise 
Antiquse  scriptores  tres,  lUcardus  Corinensis,  Gildas  Ba- 
donicus,  Nennius  Banchorensis,  &c.*'  This  work  has  long 
been  scarce,  and  in  very  few  libraries ;  but  in  1809|  a  new 
edition,  with  an  English  translation,  &c.  was  published  at 
London.  To  this  the  editor, .  Mr.  Hatchard,  has  prefixed 
an  account  of  Richard's  life,  from  which  we  have  extracted 
the  above  particulars,  and  an  able  defence  of  his  merit  and 
fidelity  as  a  historian,  against  the  objections  of  certain 
writers.  Among  these  we  observe  that  Gibbon  cannot  be 
reckoned,  for  he  says  that  Richard  of  Cirencester  *^  shews 
a  genuine  knowledge  of  antiquity,  very  extraordinary  for 
a  monk  of  the  fourteenth  century.**  This  useful  and  ac- 
curate republication  is  entitled  "  The  Description  of  Bri- 
tain, translated  from  Richard  of  Cirencester ;  with  the  ori- 
ginal treatise  de  situ  Britanniee  ;  and  a  commentary  on  the' 
Itinerary;  illustrated  with  maps,**  8vo.* 

RICHARDSON  (John),  a  learned  Irish  prelate,  was  a 
native  of  Chester,  but  a  doctor  of  divinity  of  the  univer- 
sity of  Dublin.  Of  his  early  life  we  have  no  particulars, 
except  that  be  was  appointea  preacher  to  the  statein  1601* 
He  succeeded  to  the  see  of  Ardagh,  on  the  resignation  6j[ 
bishop  Bedell,  and  was  consecrated  in  1633  by  archbishop 
Usher.  He  held  the  archdeaconry  of  Derry,  the  rectory 
of  Ardstra,  and  the  vicarage  of  Granard  in  commendam  for 
about  a  year  after  his  promotion  to  Ardagh.  In  1641,  be- 
ing in  dread  of  the  rebellion  which  broke  out  in  October 
of  that  year,  he  removed  to  England,  and  died  in  London 
August  11,  1654.  He  had  the  character  of  a  man  of  (r^-o- 
found  learning,  well  versed  in  the  scriptures,  and  skilled 
in  sacred  chronology. .  His  works  are,  a  '^  Sermpn  of  the 
doctrine  of  Justification,**  preached  at  Dublin  Jan.  23^ 
1624,  Dublin,  1625,  4to;  and  **  Choice  Observations  and 
Explanations  upon  the  Old  Testament,**  1655,  folio.  These 
observations,  which  extend  to  all  the  books  of  the  Old 
Testament,  seem  intended  as  a  supplement  to  the  ^  As- 
.  aembly*s  Annotations^**  in  which  he  wrote  the  annotations 
on  £zekiel ;  and  they  were  prepared  for  publication  by 
liitti  some  time  before  his  death,  at  the  express  desire  of 

«bi  fuprt. 



archbishop  Usher,  with  whom  he  appears  to  have  loug 
Jived  in  intimacy.^ 

RICHARDSON  (Jonathan),  a  painter,  and  a  writer  on 
the  art  of  painting,  was  born  about  1665.  He  was  intended 
by  his  father-in-law,  apprentice  to  a  scrivener,  with  wbooi 
he  lived  six  yeari,  but  by  the  death  of  his  mastei',  was 
enabled  to  follow  the  bent  of  his  inclination  for  painting. 
He  then  became  the  disciple  of  Riley«  with  whom  he  lived 
four  yea^rs,  and  finally  connected  himself  by  marrying  his 
niece,  ^he  degree  of  skill  which  he  attained,  by  no  means 
corresponded  with  the  ideas  he  entertained  of  the  art^ 
which  were  certainly  of  a  just  and  elevated  kind.  Tber<e 
are,  however,  great  strength,  roundness,  and  boldness  in 
the  colouring  of  his  beads,  which  are  drawn  and  mariced 
in  the  manner  of  Kneller,  with  freedom  and  firmness; 
though  the  attitudes  in  which  they  and  his  figures  are 
placed,  the  draperies  which  clothe  the  latter,  and  the 
back- grounds  from  which  they  are  relieved,  are  insipid 
and  tasteless.  It  is  certainly  a  very  curious  circumstance, 
tbat,  when  he  wrote  with  so  much  fire  and  judgmeat^ 
dived  so  deep  into  the  inexhaustible  stores  of  Raphael,  and 
was  so  smitten  with,  the  qative  lustre  of  Vandyke,  he  should 
so  ill  apply  to  his  own  practice  the  sagacious  rules  and 
hints  he  gave  to  others,  full  of  theory^  profound  in  re* 
flections  on  the  art,  and  possessed  of  a  numerous  and  ex<< 
cellent  collection  of  drawings,  he  appears  to  have  pos* 
sesised  no  portion  of  invention,  as  applicable  to  the  pain- 
tet^s  art,  and  drew  nothing  well  below  the  head ;  plainly 
manifesting  the  peculiarity  of  taste  or  feeling  which  leads 
to  excellence  in  that  profession. 

Thus  much,  however,  must  be  said  of  him,  that  when 
Kneller  and  Dahl  were  dead,  he  stood  at  the  head  oifthe 
portrait-painters  in  this  country,  and  practised  in  it  suffi- 
ciently long  to  acquire  a  tolerable  competency.  He  quitted 
his  occupation  some  years  before  his  death,  when  Hudson, 
who  bad  married  one  of  his  daughters,  maintained  the  fa- 
mily honours  for  a  while.  Richardson  himself,  by  tem* 
perance  and  tranquillity  of  mind,  enjoyed  a  life,  protracted 
amidst  the  blessings  of  domestic  friendship,  to  the  advanced 
age  of  eighty,  and  then  died.  May  28,  1745,  respected  and 
lamented.  He  had  bad,  a  short  time  previously,  a  para* 
l^tic  stroke  tbat  affected  bis  arm,  yet  never  disabled  him 


^  Harm's  Wart.— Atk  Ox.  toL  I.-aJoyd**  MMoiri»  M.  «07. 


{fotn  taking  bis  customary  walks  and  exercise ;  and  it 
after  having  been  in  St.  James's  park,  he.died  suddenly^'  'at, 
his  house  in  ^ueen-square,  on  his  return  home. 

He  had  a  soii,  with  whom  he  lived  in  great  harmony,  as  ' 
appears  by  the  joint  works  they  composed.  The  father,  in" 
1719,  published  two  discourses;  1.  '^  An  Essay  on  the 
whole  art  of  Criticism  as  it  relates  Uf  PafniSng.**  2.-  **  An 
Argument  in  behalf  of  the  ScieAce  df  i  Connoisseur.'*  Irf 
1722,  came  out  *^  An  Account  of  some  Statues^  Bas-ire- 
liefs.  Drawings,  and  Pict6res,  in  Italy,  &c.'*  The  son 
made  the  journey;  and,  from  his  observations  and  letters,' 
they  both  at  his  return  compiled  this  valuable  work.  In^ 
1734,  they  published  a  thick  octavo  of  ^'Explanatory  Notes 
and  Remarks  dn  Milton's  Paradise  Lost,  with  the  Life  of 
the  Author."  Iti  apology  for  this  last  perf6rman(5e,  aiid 
f6r  hot  being  very  conversant  in  classic  literature,  the  fa*  • 
ther  said,'  '*  that  fad  hUd  looked  inta  them  through  his  son.'' 
Hogarth,  whom  a  quibble  could*  furnish  with'  wit,  drew  him 
peeping  through  the  nether  end  of  a  telescope,  with  which 
bis  son  was  perf6rated,  at' a' Virgil  aloft  ou  a  shelf;  but 
Hogarth,  it  is  but  justice  to  add,  destroyed  the  plate  upon 
due  reflection,  and  recalled  the  prints,  as  far  as  he  could.- 
The  sale  of  his  collection  6{  drawings,  in  Feb.  1747,  lasted 
eighteen  days,  and '  produ^^ed  about  2060/.  his  pictures' 
about  700/.  Mr.  Hudson,  his  son4n-law,^  bought  in  many 
of  the  drawings. 

'  Besides  th^  works  ptkbli%hed  'n\  conjunction  with  his  fa- 
ther, there  was  published  in  1776,  five  year's  after  the ison'^ 
•death,  '<  Ricbardsoniaha ;  or,'  occasional  Reflections  on  the' 
Moral  Nature  of  Man;  suggested  by  various  authors,  ati*- 
ctent  and  modern,    and  exefnplifie'd  from  those  authors, 
with  several  •  anecdotes  interispersed,'  by  the  late  Jonathan 
Richardson,  jun.  esq'.  .Vol.  L"   sin  amusing  work,  although 
tfiere  are  some  opinions  in'  it  vfi^hich  are  not  altogether  free'' 
from  censure.     He  did  not  love  to  contemplate  the  brighlf - 
aide  of  human  nature  and  actions.     Besides  this  work,  ther^* 
appeared  about  the  same  time  an-8vo  volume  of  **  Poems" 
by  Jonathan  Richardson,  senior,  with  notes  by  his  son* 
They  are  chiefly  moral  and  religious  meditations,  biit  not' 
greatly  inspired  by  the  Muse.  .  The  son,  it  remains  to  bef" 
added,  never  painted  otherwise  than  for  bis  amusement** 
He -died  in  177-1,  aged  seventy-seven.^ 

»  Wal^i€'ftiknecd9t«i.»Nidiolt's  Boiryer,  idid  Colledioa  of  Podbs/ 

R  I  C  H  A  R  D  SON.  191 

'  RICHARDSON  (Joseph),  a  man  of  letters,  was  origin 
nally  of  Hexham  in  Northumberland  ;  and  was  entered  oi 
St.  John's  college,  Cambridge,  in  1774.  Dr.  Ferris,  tho 
present  dean  of  Battle,  and  Dr.  !Pearce,  now  dean  of^  Elj,' 
were  his  tutors  at  the  university.  Under  the  superintend- 
ance  of  those  two  excellent  scholars,  he  acquired  sound 
learning  and  a:  correct  taste.  He  possessed^^  indeed,  an 
excellent  understai>ding,  and  a  sort  of  intuitive  knowledge 
of  mankind.;  He  distinguished  himself  at  college  by  the 
elegance,  beauty^  and  vigour,  of  his  prose  and  poetical 
compositions  ;  a  love  of  the  Muses  very  early  in  life  took 
possession  of  his  mind,  and  often  interfered  with  the  labo- 
rious dutjes.of  .his  studies.  JHe  entered  himself  a  student 
of  the  Middle  Temple  in  1779,  and  was  called  to  the  bar 
in  1784.  *  iBut  literary  pursuits  and  political  connections 
took  up  too  much  of  his  time  to  admit  of  bis  pursuiug,  with 
sufficient  diligence,  the  study  of  the  law;  otherwise,  it  is 
highly  probable  that  he  would  have  become  a  distinguished 
ornament  of  the  bar.  The  chief  works  in  which  he  was 
publicly  known  to  have  taken  a  part  were  in  those  cele- 
brated political  satires,  "  The  Rolliad,*'  and  the  ^^  Proba- 
tionary Qdes,''  imthe  composition  of  which  his  talents  were 
oonsptcuous.  He  wrote  also. the  comedy  of  ^' The  Fugi- 
tive,^^'  which  was  honoured  by  a  considerable  share  of  ap« 
plause,  both  on  the  stage  and  in  the  closet.  In  private,  life 
so  happily  was  the  suavity  of  his  temper  blended:  with  the 
\iigour  of  bis  understandings  that  he  yvas  esteemed  by  his 
adversaries  in  political  principles,  as  well  as  by  a  very  large 
circle  of  private  friends.  He  was  brought  iqto  parliament 
by  the  duke  of  Northumberland,  in  whose  friendship  he 
held  a  distinguished  place,  and  by  whose  loan  of  2000/. 
(which  the  duke  has  given  up  tg  his  family)  he  was  enabled 
io  become  proprietor  of  a  fourth  part  of  Drury-lane  theatre. 
He  was  suddenly  taken  ill  on  June  8,  1803,  and  died  next 
day,  leaving  a  widow  and  four  daughters,  to  lament  the  loss 
pf  their  affectionate  protector.  He  was  interred  in  Egham 

.RICHARDSON  (Samuel),  a  celebrated  writer  of  no- 
irels,  or,  99  his  have  been  called,  moral  romances,  ^vas 
born  in  1689,  in  Derbyshire,  but  in  what  part  of  that 
bounty  has  not  been  ascertained.  His  father  descentled  of 
4  family  of  middling  note  in  the  county  of  Surrey,  and  bis' 

I  Oenti  Mag.  1803. 

I92f  R  I  C  H  A  E  D  S  O  N. 

business  was  tbat  of  a  johten     He  intended  his  soli  Samtiel 
for  the  ehurch)  bot  from  losses  in  business,  was  enable  to 
support  tbe  expence  i>{  a  learned  edocation,  and  all  out' 
author  received  was  at  tfae  grammar  school.  Itapp^rs  from 
bis  own  statement  that  be  bad  a  love  for  letter-writingi  that 
be  was  a  general  favourite  of  the  ladies,  and  fond  of  their 
company,    and  that  when  no  mofre  than  thirteen,  three 
young  women,  unknown  to  each  other,  revealed  to  him: 
their  love  secrete,  in  order  to  induce  bita  fee  give  them  co^ 
pies  to  write  after,  or  correct,  for  answers  to  tbeir  lovers*  ' 
letters.     In  this  employment  some  readers  may  think  they 
can  trace  the  future  inventor  of  the  love  seerctts  of  Pamela 
and  Clarissa,  and  letter-^ writing  certainly  gi'eW  into  a  babit  ; 
with  him* 

In  1706  be  was  bound  apprentice  to  Mr.  John  WStde;  a 
printer  of  some  eminence  in  bis  day ;  whom,  though  a  se-^. 
vere  task-master,  he  served  diligently  for  seven  years.     He  ,' 
afterwards  worked  as  a  journeyman  and  corrector  of  the  pfess! 
for  about  six  years,  when  be,  inr  171 9,. took  up  bis  freedom^^' 
and  commenced  business  on  bis  own  account,  in  a  court  iii 
Fleet'Street ;  and  filled  up  bis  leisure  hours  in  compiling 
indexes  for  the  booksellers,  and  writing. prefaces,  and  wbati 
he  calls  ^'  honest  dedications.''  Dissimilar  as  their  geniuses^ 
may  seem,  when  the  witty  and  wicked  duke  of  Wharton  (a  ^ 
kind  of  Lovelace),  about  1723,  fomented  tbe  spirit  of  op**  ^ 
position  in  tbe  city,  and  became  a  member  of  the  Wax*  ^ 
chandlers*  company,  Mr.  Richardson,  thougb  bis  political  ' 
principles  were  very  different,  was  much  connected  with^ 
and  favoured  by  him,  and  for  some  Kttle  time  was  tbe  prin->  , 
ter  of  his  "  True  Briton,'*  published  twice  a  week.     He  so 
far   exercised  bis   judgment,   however,   in  peremptorily 
refusing  to  be  concerned  in  such  papers  as  be  apprehended 
might  endanger  bis  safety,  that  he  stopt  at  the  end  of 
the  sixth  number,  which  was  possibly  his  07im  production  *.^^  [. 
He  printed  for  some  time  a  newspaper  called  "The  Daily  ^^ 
Journal;"  and  afterwards  "The  Daily  Gazetteer.'*  Through  ^ 
the  interest  of  his  friend  Mr.  Speaker  Onslow,  be  printed   : 
ibe  first  edition  of  tbe  "Journals  of  the  House  of  Coiin*  ' 
mons,'*  of  which  he  completed  26  volumes.     Mr.  Onslow 

*  Informations  were  lodged  against  itself  odiont  to  the  people. **    Payne 

Payne,  the  pablisher,  for  Numbers  3,  was  found  goilty  ;  and  Mr.  Ricfaardsofli' 

4,  5,  and  6,,  as  more  than  common  escaped*  as.  hi*  name  did  ngt  appear 

libels,  "  as  they  not  only  insulted  every  to  the  paper.    Tbe  daAgel*  made  blai 

branch  of  the  legislature,  hot  mani-  in  liitiire  still  more  oantiovs. 
festly  tended  to  make  the  c^natitatioa 

X  I  C  B  A  All  so  N.  19Z 

bad  a  high  estcam  hft  hitfi ;  and  not  only  might,  but  ao- 
.tiially  would,  have  proiooted  him  to  some  honoarable  axid 
profitable  station  at  court ;  but  Mr*  RicbardaoQ,  wboae  bu- 
.^ioess  waa  extensive  and  profitable,  ndjtber  desired  nohr 
would  accept  of  such  a  favour.. 

His  '^  Pamela,^^  tbe  BrsA  work  thai;  procured  him  a  name 
as.  a  writer,  was  published  in  1741,  and  arose  out  of  a 
acbeme  proposed  to  him  by  two  reputable  booksellers,  Mf, 
Aiviiigton  and  Mr.  Osborne,  of  writing  a  volume  of  *'  Fm^^, 
miliar  Letters  to  and  fitont  several  persons  upon  business 
a^d  other  subjects;*'  which  he  performed  witk  great  rea-- 
diness ;  and  in  the  progress  of  it  was  soon  led  to  expand  his 
thoughts  in  the  two  volumes  of  the  '^  History  of  Pamela^V 
which  appear  to  have  been  written  is  less  than  three 
montlja.  Never  waa  a  book  read  with  more  avidity,  for 
these  two  volumes  went  through  five  editions  in  one  year. 
It  was  even  recommended  froon  tbe  pulpit,  partieularly  by 
Dr.  Slocock^  of  Christ  churchy  Sacrey,  althongh  its  de^ 
fects  as  to  oiiorat  tendency  are  now  universally  acknow- 
ledged, to  be  so  obvtoos,.  that  the  wonder  is,  it  ever  ob-« 
tained  the  approbation  of  men  of  any  reAection.  For  this 
k  undoubtedly  was  indebted  to  the  novelty  of  the  plan,  as 
ivell  as  to  many  individiial  passages  of  great  beauty,  and 
lD.any  interesting  traits  of  character.  Its  imperfections, 
however,  were  not  totally  undiscovered  even  during  ita 
popularity.  Tbe  indelicate  scenes  could  not  escape  o\>* 
aervation;  and  his  late  biographer,  who  has  given  an  ex- 
cellent criticism  on  the  work,  informs  us  that  Dr.  Watta, 
to  whom  Richardson  sent  the  volumes^  instead  of  compU- 
Inents,  writes  to  him,  that  **  he  understands  the  ladies  com- 
plain they  cannot  read  them  without  blushing.''  Other 
inconsistencies  in  the  history  of  Pamela  were  admirably 
ridiculed  by  Fielding  in  his  *^  Joseph  Andrews,"  an  injury 
which  Riclnrdaon  never  forgave,  and  in  his  correspond* 
ence  with  bis  flattering  friends,  predicted  that  Fielding 
wdqld  soon  be  no  more  heard  of-**Fielding,  whose  popu- 
larity has  outlived  Richardson's  by  nearly  half  a  century  ! 

The  snecesa  of  Pamela  occasioned  a  spurious  continu- 
ation of  it^  called  ^'  Pamela  in  high  Life ;  and  on  thia  the 
author  prepared  to  give  a  second  part,  which  appeared  in 
two  volumes,  greatly  inferior  to  the  first.  They  are,  as 
Mrs.  Barbauld  justly  observes,  superfluous,  for  the  plan 
was  already  completed^  and  they  are  dull ;  for,  instead  of 
incident  and  passion^  they  are  filled  with  h^vy  aenUment^ 


Id4  R  I  C  H  A  R  D  S  our. 

in  diction  far  from  elegant*  :  A  great  part  of  it  aims  lb' 
palliate,  by  counter-'cnticisni,  the  faults  which  had  beeti 
-found in  the  first  part;  and  it  is  less  a  continuation,  than 
the  author's  defence  of  himself.  But  if  Richardson  sunk 
in  this  second  part,  it  was  only  to  rise  with  new  lustre  in 
his  *^  Clarissa/',  the  first  two  volumes  of  which  were  pub- 
lished eight  years  after  the  preceding.  This  is  unques- 
tionably the  production  upon  which  the  fame  of  Richard- 
son is  principally  founded ;  and  although  it  has  lost  much 
of  its  original  popularity^,  owing  to  the  change  in  the  taste 
-of  novel-readers,  wherever  it  is  read  it  will  appear  a  nobl^ 
monument  of  the  author's  genius.  This  will  be  allowe<}^ 
i^ven  by  those  who  can  easily  perceive  that  it  has  many 
blemishes.  These  have  been  pointed  out,  with  just  dis- 
-crimination,  by  his  biographer.  Clarissa  was  much  adr 
mired  on  the  continent.  The  abb6  Prevost  gave  a  version 
of  it  into  Prench ;  but  rather  an  abridgment  than  a  trans- 
lation. It  was  afterwards  rendered  more  ^aitbfuUy  by  Le 
Tourneur;  and  was  also  translated  into  Dutch  by  Mr.  Stin- 
stk*a;  and  into  German  under  the  auspices  of  the  cele- 
brated Dr.  Haller. 

;  After  he  had  published  two  works,  in  each  of  which  the 
principal  character  is  a  female^  he  determined  to  give  the 
world  an  example  of  a  perfect  man  :  this  design  produced 
bis  "  Sir  Charles  Grandison,"  a  character  certainly  instruc- 
tive, while  in  some  measure  repulsive.  But  that  of  CJ«- 
mentina  is  the  highest  effort  of  genius  in  this  work.  I>r.r 
Warton  says,  "I  know  not  whether  even 
Lear  is  wrought  up  and  expressed  by  so  many  little  strokes, 
of  nature  and  passion.  It  is  absolute  pedantry  to  prefer  an<l 
compare  the  madness  of  Orestes,  In  Euripides,  with  tbat^ 
of  Clementina.^'  Yet  even  here  Mrs.  Barbauld  has,  withr 
great  aeuteness,  pointed  out  Richardson's  want  of  judg- 
j»ent  in  the  management  of  his  Clementina.  It  is,,  as  this^ 
lady  justly  observes,  the  fault  of  Richardson  that  he  never, 
ke-ew  when  to  have  done  with  a  character;  and  this  pro^ 
pehsity  to  tediousness  and  prolixity  in  all  his  narratives,! 
while  the 'bulk  is  increased,  has  undoubtedly  contributed 
tO:  pr6ca!i!e>him  more  |iaticht  than  willing  readers,  and  to  oc-, 
caision  tb^e  who  hav^  once  gone  through  his  volumes,  to  se- 
lect favourite  passages  only  for  a  second  reading. 

By  ihese  works,  a^nd  by  his  biisiness,  which  was  very, 
prosperous,  Mr.  Richardson  gradually  improved  his  for- 
tune,. -In.  1755,    he  was.  engaging  iu- buildihg^.-both  in« 


Salisbury  court,  Fleet«-street,  and  at  Parson^s^greeh  near 
Fulham,  where  be  fitted  up  a  house.  In  1760,  be  pur^ 
chased  a  moiety  of  the  patent  of  Law-printer,  and  carried 
eii  that  department  of  business  in  partnership  with  Miss 
Catherine  Lintot,  afterwards  the  wife  of  Henry  Fletcher, 
esq.  M.  P.  for  Westmoreland. 

By  many  family  misfortunes,  and  his  own  writings,  which 
i|i  a  manner  realized  every  feigned  distress,  his  nerve& 
naturally  weak,  or,  as  Pope  expresses  it,  ^'tremblingly 
alive  all  o'er,''  were  so.  unhinged,  that  for  many  years  be- 
fore hLs  death  his  hand  shook^  he  had  frequent  vertigoes, 
atid  would  sometimes  have  fallen,  had  he  not  supported 
himself  by  his  cane  under  his  coat  His  paralytic  disorder 
affected -his  nerves  to  such  a  degree,  for  a  considerable 
time  before  his  death,  that  he  could  not  lift  a  glass  of  wine 
to  his  mouth  without  assistance.  This  disorder. at  length 
ternfiinating  in  an  apoplexy,  deprived:  the  world  of  this 
aniiable  man,  and  truly  original  gienius,  on  July  4,  i76i| 
at  the  age  of  seventy-two.  He  was  buried,  by  his  own  ^i*. 
section,  with  his  first  wife,  in  the  middle  aile,  near  the 
pulpit  of  St.  Bride's  church.  His  picture  was  painted  by 
Mr.  Highmore,  whence  a  mezzotinto  has  been  taken.'  . 

His  first  wife  was  Martha  Wilde,  daughter  of  Mr.'Allihg* 
ton  Wilde,  printer,  in  Glerkenwell^  by  whom  he  had ;  five 
sons  aiid  a  daughter^  who  all  died  young.  Hia  second 
wife  (who  survived  him  many  years)  was  Elizabeth  sister 
of^  Mr.  Leake,  bookseller,  of  Bath.  By  her  he  had  s^  son. 
and  five  daughters.  The  son  died  young ;.  but  four  of.  the 
daughters  survived  hini;  viz.  Mary,  married  in  175.7  to 
Mr.  Ditcher,  an  eminent  Burgeon  of  Bath;  Martha,  mar- 
ried in  1762  to  Edward  Bridgen,  esq.  F.  R.  and  A.  SS..;- 
Ahbe,  unmarried ;  and  Sarah,  married  to  Mr.Crowther, 
surgeon  of  Boswell-court.:    All  these  are  now  dead.- »  '    . 

Mr. 'Richardson  was  a  plain  man^  wbo;Seldom'  exhibited' 
bis  talents  in  mixed  company.     Hie  hejard  the  sentiments- 
of  otbers'with  attention,  but  seldom  gave  his  own ;  rather: 
desirous  of  gaining  friendship  by  his  modesty  than  his 
parts.     Besides  his  being. a  great  gepius,   he  was^  truly  a^ 
good  man  in  all  respiects;  in  his  family,  In  cominerce,  in 
conversation,  and  in  every  instance  of  conduiSct.     He  was 
pious,  virtuous,   exemplary,,  benevolent,  friendly,  gene*-! 
rous,  and  humafiei  to  an  uncommon  degree  ;^  glad  of  every  > 
opportunity  of  dbing^  good  offices  to  his  Cello w* creatures  in 
distress,  and  relieving  many  without  thi^ir  knawledge.   His  ^ 

o  .2 

IM  IT  I  C  B  A  R  D  S  O  le 

ebie^  delight  was  dcung  good.  He  was  Ingbly  fevered  zm^St 
beloved  by  bit  domeatici  for  bis  happy  tenper  aod  discreet 
eoDdttot  He  bad  great  tenderness  towards  bia  wife  and 
okildree,  and  great  condescension  towards  bia  servants.  He 
Uraa  always  vei^  sedulous  in  business,  and  almost  always. 
employed  in  it;  and  dispatched  a  great  deal  by  the  pru^ 
dence  of  bis  manageoient  His  turn  of  temper  led  btm  to 
improve  bis  fortune  witii  mechanical  assiduity  ;  and  having* 
mo  iriolent  passions,  nor  any  desire  of  being  trifiingly  dis^ 
tioguished  frosa  others,  be  at  last  became  rich,  and  left  bte 
family  in  easy  independeocQ,  tbougb  bis  bouse  and  tables 
both  in  tawn.and  country,  were  ever  open  to  bis  numerous, 

Besides  his  three  gieat  woriks,  bis  <<  Pamela,  Clarissa,, 
and  Gnwdisou^**  be  published^  1.  *^  The  Negotiatioa  of  Sie 
Tboosas  Roe,  in  bis  Embassy  to  die  Ottoman  Porte^  froes 
1621  to   1€28  inclusive,"   &q«  1740v   folio,   inscribed  ta 
t^e  King  in  a  sliort  dedication j  whitb  doles  honour  ibe  the; 
ingenious  writer.     2w  An  edition  of  *<  iEtop's  Fables,  witlfe 
Reflection^*'    And^  9.  A  volume  of  ^*  Faiayiar  Letters  t0> 
and  from  several  persons  upbnt  business,  and  ether  sob^ 
jects.**     He  bad  abo  a  share  in  ^  The  Christen  Magiazin^ 
by  Dr.  James  Maeclerc,  i74d  ;'^  and  in  the  additions  to  the 
aiiatb  edition  of  De  Feed's  ^*l>ttv  through  Great  Bcitaim^'^ 
<^  Sis  original  Letters  uf)on  DuelHng*^  were  printed  aftei* 
bb.  deatl^  in  ^<Tbe  Literary  Repository,  t165,**  p.MTi 
A  letter  of  bis  to  Mr.  Dnacombe  is  in  the  ^  Lettess  dii 
eminent  Persons,  }933^"  yoI.  HI.  p.  71 ;  andaoeieTer^ea' 
io  the  *^  Anecdotes  of  Bowyer,'*  p.46a   Mr»  Riehardaeii 
alsa  piibUsbed  a  large  single  sheet,  relasive  to  the  manrieil 
states  entitled  **  The  Duties  of  Wives^  to  Husbands  ;'*  aiid 
was  under  the  disagnaeabk  necessity  ot  puUisbing  ^  The 
Case  of  Samuel  RicbaidsoD  of  Londony  Printer,  on  the 
Invasion  of  bis  Property  in  the  History  of  Sir  Gbaries 
Grandisoii,  before  pebKcation,  by  certain  BookseUers  in 
Beblin,'*  wUcb  bears  date  Sept.  U,  tT53^.  ^<  A  Cdteedoi^ 
of  the  flsoral  sentences  in  Passela^  Claaissa,  and  Grattdi'* 
son,*^  was  printed  in  1755,  12mp.^ 

No.  St7,  vol.  11.  of  tbe  '<  Rambtor,^^  it  is  well  known; 
was  written  by  Mr.  Ricbardson  ;  in  the  preamble  to  wbick 
Df .  Johnson  styles  btm  *'  an  author  from  wbom>  tbe  ageiias 
receivied;  greater  fisnoers,  who  bss  enlstigfdHiie  knowledge. 
ot  buman  nature^  and  taught  the  pas^ona  te  dioee-  tt  tbe- 
command  of  ▼ixtue*'*     In  1 904^  ww  publisbed  *^  The  Cor» 

&  I  C  H  A  R  DS  O  N.  1&7 

ftsspMdtiiteof  Sramei  Ricbairdft6fi/*  in  six  vottimes  octavo. 
Tbtt  best  coHfteqtieiKie  of  the  desiga  of  piiblishmg  thU  coir 
lection  pf  letting  ii  the  e^ceUent  life  und  criticism  on  his 
works  by  Mrs.  Bttrbattld.-*-A8  to  the  letters,  every  real  ad- 
oitrer  of  Ricbardion  must  peruse  tbem  with  regret.  Such 
a  display  of  httmati  weakoess  has  seldom  bMn  permitted 
40  aully  the  fepiitatiou  of  any  man. 

In  our  last  edition  some  testimonies  of  a  difiigrent  kind 
to '-  the  merits  land  memory  of  Richardson  were  given. 
Of  these  we  may  atili  retain  the  sentiments  of  Mr,  Sher- 
kicky  the  celebrated  Eoj^ish  traveller,  who  observes^.  <<  The 
^greatest  efibtt  of  genius  that  perhaps  was  ever  made  was, 
forming  the  phm  of  Clarissa  Harlowe.**  —  **  Richardson 
u  not  yet  arrived  at  the  fulness  of  bis  glory.'* -^  <<  Ri- 
chardson is  admirable  for  every  species  of  delicacy ;  for 
^elieacy  of  wity  sentiment,  language,  action,  every  thing.^ 
f  ^  His  genius  was  immense.  His  misfortune  was,  that  he 
did  not  know  the  ancients.  Had  be  but  been  acquainted 
with  one^  single  principle^  *  Omne  supervacuum  pieno  de 
^ectove  manat,'  (ail  superfluities  tire) ;  be  would  not  have 
eatiated  his  reader  as  he  has  done,  inhere  might  be  made 
<Mit  of  Clarissa  and  Sir  Charles  Grandison  TWO  works, 
which  would  be  both  the  most  entertaining,  and  the  most 
wseful»  that  ever  were  written.  •>*  His  views  were  grand., 
ilis  aoul  was  noble,  and  his  heart  was  excellent.  He  formed 
a.  plan  that  embraced  all  human  natut^e.  His  object  was 
^  benefit  mankind.  His  knowledge  of  the  world  shewed 
btiftf  that  happiness  was  to  be  attained  by  tpan  only  iti 
proportion  as  he  practised  virtue*  His  good  sense  then 
ihewed  him,  that  no  practical  system  of  morality  existed ; 
and  the  same  good  sense  told  hith^  that  nothing  but  a  body 
of  morality,  put  into  action,  could  work  with  efficacy  on  the 
minds  of  youth.'* 

On  Johnson,  in  his  preface  to  Rowe  observes,  «<  The 
oharacter  of  Lothario  seems  to  have  been  expanded  by 
]Uehardson  into  Lovelace ;  but  he  has  excelled  his  origimd 
ift  the  moral  effect  of  the  fiction.  Lothario,  with  gaiety 
which  cannot  be  hated,  and  bravery  whtcb  cannot  be  de- 
spised,- retains  too  much  of  the  spectator's  kindness.  It 
was  in  the  power  of  Richardson  alone  to^teach  \k$  at  once 
esteem  and  detestation ;  to  make  virtuous  resentment  over- 
power all  the  bei^evolence  which  wit,  and  elegance,  and 
coui!age,  naturally  excite  |  and  to  lose  at  last  die  hero  in 
the  irmtm*'" 

1  Ufp  by  Mn.  Bsrbauld  prefiitd  to  the  CorretpoDdence.-— Nichoh't  Bowytr,  fcc* 


RICHARDSON  (Wiluam),  a  learned  Engliik  difiae, 
was  the  son  of  the  rev.  Samuel  Richardson,  B.  D.  yicwr  of 
Wilsbamstead  near  Bedford,  by  Elizabeth^  daughter  of 
the  rev.  Samuel  Bentham,  rector  of  Knebworth  and  Paurs 
Walden,  in  Hertfordshire.  .  His  grandfather  was  the  rev. 
John  Richardson,  a  nonconformist,  who  was  ejected,  in 
1662,  from  the  living  of  St.  MichaePs,  Stamford,  in  Lin^ 
colnshire,  and  died  in  1687.  He  was  born  at  Wilsbam- 
stead, July  23,  1698,  a^d  educated  partly  in  the  school  of 
Oakham,  and  partly  in  that  of  Westminster.  In  March  was  admitted  of  Emanuel  college,  Cambridge,  of 
which  he  afterwards  was  a  scholar,  and  took  his  degrees  of 
A.  B.  in  1719,  and  A.  M.  in  1723.  In  the  mean  time,  in 
September  1720  he  was  ordained  deacon  by  Gibson,  bishop 
of  Lincoln,  at  St.  Peter's,  Cornhill,  London,  and  priest,  by 
the  same,  at  Buckden,  in  Sept.  1722.  He  was  then-  ap- 
pointed curate  of  St.  Olave's  Southwark,  which  he  held 
until  .1726,  when  the  parish  chose  him  their  lecturer. 
About  this  time  he  married  Anne,  the  widow  of  capt.  David 
Durell,  the  daughter  of  William  Howe,  of  an  ancient 
family  of  the  county  of  Chester.  He  published  in  1727, 
2  vols.  8vo,  the  <^  Praelectiones  Ecclesiastics^*'  of  his  learned 
uncle  John  Richardson,  B.  D.  author  of  a  masterly  ^'  Vin- 
dication of  the  Canon  of  the  New  Testament,"  against 
Toland.  In  1724  be  was  collated  to  the  prebend  of  W^l- 
tojD-Rivall,  in  the  church  of  Lincoln*  ■ 

In  1730  he  published  ^'Tbe  Usefulness  and  Necessity 
of  Revelation ;  in  four  Sermons  preached  at  St.  Olave's 
Southwark,"  8 vo;  and,  in  1733,  ^' Relative  Holiness,  a 
Sermon  preached  at  the  consecration  of  the  parish  church 
of  St.  John's  Southwark."  He  next  undertook,  at  the  re<- 
quest,  of  the  bishops  Gibson  and  Potter,  to  publish  a.  new 
edition  of  ^^  Godwin  de  Prssulibus."  On  this  he  returned 
to  Cambridge. ip  1734,  for  the  convenience  of  the  libraries 
.and  more  easy  communication  with  his  learned  contempo- 
raries;^ and  in  1735  proceeded  D.  D.  .  After  the  death  of 
J)t.  Savage,  he  was  chosen  unanimously,  and  without  his 
knowledge,  master  of  Emanuel  college,  Aug.  10,  173€!;  a 
rare  and  almost  unprecedented  compliment  (o  a  man.  of 
JeJ^ters,  for  be  bad  never  been  fellow  of  the  college.  He 
seVyed  the  pffice  of  vice-chancellor  in  1738,  and  again. in 
l.t.69.  In  17^6. be  was  appointed  one  of  his  majesty's 
chaplains,  which  he  resigned  in  1768.  In  1743  he  pub«F 
lisbed  at  Cambridge  his  new  edition  of  Godwin,  ina  spleo- 

B'  I  C  H.A  RD  S  O  rN.  19^ 

did  folio, yolttiiie^.  with  a  continiiatioo  of  tbe  lives  of  the 
bishops  ,10  tbe.tifloe  of  publicatioii ;  a  wort  of  anqoestion-' 
abk».uAili^  aod. accuracy.  He  was. named  in  the  inrill  g6 
archbishop  Potter  for  an  option,  on.cpnditioQ^that  hecan*' 
celled  a  leaf  of  ^is  work,  relating  to  archbishop  Tenison's 
lukewarmnejM}  in  tbe  matter  of  tbe  Prussian  liturgy  and 
bishops.  Accordingly. a  new  leaf  was  printed  and  sent  to 
all  the  subscribers ;  ^'  but,"  in  Mr.  Cole's  opinion,  *^  ra- 
ther confirming  the  factr  tiian  disproving  it."  Both  the 
original  and  tbe  substitute  may  be  seen  in  the  supplement 
to  the  old  edition  of  the  <^  Biograpbia  Britannica,*'.art. 
GRA9e»  note,  p.  79.  The  option,  however,  was  not  so 
easily  obtained*  It  was  the  precentorship  of  Lincoln,  and 
was  contested  by  archbishop  Potter's  chaplain.  Dr.  Chap» 
man.  Tbe  lord- keeper  Henley  gave  it  in  favour  of  Chap- 
man, but  Dr.  Richardson  appealing  to  the  House  of  Lords, 
the  dfscree  wa?  unanimously  reversed,  and  Dr.  Richardson 
admitted  it\io  the  precentorship  in  1760.  This  aflair  ap- 
peara  to  have  bieeo  consideiced  of  imporjtance.  Warburton 
writes  on  it  to  his  correspondent  Hurd  in  approving  terms^^ 
^*  I  would  not  omit  to  give  you  the  early  news,  (in  two 
words)  that  Dr.  Richardson  is  come  off  victorious  in  the 
appeal.  The  precentprship  of.  Lincoln  is  decreed  for  him ; 
the  keeper's  decree  reversed  with  costs  of  suit.  Lord 
Mansfield  spoke  admirably^  It  has  been  three  days  in  try- 
ing.". Burn  has  inserted  a  full  account  of  this  cause  in  his 
^*  Ecclesiastical  Law." 

Dr.  Richardson  died  March  15,  1775,  at  his  lodgings  at 
Emanuel  college,  at  the.  age  of  seventy-seven,  after  ia  lin- 
gering decay,  and  was  buried  in  tbe  college  chapel,  in  the' 
same  vault  with  his  wife,  who  died  March  ^1,  1759.  . 

He  was  many  years  an  honour  to  the  Society  of  Antiqua* 
ries,  and  left  in  MS.  some  valuable  collections  relative- to 
the  constitation  of  the  university ;  many  biographjcal  anec-  * 
dotes  preparatory  to  an  '^  Athens  Cantabrigieuses,?*  which' 
be  once  intended  to  publish,  and  an  accurate  alphabet  in 
bis  own  writing  of  all  the  graduates  of  the  university,  from 
1500  to  1 7  35  inclusive.  He  printed  also  a  sermon  preached 
before  the  House  of  Commons  in  1764. 

His  only  sop,  Robert  Richardson,  D.  D,  F,  R.  S.  and  S.  A. 
was  prebendary  of  Lincoln,  rector  of  St.  Anne's  Westmin- 
ster, and  of  Wallington  in  Hertfordshire,  which  last  was. 
given  to  him  by  sir  Joseph  Yorke,  with  whom  he  resided 
as  chaplain  many  years  at  the  Hague.    Whilst  in  that 

t9»  R  IX  H  AR'O  S-O  IC 

employ mcrnty  the  paperi  on  bolb  sidts,  pi«ftoo«tallia 
of  the  g^ea*  cause,  Douglas  as^est  HaaHkim,  being  sent 
over  to  his  eKceUency,  ^.  Richavdsoii,  for  Us  own  curi«^ 
osky,  digested  tfaesD,  and  drew  up  the  state  of  die  ques^ 
tioD,  which  was  printed  in  4to  for  private  distrilmtion,  and 
to  well  approved  by  the  gentleiaen  of  the  bar,  that  it  was 
pnt  itato  the  bands  of  the  counsel  for  the  party  he  espoused 
as  their  brief;  of  which  peibaps  there  never  ivas  a  similar 
mstance.  He  had  the  honour  to  see  the  opinion  he  snp^ 
ported  Gon&rmed  by  the  House  of  Peers.  After  the  trial 
he  was  offered  400/.  in  the  handsomest  manner,  but  ^e^ 
cUned  aoeepting  it.  He  died  Sept.  27y  17^1^  at  his  hooie 
xn  Dean-street,  Soho,  in  his  fiftieth  year.  He  printed 
only  two  occasiomd  sermons.  ^ 

BICHELET  (GiBSAR  Peter),  a  French  writer,  and  noted 
as  the  ficit  who  published  a  dictionary  almost  entirely  ssti« 
rioal,  was  born  at  Cheminon  in  Champagne,  in  16S1.  He^ 
was  the  friend  of  Patru  and  d* Abkmeourt ;  and,  like  them^ 
applied  himself  to  the  study  of  the  French  language  widi 
sueoess.  He  composed  a  dietienary  full  of  new  and  nseftil 
remarks,  which,  would  have  been  more  acceptable  if  it  had 
not  been  abo  fell  of  satirical  reiectioas  and  indeeencies^ 
but  these  were  eapunged  in  tbe  lattier  editions,  k  wae 
first  published  at  Geneva,  1680^  in  one  vol.  4to ;  bnt,  after 
th^  death  of  the  author,  which  happened  in  1698,  en^ 
larged  with  a.  great  number  of  new  articles  to  2  vols,  folie,' 
as  is  the  edition  of  Lyons  in  1721.  Anotheredition,  3  vols, 
felio,  was  published  at  Lyons  in  1727;  and  a  very  neat 
oae  in  12  vols.  4to,  at  Amsterdaoi  in  17S2 ;  and,  lastly,  in 
3  vob.  folio,  at  Lyons,  1759 — 1763,  by  the  abb£  Gonget»^ 
Tbe  abridgment  of  it  by  Gsttel,  1797  and  1803, 2  vob.  Sro^' 
ia  now  ia  siost  demand  in  France. 

Richelet  made  a  French  translattOQ  of  ^  Tbe  Conquest' 
of  Florida,'*  by  Garcilasso  dels^ega;  to  which  is  pre-^ 
fixed  an  account  of  his  Ule.  He  composed  spme  other 
pieces,  of  the  grammatieal  and  critical  kind,  relating  to  the 
Branch  teague.* 

BICHELIEU  (Armand  do  Plbssis),  a  celebrated  car^ 
dinal  and  minister  of  France,  was  tbe  third  son  of  Franeia 
du  Plessis,  seigneur  de  Ricbriieu,  knight  of  the  king's 
orders,  and  grand  provost  of  France,  and  was  bom  Sept  5^- 

1  Cole's  MS  Athene  iQB;nt.Mii9.^Nlcteii'«£swy^. 
•  M oren.— Diet.  HisU 

K  I  C  H  E  L  I  E  U.  201 

1 M5^  tt  Pari»;  He  wm  admitted  into  tha  Sorbonne  at 
tbe  age  of  twenty •^two,  obtained  a  dispensation  frottt  pope 
PiLcd  V.  for  tbe  biabopric  of  LiKjon,  and  wag  consecrated 
at  Rome  in  1607.  On  bis  return,  be  acquired  consider- 
able interest  at  coart,  and  was  appointed  by  Mary  de  Me«- 
dicis,  tben  regent,  her  grand  almoner;  and  in  1616  was 
raised. to  the  post  of  secretary  of  state.  After  the  death  of 
one  of  his  inends,  the  marshal  D'Ancre,  in  1617,  when 
Mary  was  banished. to  Blois,  he  followed  her  ibither ;  but, 
the  duke  de  Luynes  becoming  jealous  of  ^him,  he  was 
onfered  to  setine  to  Avignon,  and  there  he  wrote  bift 
^*  Method  of  Controversy,"    on   tbe  principal  points  of 

In  1619  the  king  recalled  RiobeKen,  and  sent  him  int6 
Aogottleme,  where  he  persuaded  the  queen  to  a  reeonciU* 
ation,  which  was  concluded  in  1620;  and  in  consequence 
of  this  treaty,  tbe  duke  de  Luynes  obtained  a  cardtnal'd 
hat  for  htm  from  pope  Gregory  XV.  Richelieu,  continu- 
ing his  senriees  after  the  duke's  decease,  was  admitted,  in 
1 6*^9  into  tbe  council,  through  tbe  interest  of  tbe  queen, 
and  almost  against  the  will  of  tbe  king,  who,  devout  and 
scrupulous,  considered  him  as  a  knave,  because  he  bad 
been  ii^'ormed  of  bis  gallantries.  It  h  even  said  that  he 
was  insolent  enough  to  aspire  to  queen  Anne  of  Austria, 
and  that  the  railleries  to  which  this  subjected  bim  were  tbe 
cause  of  his  subsequent  arersion  to  her.  Cardinal  Riche^ 
lieti  was  afterwards  appointed  prime  minister,  head  of  the 
eonaeib,  high  steward,  chief,  and  superintendant*gencH*al 
of  the  French  trade  and  navigation.  He  preserved  the 
Isle  of  Rfa6  in  1627,  and  undertook  tbe  siege  of  Rochelle 
against  the  protestaots  the  same  year.  He  completed  the 
conquest  of  Rocbelle  in  October  1628,  in  spite  of  the 
king  of  Spain,  who  had  withdrawn  his  forces,  of  the  kin^ 
of  England,  who  could  not  relieve  it,  and  of  the  French 
king,  who  grew  daily  more  weary  of  the  undertaking,  by 
means  of  that  famous  mole,  executed  by  his  orders,  but 
planned  by  Lewis  Metezeau  and  John  Tiriot.  The  cap- 
ture of  Rochelle  proved  a  mortal  blow  to  the  protestants, 
bat  in  France  was  reckoned  the  most  glorious  and  benefit 
cial  circumstance  of  cardinal  Richelieu*s  administration. 
He  also  attended  his  majesty  to  the  relief  of  tbe  duke  of 
Mantua  in  1629,  raised  the  siege  of  Casal,  and,  at  his  re« 
turn,  compelled  the  protestants  to  accept  tbe  treaty  of 
peace  which  had  been  concluded  at  Alais,  and  completed 

fm  K  I  C  H  EL  I  E  U. 

the  nun'  of  their  party.     Six  months  after  this,  cardilfai 
Richelieu,  having  procured  himself  to  be  appointed  lieote* 
i»ant^eneral  of  the  army  beyond  the  mountains,  took  Pig* 
Aelt>ly  relieved  Casal  a  second  time,  which  was  besieged 
hy  the  marqtiisSpinola,  defeated  general  Doria,  by  means 
of  the  duke  de  Montmorenci  at  Vegliana,  July  10,  16 SO^ 
and  made  himself  master  of  all  Savoy.     Louis  XIIL  having 
aretiif  ned  to  Lyons,  in  consequence  of>  sickness,  the  queen- 
mother,  and  most  of  the  nobility,  took  advantage  of  this 
circumstance  to  form  plots  against  Bichelieu,  and  speak 
ill  of  bis  conduct  to?tbe  king,  which  tbey  did  with  so  much 
success,  that  Louis  promised  the  queen  to  discard  him. 
The  cardinal's  ruin   now  seemed  inevitable,  and  he  was 
actually  preparing  to  set  out  for  Havre-de-Gnice,  which 
be  had  diosen  for  his  retreat,  when  cardinal  de  la  Valets, 
kfiowing  that  the  queen  had  not  followed  ber  son  to  Ver- 
sailles, advised  him  first  to  see  his  inajesty.     In  this  inter- 
view, he  immediately  cleared  himself  from  all  the  adensa- 
tions  of  bis  enemies,  justified  his  conduct,  displayed  the 
advantages  and  necessity  of  his  administration,  and  wrought 
so  forcibly  upon  the  king's  mind  by  his  reasoning,  that,^ 
iristead  of  being  discarded,  he  became  from  that  moment  ^ 
more  ppwerful  than  ever.     He  inflicted  the  same  punish* 
ments  upon  his  enemies  which  they  had  advised  forium  ; 
and  this  day,  so  fortunate  for  Richelieu,  was  called  ^*  The 
Day  of  Dupes."     Those  who  had  the  misfortune  to  incur 
his  displeasure,  certainly  did  not  all  deserve  the  penalties 
to  which  he  doomed  them  ;  but  he  knew  how  to  make  him- 
self master  of  tbeir  fate,  by  appointing  such  judges  to  try 
them  as  were  at  his  disposal.    That  aboiniuable  method  of 
taking  the  accused  from  tbeir  lawful  judges,  hadj  in  the- 
preceding  century,  served  as  a  means  for  the  families  of 
condemned  persons  to  get  their  characters  restored ;-  after 
which  the  French  had  no  reason  to  fear  its  revival;  but* 
Richelieu  hesitated  not  to  adopt  it^  though  at  the  risque  of 
general  odium,  as  being  favourable  to  his  designs.     By 
thus  making  himself  master  of  the  lives  and  fortunes  of  the 
mal-contents,'  he  imposed  silence  even  on  their  murmurs. 
This  artful  minister,  being  now  secure  of  his  lasting  as^ 
cendancy  over  the  king,  and  having  already  accomplisfaed 
one  of  the  two  great  objects  which  he  had  proposed  to 
himself  from  the  beginning  of  bis  administration,  which 
were,  the  destruction  of  the  protestants,  and  tbe  bumbling' 
the  too  great  power  of  the  house  of  Austria,  b^an  now 

R  I  CHE  LIEU.  203: 

to  oeiitriye  ideahs  for  executing  this  second  undertaLingr 
Tbe  principal  and  most  efficacious  method  employed  hy 
the  oardin»l  vinh  that  view,  was  a  treaty  be  concluded, 
January  2^,  1631,  with  Gustavus  Adolpbos,  king  of  Sw<e-> 
deo,  for  carrying  the  war  into  the  heart  of  Germany,  fie 
also  formed  a  league  with  tbe  duke  of  Bavaria,  secured  to 
bimself  Lorrain,  raised  part  of  the  German  princes  against 
the.  emperor,  treated  with  Holland  to  continue  tbe  war 
with  Spain,  favoured  tbe  Catalonians.  and  Portuguese 
when  they  shook  off  the  Spanish  yoke,  and,  in  short, 
ipade  use  of  so  many  measures  and  stratagems,  that  he 
Completely  accomplished  his  design.  Cardinal  Richelieu 
was  carrying,  on  the  war  with  success,  and  mediating  on 
that  glorious  peace,  which  was  not  concluded  till  1648, 

.  when  be  died  in  bis  palace  at  Paris,  worn  out  by  his  long> 
toils,  December  4,  1 642,  aged  fifty-eight.  He  was  buried 
a|t  the  Sorbonne,  where  bis  mausoleum  (the  celebrated 
Girardon^s.master* piece)  may  be  seen.  He  is  considered 
as  one  of  the  most  complete  statesmen,  and  ablest  politi* 
ci^tns,  that  France  ever  bad.  Amidst,  all  the  anxieties- 
which  the  fear  of  his  enemies  must  necessarily  occasion, 
be.  formed  tbe  most  extensive  and  complicated  plans,  and 
executed  them  with  great  superiority  of  genius.     It  was 

.  cardinal  Richelieu  who  established  the  throne,  while  yet 

-shaken  by  the  protestant.  factions,  and  tbe  power,  of  the 
House  of  Aus.tria,  and  made  the  royal  authority  completely 
absolute,  and  independent,  by  the  extinction  of  the  petty 
tyrants  who  wasted,  the  kingdom.  In  the  mean  time  be 
omitted  nothing  which  cpuld  contribute  to  the  glory  of 
Frai>€se.-  HenprotQqted  arts  and  sciences;  founded  the 
botanical  garden  at. Paris  called  .the. kiug^s  garden  ;  also 
the  French  academy,  and  the  royal  printing-office;  built 
tlje  palace  Mnce.  called  tbe  Palais  Royal,  and  gave  it  to  bis 
majesty;  rebuilt  the  Sorbonne  (of  which  he  was  provisor) 
iri^a  style  of  kingly  magnificence ;  and  prepared  fqr  allthe 
Sf^lendour  of  Louis  the.  Fourteenth's  reign.     His  enemies, 

*  says  tbe  abb^  L'Avocat,  unable  tq  deny  his  great  talents, 
b^ijce.  reproached  him'  with  great  faults ;  irregularity  of  con- 
duct, unbounded  ambition,  universal  despotism,  from  which 
e^eui  the  king,,  bis  master,  did  not  escape;  for  be  left 
faim,.as:  tbey  express  it,  only  the  power  <>f  curing  tbe  evil ; 
^  vanity  and  ostentation  which  exceeded  tbe  dignity  of  tbe 
throne  itself,  where  all  was  simplicity  and  negligence, 
wjbile.the  cardinal's  court  e^^hibited  .nothing  but  pomp  and 

2Q4.  B  I  C  HE  LI  £  U 

splendtmr;  unexampled  ingratieude  to  hh  beneiaeltMlj 
qiiees  Mary  de  Medicw,  wIkmb  be  infattmanly  emnpelled 
to  end  her  days  in  Geraiatiy,  in  obseurirfr  and  indig^aice  j 
and,  finally,  bis  revengeful  temper^  wbicb  occasioned  9^ 
kiany  cruel  executions ;  as  those  of  Chalaisy  Giaadier,  the 
mareobal  de  Harillac,  M.  de  Montmorenci,  Ginqmare,  M^ 
da  Thou,  &c.  Even  the  queen,  for  having  written  to  the 
duebess  de  Cbev reuse,  Richelieu's  enemy,  and  a  fugitive^ 
saw  all  her  papers  seized,  and  was  examined  before  tbe 
chancellor  Seqoier.  Mad.  de  la  Fayette,  mad.  de  Hautte* 
fort,  and  father  Csussin,  the  king^s  confessors,  wei«  uH 
disgraced  in  consequence  of  having  offended  this  de^tid. 
minister.  But,  says  bis  i^logtst,  there  are  many  poims 
to  be  considered  witb  respect  to  these  accusations :  itup^i 
pears  certain,  from  a  thousand  passages  in  the  life  of  this 
celebrated  cardinal,  that  he  was  naturally  very  grateful^ 
and  never  proceeded  to  punishnsent  but  when  be  thought 
state  af&irs  required  it;  for  which  reason^  when  in  hi»  last 
sickness,  his  confessor  asked  *'  if  be  forgai^e  bis  enemies  T^ 
he  replied,  ^*  I  never  bad  any  but  those  of  the  state."  At 
tbe  bead  of  his  **  Political  Testament'*  may  be  seen  hial 
justification  of  himself  on  tbe  subject  of  these  bloody  exe* 
cutions,  witb  which  be  has  been  so  much  reproached.  It 
is  equally  certain,  that  he  never  oppressed  the  people  by 
'taxes  or  exorbitant  subsidies,  notwithstanding  tbe  long 
wars  bie  had  to  carry  on ;  and  tbat,  if  be  was  severe^  in 
punishing  crimes,  he  knew  bow  to  distinguitb  merit,  and 
re  ward,  it  generously.  He  bestowed  the  highest  eccliesias*^ 
tical  dignities  on  such  bishops  and  doctors  as  be  knew  to 
be  men  of  virtue  and  learning ;  placed  able  and  experien« 
ced  generals  at  the  bead  of  the  armies,  and  entiusied  pi^ 
lie  business  witb  wise^  punctual,  and  intelligent  men*  II 
was  tbis  minister  who  established  a  navy.  His  vigilance 
extended  through  every  part  of  tbe  government;  and^ 
aotwithstanding  tbe  cabals,  plots,  and  factions,  which  'W&m 
incessantly  forming  against  him  during  the  whole  course  oC 
bia  administration  (and  which  must  have  employed  greet: 
part  of  his  time)  be  left  sufficient  sums  behind  him  to' carry 
on  tbe  war  with  glory ;  and  France  was  in  a  more  pow^ful 
and  flourishiog  state  at  the  time  of  bis  deoeisse  tluin  wben^ 
Louis  XIV.  died.  After  stating  these  facts,  Richelieu^ 
enemies  are  invited  to  determine  wbetber  France  would  have 
derived  more  advantage  from  being  gofervied  by  Mary  de 
Medicis,  Gaston  of  Orleans,  &c.  than  by  this  cafdinid  i 

R  I  CHE  L  II  U.  tm 

Tbe  estttbfr  of  Rioheltau  was  mi^e  a  dukedom  in  his  fuvocuv 
in  I6S1^  and  be  netteived  other  honours  and  prefermenls* 
Besides  the  ^*  Method  of  Controversy"  be  wrote,  2.  i*  The 
pnnclpal  points  of  the  Catholic  Faith  defended,  againsS 
the  writing  addressed  to  the  king  by  tbe  ministers  o>f  Cba<*' 
renton."  3.  *'  The  most  easy  and  certain*  Method  cf  oon-^ 
verting  tbose  wbaare  separated  from  tbe  Church/'  These 
pieces  are  written  with  force  and  vivacity.  He  wrote  also^. 
^  A  Ca^ecbi^D/*  in  which  he  lays  down  tbe  doctrine  of 
tbe  churchy  in  a  dear  and  concise  manner ;  and  a  treatises 
of  piety,  called,  **  The  Perfection  of  a  Christian."  These 
are  bis  theological  works;  and  they  have  been  dften 
printed :  but  that  which  is  most  read,  and  most  worthy  o( 
being  read,<  is^  bis  *^  Polkical  Testament^"  the  authenticity 
of  wbtcb  baa  been  doubted  by  some  French  writers,  parti^^ 
euburly  Voltaire.  Tbe  cardinal  also  had  the  ambition  to^ 
be  thought  a  dramatic  poet;  and,  says  lord  Chesterfield^ 
while  he  aebsolotely  governed  both  bis  king  and  coantry, 
and  waa,.  in  a  great  degree,  the  aii>iter  of  the  fiiteof  ait 
Europe,  he  was  mope  jealoua  of  tbe  great  repntation  ot 
C€M*n«»lle,  tfaan<>f  tbe  power  of  Spain  ;  and  more  flattened 
with  being  tbougbt  (what  be  was  not)  tbe  best  poet,  than; 
with  .bekig  thoegbt  {vA»t  be  certainly  was)  tbe  gi^eatest 
statesman  in  Europe ;  and  afiairs  stood  still,  while  he  vraie 
eonceatog  the  esiticisai  opon=  the-  Cid.  ^ 

RICBER  (Edmund):,  a  learned  French  divine,  was  born 
September  30^  1 560,  at  CbsKMirce,  in  tbe  dio^cese  of  Lan«^ 
grea.  ^  He  had  been  at  first  drawn  into  the  party  and  sen^ 
iteients  of  the  Letgaers^  awl  enren  Tentured  to  deibodi 
iflmeaCleaiem,  but  soon  hastened  to  acknowledge  bislegiti* 
ante  soieereign^  after  baring  taken-  bis  doctor's  degree,' 
IB90^  Richer  became  grand  master  of  the  college  S(  Le 
Moime^  then  syndic  of  the  faculty  of  divinity  at  Paris,; 
Jan  nary  2,  1 606,  in  which  office  he  strenuously  defended 
ftbemncicnt  maxims  of  the  doctors  of  this  faculty,  and  op-^ 
posed  the  thesis  of  a  Dominican  in  1611,  who  maintained 
the  pope's  infallibHtty,  and  his  superiority  over  the  coun^ 
oiL  He  published  a  small  tract  the  same  year,  *^  Oh  tbe 
Civil  and  Eceleaiasttcal  Pewer^''  8vo,  to  establish  the  prin« 
ciples  on  which  he  asserted  that  the  doctrine  of  the  FVencb 
cbmrob,  and  tbeJStorbonne,  respectityg  papal  authority,  and 
the-  authority  of  tbe  general  council,  were  founded.    This: 

>  Pict  U'lfL  de  L*Avocat3~Mor«ri.--Nist.  ofFcftiice. 

fi06  R  I  C  JEI  E  R. 

\\iile  book  made  mucfatioise,  and  raised  its  author  enemies  in 
theNuncio,  and  some  doctors  undertook  to  have  him  deposed 
from  the  syndicate^  and  his  w'ork  condemned  by  the  faculty 
of  theology ;  but  the  parliament  prohibited  .the  faculty  fronl 
interfering  in  that  affair.  In  the  mean  time,  cardinal  dii 
Perroti^  Archbishop  of  Sens,  assembled  eight  bishops  of  his 
province  at  Paris,  and  made  them  censure  Richer's  book, 
March  9, 1 6 1 2.  Richer  entered  an  appeal  (Qmime  d^abus) 
from  this  censure^-  to  the  parliament,  atid  was  admitted  a^ 
an  appellant ;  but  the  matter  rested  there;  His  book  was 
also  censured  by  the  archbishop  of  Aix,  and  three,  bishops^ 
of  his  province,  May  24,  the  same  year,  and  he  was  .pro- 
scribed and  condemned  at  Rome.  A  profusion  of  pam-- 
phtets  now  appeared  ta  refute  him,  and  he  received  anf 
express  order  from  court,  not  to-  write  in  bis  defence;' 
The  aniinosity  against  Richer  rose  at  length  to  such  a 
height  that  his  enemies  obtained- from  tb6  king  and  the 
queen  regent  letters,  ordering  the  faculty  to  elect  another 
syndic.  Richer  made  his  protestations,  fead  a  paper  itv 
his  defence,  and  retired.  A  new  syndic  was-  chosen  inf 
1612,  and  they  have  ever  since  been  elected  once  in  two' 
years,  although  before  that  time  their  office  was  perpetual. 
Richer  afterwards  ceased  to  attend  the  meetings  of  the 
liaculty,  and  confined  himself  to  solitude,  being  wholly 
employed  in  study ;  but  his  enemies  having  involved  him' 
in  several  fresh  troubles,  he  was  seized,  sent  to.  theVprisons 
of  St.  Victor,  and  would  even  have  been  delivered  up  to 
the  pope,  had  not  the  parliament  and*chancellor  of  France 
prevented  it,  on  complaints  made  by  the  university.  He 
refused;  to  attend  the  censure  passed  on  the  books  of  An- 
thony de  Dominis  in  16117,  and  published  a  declaration  in 
1620,  at  the  solicitation  of  the  court  of  Rome,  protesting^ 
that  he  was  ready  to  give  an  account  of  the  propositions  in  his 
book ^^  on  the  Ecclesiastical  and  Civil  Power,"  and  explaiil 
them  in  an  orthodox  sense;  and  farther,  that  he  submitted' 
l)is  work  to  the  judgment  of  the  Holy  See,  and  of  the  Ca- 
tholic church.  He  even  published  a  second  declaration^  ;•' 
but  all  being  insufficient  to  satisfy  his  adversaries,  he  was 
obliged  to  reprint  his  book  in  1629,  with  the  proofs  of  the 
propositions  advanced  in  it,  and  the  two  declarations,  to 
which  cardinal  Richelieu  is  said  to  have  forced  him  to  add 
a  third.  He  died  Nov.  28,  1631,  in  his  seventy-second, 
year.  He  was  buried  at  the  Sorbonne,  where  a  mass  used 
to  be  said  annually  for  the  repose  of  his  soul.     Besides  bis 

R  1  €  H  E  R.  307 

<i(r»ti80an  ^VEoclesiasiica)  Power/'  re|Mriuted.wUh  additions 
at  Cologh  in  1701,  2.  vols.  4tOj  be  waa  the  author  of  a 
"  History  of  general  Councils,"  4  vols.  4lo;  a  "  Histonjr 
of  his  Syndicate/'.  Syo^  and  some  other  works,  ia  which 
learning  and  great  powers  of  reasoning  are  obvious*  Bail- 
let  published  a  life  of  him  in  1 2aio.  ^ 

.  RICHER  (PfiTfiR  DE  Bblleval),  an  ingenious  French 
botanist,  born  in  1558,  at. Chalons  in  Champagne,  and 
studied  medicine.  The  huadaoe.  and  skilful  servicer  he 
rendered  to  the  people  of  Pezena^,  during  an. epidemic 
disorder,  recommended  him  to  the  paijtronage  of  the  cod* 
stable  de  Montmorency,  by  whose  iuuere^t  he  was  appoint- 
ed professor  of , botany  and  anatomy  in  the  university  of 
Mpntpellier,  and  Henry  IV.  committed  to  bun  the  care  of 
^stablishinga  public  garden  in  that  university^  Tbis  dew 
sign  was. executed  in  the  most  skilful:  and  splendid  man- 
ner. Belleval  published  a  catalogue  of  the  garden  in 
I599f  and.  a  French  treatise,  in  1^5^  recommending  an 
inquiry  into  the  native  plants  of  Languedoc.  This  last  was 
accompanied  by  6ve  plates,  intiended  as  a.  apeeimea  of  a 
future  work,  for  which  he  subsequently  prepared  ia  number 
of  engravings,  rude  and  stiff  in  execution,  but  exhibiting 
many  rare  species.  He  never  lived  to. publish  these,  and 
the  plates  remained,  neglected  in  the  hands,  of  his.  family, 
till  Gouan  recovered  them,  and  sent  impnesaiona  to  Lin- 
naeus.. At  length.  Gillibert  obtained  the  plaies^  and  pub- 
llshe;d  them  in  1796«  The  two  pamphlets  above  mentioned 
were  republished  in  1785,  by  tbe  celebrated  and  unforta* 
nate  Broussonet ;  along  with  a  treatise  on  the  white  mul- 
berry, by  Olivier  de  Serres,.  originally  printed  iii  1^31; 
Richer  de  Belleval  Jived  to  see. his  garden  destroyed  by  the 
fury  of  civil  war,  and  was  be^nning  to  reslore  it,  when  he 
died  in  16^23.  .His  nephew  accomplished  the  re-establish- 
ment of  the  garden^  on  a  more  extensive  scale.  M.  Dortbes 
of  Montpellier  published,  in  1786^  «  Rechercbes  sur  la 
yie  et  les  Ouvragts  de  Pierre  Richer  de  Belleval,^'  in  which 
every  thing  that  could  be  collected  on  tbe  subject. is  re- 
corded* Some  writers  erroneously  mention  Belleval  aa 
the*  f^r^t  botanist  who  gave  copper- plate  figures  of  plants. 
Tbis  honour  i.^  due  to  Fabius  Columna,  whose  ^'  Pbytoba«! 
s^K^QsV  1592.     We  must  not  omit  to. mention^ 

'  Dupifk— Niccron,  yoI,  XXVI L— Life  io  Bibi.  AncctMadem,  wl.XlI,— 

A2Q8  R  I  C  R  I  E. 

tbat.Scopbli  bag  named  a  genus  BelltvaUai  a  name»  or  aomi* 
..thiag  like  it,  which  Belleval  bimfelf  was  fond  of  giving  to 
the  lily  of  the  vall«y.' 

RICIUS  (Paul),  was  a  learned  German  Jew,  who«  hav- 
ing been  converted^  taught  philoiophy  with  great  credit  at 
Padua,  and  was  afterwards  iniFited  into  Germany,  by  the 
jeotperor  Maximilian^  add  appointed  one  of  bis  physicians. 
There  are  no  particalars  of  bis  Hie  upon  record,  except  the 
aboiw  general  facts.  He  published  many  worios  against 
the  Jews,  aiid  on  different  subjeou,  in  which  be  matntatns 
that  the  heavens  ase  animated,  and  advances  other  pata*- 
doxes.  '«  De  Cceleeti  Agriculrarik,*'  Bas^  1587,  in  folio; 
<^  Talmudica  Cominentarioia,*'  Augsburg,  1519,  4to;  <<t>e 
.73  MosaiosB  Sanotionis  Edictis,"  Augsburg,  1515,  4Uk  His 
•eaodottf,  honesty,  moderation,  and  learning,  ase  much 
•praised.  He  lived  in  the  sixteenth  century,  and  SrasmuB 
lias  given  htseiifegy  in  the  last  letter  of  his  first  book.* 

RIDER  (Jobn),  an  Irish  prelate,  was  bors  at  Caiting- 
ton  in  Cheshire,  about  1562,  and  was  entered  of  Jesaa  cal>- 
lege,;  Oxford,,  in  1576,  where  be  took  his  degreea  in  art», 
and  coniiiiued  se«|e  years  in  the  university,  teaching  gvam*- 
mar  chiefly.  His  fintt  prefermeM  in  the  church  appears  to 
have^bspcii  to  the  living  of  Waterstock  m  Oxfordshire,  in 
J 580,  winch  he  resigned  in  1581.  In  1583,  he  was  ad* 
miued  to  that  of  South  Wokingdon,  which  he  resigned  in 
1 590.  He  #as  also  rector  of  St.  Mary  Magdalen,  Btf^ 
noondaey,  and  of  Winwick  in  Lancashire.  He  was  after<^ 
^vards  made  archdeacon  of  Meath  in  Ireland,  ihence  pre^ 
ferred  to  the  deanery  of  St<  Patrick's,  Dublin,  and  in  1612 
tjotbe  bishopric  of  Killaloe.  He  died  in  1632,  and  was 
buried  in  his  cathedral.  To  this  dry  catalogue  of  prefer«- 
ments,  we  can  *only  add  generally  that  he  was  much  re- 
spected for  piety  and  learning  ;  but  there  are  no  partieu- 
lars  of  his  life  and  progress  from  a  state  of  comparative  ob* 
scurity  to  the  bishopric.  As  be  was  an  eminent  tntor^  he 
might  owe  some  of  his  preferments  to  the  gratitude  of  his 
paptls.  He  published  *^  A  Letter  concerning  the  News  out 
of  Ireland,  and  of  the  Spaniards  landing,  and  the  present 
state  there,'*  Lond.  1601,  4to;  and  <^  Claim  of  antiquity  in 
behalf  of  the  Protestant  Religion,''  ibid.  1608,  4to  ;  a  tract 
wvitten  in  controversy  with  Fitz  Simon  the  Jesuit,  whose 

•  1'  HalfofV  BfU.  Bot.— DioL  Hitt.--Reet>t  Cyclopadic. 
*  Oca.  Dict«— Morerli— Diet  Hist 

R  I  D  E  K.  2M 

iMswer  is'  entitled  ^^  A  catholic  confutation  of  Mr.  John 
^Rider^s  Claim  pf  Antiquity,  and  a  calming  comfort  agatiiA 
bis  caveat,^*  Roan,  1608,  8vo.  To«thts  was  added  a  <^  Reply 
to  Mr.  Rider's  postscript,  and  a  discovery  of  puritan  par- 
jtiality  in  his  bdEralf/'  But  this  prelate  is  most  remembered 
on  account  of  his  dictionary,  ^^  A  Dictionary,  English  and 
iLatin,  and  Latin  and  Englisb/*^  Oxon.  1589,  4to.  This 
qiust  have  been  at  that  tiqote  a  work  oF  great  utility,  although 
fuller  apcuses  him  of  borrowing  from  Thomasius.  Wood 
aays  it  was  the  first  that  bad  the  English  before  the  Latin^^ 
which  is  not  correct,  as  this  was  the  case  in  the  ^^  Prompt 
tprium  parvulom,^'  printed  by  Pynson  in  1499,  and  the 
«*  Ortus  Vocabulorum,'*  by  W.  de  Worde,  in  1516 ;  but  it 
certainly  was  the  first  Latin  Dictionary  in  which  the  Eng^ 
lish  part  was  placed  at  the  beginning  of  the  book,  before 
the  Latin  part.^ 

RIDGLEY  (Thomas),  an  eminent  dissenter,  was  born 
in  London  about  1667,  and  educated  at  a  privateacademy 
in  ^Wiltshire,  Having  entered  into  the  ministry,  he  was  in 
169/5  chosen  assistant  to  Mr.  Thomas  Gouge  in  bis  meet* 
ing  near  the  Three  Cranes,  London,  and  about  four  years 
afterwards  became  his  successor.  In  1712,  in  conjunction 
with  Mr.  John  Eames,  he  bcrgan  to  conduct  an  acaaemy^ 
supported  by  the  independents  of  London,  as  divinity 
tutor ;  bis  qualifications  for  which  office  were  very  consi* 
derable,  both  as  to  learning  and  abilities,  and  a  judicious 
manner  of  conveying  knowledge.  It  was  in  the  course  of 
lecturing  to  his  pupils,  that  he  delivered,  an  exposition  of 
the  ^*  Assembly's  Larger  Catechism,^'  which  he  published 
in  1731,  as  a  "  Body  of  Divinity,"  in  i2  vols«  folio.  This 
has  been  frequently  reprinted,  and  i^  still  held  in  high  es* 
timation  among  the  Calvinistic  dissenters,  with  whom  he 
iranks  ;  but  he  held  some  few  speculative  opinions,  respect-^ 
ing  the  doctrines  of  the  Trinity,  aqd  of  a  future  state,  which 
are  peculiar  to  himself.  The  university  of  Aberdeen  be- 
stowed on  him  the  degree  of  D.  1>.  as  a  testimony  of  their 
approbation  of  this  work.  His  other  publications  were, 
various  single  sermons,  and  two  tracts  occasioned  by  the 
controversy  among  the  dissenting  ministers  on  the  subject 
ci  subscription  to  creeds.  As  a  preacher  be  officiated  at 
other  places,  besides  his  own  meeting,  and  was  much  fol<e 

»  Atb.  Ox.  vol.  I.  new  edit.— Harris's  W«re.— Fuller's  Worthies. 

VOL.  XXVI.  p  ' 

210  ft  I  D  L  E  T. 

}owe4*    He  died  March  27,  1734,  in  the  asty-serenlb 
year  of  bis  age.' 

RIDLEY  (Nicholas)^  an  eminent  English  prelate  and 
jDnartyr  to  the  cause  of  the  reformed  religion^  descended 

'  from  an  ancient  family  in  Northumberland,  was  bom  early 
in  the  sixteenth  century,  in  Tjnedale,  bI  a  place  called 
.  Wilmontswick  in  the  above  county.    As  he  exhibited  early 
proofs  of  good  natural  abilities,  he  was  placed  in  a  gram* 
mar-scbool  at  Newcastle-npon-Tjne,  in  which  he  made 
such  progress,  that  he  was  taken  from  theoce  and  entered 
of  Pembroke-bail,  Cambridge,  about  1513,  when  Luther  was 
preaching  against  indulgences  in  Germany.     His  disposi- 
tion was  open  and  ingenuous,  and  bis  application  to  his 
studies  unremitting  both  at  school  and  uoiversity.    He  was 
.taught  Greek  by  Robert  Crook,  who  bad  begun  a  course  of 
that  language  at  Cambridge.      His   religious  sentiments 
iwere  those  of  the  Romisb  church  in  which  he  had  been 
brought  up,  and  in  which  be  would  probably  be  encou- 
raged  by  his  uncle.  Dr.  Robert  Ridley,  then  fellow  of 
.Queen's  college.    In  1522  he  took  the  degree  of  B.  A.; 
^nd  to  bis  knowledge  of  the  learned  languages,  now  added 
that  of  the  philosophy  and  theology  then  in  vogue.    In 
1524  his  abilities  were  so  generally  acknowledged,  that  the 
master  and  fellows  of  University  college,  Oxford,  invited 
Jiim  to  accept  of  an  exhibition  there ;  but  this  he  declined, 
and  the  same  year  was  chosen  fellow  of  his  own  college  in 
Cambridge.    Next  year  he  took  the  degree  of  M.  A.  and  in 
1526  was  appointed  by  the  college  their  general  agent  in 
all  causes  belonging  to  the  churches  of  Tilney,  Soham,  and 
Saxtborpe,  belonging  to  Pembroke-hall.     But  as  his  stu- 
dies were  now  directed  to  divinity,  bis  uncle,  at  h^s  own 
charge,  sent  him  for  farther  improvement  to  the  Sorbonne 
at  Paris ;  and  from  thence  to  Louvain ;  continuing  on  the 
continent  till  1529.     In  1530,  he  was  chosen  junior  trea- 
surer of  his  college,  and  about  this  time  appears  to  have 
been  more  than  ordinarily  intent  on  the  study  of  the  scrip- 

,  tures.  For  this  purpose  he  used  to  walk  in  the  orchard  at 
Pembroke-hall,  and  there  commit  to  memory  almost  all 
the  epistles  in  Greek  ;  which  walk  is  still  called  Ridley^'s- 
walk.     He  also  distinguished  himself  by  his  skill  in  dispu* 

tatiob,  but  frequently  upon,  frivolous  questions,  as  was  the 

-custom  of  the  time. 

^  WiUoD*t  Hiitory  of  Disienting  Chorcbetk 

R  I  D  L  E  y*  ail 

'  In  1^3^  he  urtis  cho6en  senior  proctor  of  the  university^ 
and  while  in  that  office,  the  important  point  of  the  pope*d« 
sup'renmcy  came  to  be  examined  upon  the  authority  of 
scripture.  The  decision  of  the  university  was^  that  **  the 
hishop  of  Rome  had  no  more  authority  and  jurisdiction  de- 
rived to  him  from  God,  in  this  kingdom  of  England,  than 
any  other  foreign  bishop  ;'*  which  was  signed  by  the  vice- 
chancellor;  and  by  Nicholas  Ridley,  and  Richard  Wilkes, 
proctors;  In  1534,  on  the  expiration  of  his  proctorship, 
he  took  the  degree  of  B.D.  and  was  chosen  chaplain  of  the 
university,  and  public  reader,  which  archbishop  Tenisoa 
calls  pnedicator  pubUcuSj  and  in  the  Pembroke  MS.  he  Ms 
also  called  Magister  Glonieriarj  which  office  is  supposed  to 
be  that  of  university  orator.  In  the  year  1537  his  great 
reputation  as  an  excellent  preacher,  and  his  intimate  ac- 
quaintance with  the  scriptures  and  fathers,  occasioned 
Crahmer,  archbishop  of  Canterbury,  to  invite  him  to  his 
house,  where  he  appointed  him  one  of  iiis  chaplains,  and 
admitted  him  into  bis  confidence.  As  a  farther  mark  of 
his  esteem,  he  collated  him,  in  April  1538,  to  the  vicarage 
of  Heme  in  Kent  Here  he  was  diligent  to  instruct  his 
bharge  in  the  pure  doctrines  of  the  gospel,  as  far  as  they 
were  discovered  to  him,  except  in  the  point  of  transubstan- 
iiatioD,  on  which  he  had  as  yet  received  no  light ;  dnd  to. 
enliven  the  devotion  of  his  parishioners,  he  used  to  have 
the  Te  Deum  sung  in  his  parish  church  in  English,  which 
was  afterwards  urged  in  accusation  against  him. 

In  1539,  when  the  act  of  the  six  articles  was  passed,  Mr. 
Ridley,  who  had  now  the  character  of  a  zealous  scriptu- 
rist,  bore  bis  testimony  against  it  in  the  pulpit,  although 
he  wad  io'no  danger  from  its  penalties,  as  he  was  still  a  be- 
liever in  transubstantiation,  was  not  married,  and  with  re- 
spect to  auricular  confession,  rather  leaned  to  the  practice, 
but  made  a  difference  between  what 'he  thought  an  useful 
appointinent  in  the  church,  and  pressing  it  on  the  con*' 
science  as  a  point  necessary  to  salvation.  At  Heme  he 
continued  to  attract  a  great  multitude  of  people  to  his  ser- 
tnons,  and  tn  1540  went  to  Cambridge,  and  took  his  de^ 
gree  of  doctor  of  divinity,  probably  at  the  .persuasion  of 
Cranmer,  who  wished  to  place  him  in  a  more  .conspicuous 
situation.  This  he  attempted  partly  by  recommending 
him  to  the  king  as  one  of  his  majesty^^  chaplains,  and 
jgartly  by  givifig  him  a  prebend  ia  the  char^ch  of  Can^er- 

212  R  ID  L  E  Y, 

I^Mry.    About  the  satn^  time  the  fellows  of  Pembroke-^ball 
elected  him  master  of  that  house. 

At  Canterbury  he  preached  with  so  much  zeal  against 
the  abuses  of  popery,  as  to  provoke  the  other  prebenda* 
rieS|  and  preachers. of  what  was  called  the  aid  leamingj  to 
exhibit  articles  against  him  at  the  archbishop's  Tintatidn  in 
154],  for  preaching  contrary  to  the  statute  of  the  six  arti« 
cles.  The  attempt,  however,  completely  failed.  Gardiner, 
bjshop  of  Winchester,  next  endeavoured  tcf  entrap  him ; 
and  articles  were  exhibited  against  him  before  the  justices 
of  the  peace  in  Kent,  and  afterwards  before  the  king  and 
council,  which  charged  him  with  preaching  against  auri- 
cular confession,  and  with  directing  the  Te  Deum  to  be 
sung  in  English ;  but  the  accusation  being  referred  to 
Cranmer,  by  the  king,  that  prelate  immediately  crushed 
it,  much  to  the  mortification  of  Dr.  Ridley^s  enemies. 
:  The  greatest  part  of  1545  Dr.  Ridley  spent  in  retire-' 
ment  at  Heme.  He  had,  as  we  have  noticed,  been  hitherto 
a  believer  in  transubstantiation,  influenced  by  the  decrees 
of  popes  add  councils,  the  rhetorical  expressions  of  the 
fathers,  and  the  letter  of  scripture ;  but  it  is  supposed  that 
a  perusal  of  the  controversy  between  Luther  and  the 
Zuinglians,  with  the  writings  of  Ratramnus  or  Bertram, 
whicfa'had  fallen  into  his.  hands,  induced  him  to  examine 
more  closely  into  the  scriptures,  and  opinions  of  the  fa- 
thers ;  the  result,  of  which  was,  that  this  doctrine  had  no 
foundation.  Cranmer  also,  to  whom  he  communicated  his 
discoveries,  joined  with  him  in  the  same  opinion,  as  did 
Latimer.  In  the  close  of  1545,  Cranmer  gave  him  the 
eighth  stall  in  St.  Peter's,  Westminster.  When  EdWard 
ascended  the  throne  in  1547,  Dr.  Ridley  was  considered  as 
a  celebrated  preacher,  and  in  his  sermons  before  (he  king, 
as  well  a9  on  other  occasions,  exposed,  with  boldness  and 
argument,  the  errors  of  popery.  About  this  time,  the  fel^ 
lows  of  Pembroke-hall  presented  him  to  the  living  of  So« 
ham,  in  the  diocese  of  Norwich;  but  the  presentation  being 
disputed  by  the  bishop,  Ridley  was  admitted  to  the  living 
by  command  of  the  king.  On  Sept.  4  following,  he  was 
promoted  to  the  bishopric  of  Rochester,  vacant  by  the 
translation  of  Dr.  Holbeach  to  the  bishopric  of  Lincoln* 
He  was  consecrated  Sept.  25,  in  the  chapel  belonging  to 
Dr.  May,  dean  of  St,  Paul's,  in  the  usual  form,  by  chrism, 
or  I^oly  unction,  and  imposition  pf  hands ;  and  after  au . 
•ath.  renouncing  the  usurped  jurisdiction  of  the  Roman 

RIDLEY;  813 


pontiflF,  was  vested,  accordiog  to  the  ancient  rites,  vrhh 
the  robes  and  insignia  appropriated  to  his  dignity.  Yet  Dr* 
Brookes,  in  the  subsequent  reigo,  would  not  allow  Ridley 
to  have  been  a  bishop,  and  only  degraded  him  fropa  his. 
priest's  orders,  which  is  not  easy  to  be  accounted  for;  be- 
jcause  if  the  pretence  was  that  his  afa^ur^tion  of  the  pope 
invalidated  his  consecration;  the  same  objection  might  be 
made  to  Bonner,  Tonstall,  Gardiner^  &c; 

In  1548,  bishop  Ridley  appears  to  have  been  employed 
an  compiling  the  codamon  prayer,  in  conjunction  with  arch- 
bishop Cranmer,  and  others;  and  id  1549,  he  was  put 
into  commission,  together  with  Cranmer  and  several  others, 
to  search  after  all  anabaptists,  heretics,  and  contemners  of 
the  common  prayer.  Xl^i^  produced  the  execution  of  Joap 
Bbcher  and  another,  of  which  we  have  already  spoken  in 
our  account  of  Cranmer,  vol.  X.  p.  473.  In  May  of  this 
year,  he  was  one  of  a  commission  to  visit  Cambridge,  and 
abolish  the  statutes  and  ordinances  whi^h  maintained 
popery  and  superstition ;  but,  finding  that  another  more 
conceftled  object  was  the  suppression  of  Clare-haU,  ^nd  the 
incorporation  of  it  with  Trinity^hall^  as  a  new  college  of 
civilians,  be  opposed  it,  and  by  his  firmness  prevented  this 
act  of  injustice.  Another  part  of  the  business  of  the  .comr 
teissioners  was  more  agreeable  to  him  :  thi?  was  to  preside 
at  a  public  disputation  relating  to  the  sacrament  of  the 
Lord's  supper,  similar  to  one  that  had  been  held  at  Oxford 
a  short  time'  before.  The  decision  on  this  occasion  was 
against  transubstantiation ;  and  although  Langdale,  one. of 
the  disputants  on  the  /side  of  that  doctrine,  composed  a 
pretended  refutation  of  bishop  Ridley*s^rmi9atipn,  he 
did  not  venture  to  print  it  until  1558,  when  he' was  secure 
that  Ridley  could  make  no  reply. 

In  October  1549,  Bonner,  bishop  of  London,  was  de- 
prived, and  Ridley,  who  was  one  of  the  comoiissioners  be- 
fore whom  his  cause  was  determined,  was  itbonght  the 
.  most  proper  person  to  fill  that  important  s^^  on  account 
of  his  great  learning  and  zeal  for  the  reformation;  and  he 
was  accordingly  installed  in  April  1550.  His  conduct. to- 
wards his  predecessor  Bonner,  arid  his  family^  after  tidcing 
possession  of  the  episcopal  palace,  was  honourable  to  his 
integrity  and  benevolence,  of  which  the  following  facts  are 
sufficient  proofs.  He  took  care  to  preserve  from  it^ury  the 
goods,  &c.  belonging  to  Bonner,  allowing  him  full  liberty 
to  remove  them  when  be  pleased.  *  3ttch  materials  as  Boil^ 

214  RIDLEY. 

her  had  purchased  for  the  repair  of  his  house  and  church; 
the  new  bishop  employed  to  the  uses  for  which  they  w^re 
designed ;  but  he  repaid  him  the  money  which  he  had  ad-> 
vanced  for  them.  He  took  upon  himself  the  discharge  of 
the  sums  which  were  due  to  Bonner's  servants  for  liveries 
and  wages ;  and  that  the  mother  and  sister  of  that  prelate, 
who  lived  near  the  palace  at  Fulham,  and  bad  their  board 
there,  might  not  be  losers  in  consequence  of  his  promotion, 
he  always  sent  for  them  to  dinner  and  supper^  constantly 
placing  Mrs.  Bonner  at  the  bead  of  the  table,  twea  when 
persons  of  high  rank  were  bis  guests,  often  saying,  *<  By 
your  lordship's  favour,  this  place  of  right  and  custom  is  foir 
my  mother  Bonner,"  as  if  he  had  suc;jceeded  to  the  rela^ 
tion,  as  well  as  office  of  her  son.     / 

Our  prelate  filled  this  high  station  with  great  dignity, 
and  was  a  pattern  of  piety,  temperance,  and  regularity,  to 
all  around  him.  He  spent  much  of  bis  time  in  prayer  and 
contemplation  ;  and  took  great  pains  in  the  instruction  and 
improvement  of  his  family.  His  mode  of  life  was,  as  soon 
as  he  had  risen  and  dressed  himself,  to  continue  in  private 
prayer  half  an  hour ;  then,  if  no  other  business  interrupted 
him,  he  retired  to  bis  study,  where  be  continued  until  ten 
o'clock,  at  which  hour  he  went  to  prayers  with  his  family. 
He  also^laily  read  a  lecture  to  them,  beginning  at  the  Acts 
of  the  Apostles,  and  so  going  reg^ularly  through  St-JPaul's 
epistles,  giving  to  every  one  that  could  read,  a  New  Tes- 
tament, and  encouraging  tl^em  to  learn  by  heart  some 
chosen  chapters.  After  prayers  h^  went  to  dinner,  where 
he  was  not  very  forward  to  begin  discourse ;  but  when  be 
did,  he  entered  into  it  with  great  wisdom  and  discretion, 
and  sometimes  with  facetiousness.  This  conversation  he 
would  indulge  for  an  hour  after  dinner,  or  otherwise  amuse 
himself  during  that  time  with  playing  at  chess.  The  hour 
for  unbending  being  expired,  he  returned  to  his  study, 
where  he  continued  till  five,  except  suitors,  or  business 
abroad,  required  otherwise.  He  then  went  to  prayers  with 
his  family  as  in  the  morning,  after  which  he  supped ;  then 
diverting  himself  for  another  hour  after  supper,  as  be  did 
after  dinner,  he  went  back  to  his  study,  and  continued 
there  till  eleven  at  night,  when  be  retired  to  private  prayer, 
and  then  went  to  bed. 

Soon  after  his  promotion  to  the  see  of  London,  be  was 

the  person  thought  the  fittest  to  reconcile  Dr.  Hooper,  the 

-^shop  elect  of  Gloucesteri  to^e  vestments,  against  which 

R  I  &  L  E  Y.  211 

the  lalter  had  cotaceired  very  strong  prejadicet.  In  June 
1550,  bishopr  Ridley  visited  his  diocese^  and  directed  that 
the  altars  should  be  taken  down  in'  the  churches,  and  tables 
substituted  in  their  room,  for  the  celebration  of  the  Lord's 
supper;  in  order  to  take  away  the  false  persuasion  which 
the  people  had,  of  sacrifices  to  foe  offered  upon  altars.  In 
1551  the  sweating  sickness  prevailed  in  London,  and  in  the 
space  of  a  few  days  carried  off  eight  or  nine  hundred  per- 

'  fiohs ;  but  in  the  midst  of  the  alarm  which  this  necessarily 
occasioned,  Ridley  administered  in  the  duties  of  his  office, 
trusting  himself  entirely  to  the  good  providence  of  God  fot 
safety,  in  the  danger  to  which  he  was  every  moment  ex- 
posed ;  and  he  endeavoured^  with  all  the  zeal  of  an  exem« 
plary  spiritual  pastor,  to  improve  the  public  calamity  to 
the  reformation  of  the  manners  of  the  people;  To  promote 
more  generally  a  reformation  in  the  doctrine  of  the  churchy 
the  comicil,  this  year,  appointed  Cranmer  and  Ridley  to 
prepare  a  book  of  articles  of  faith.  With  this  view  ^ey 
drew  up  forty-two  articles,  and  sent  copies  of  them  to  the 
other  bishops  and  learned  divines,  for  their  corrections  and 
amendments ;  after  which  the  archbishop  reviewed  them  a 
second  time,  and  then  -presented  them  to  the  council,  where 
they  received  the  royal  sanction,  and  were  published  by 

'  the  king's  authoi*ity. 

In  1552,  Ridley  visited  his  old  college  at  Cambridge, 
and  upon  his  return  called  at  Hunsdon,  to  pay  his  respects 
to  the  princess  Mary.  Their  interview  forms  a  curious 
narrative.  She  thanked  him  for  his  civility,  and  entering 
into  conversation  with  him  for  about  a  quarter  of  an  hour, 
told  him  that  she  remembered  him  at  court,  and  mentioned 
particularly  a  sermon  of  his  before  her  father;  and  then, 
leaving  her  chamber  of  presence,  dismissed  him  to  dine 
with  her  officers.  After  dinner  she  sent  for  him  again, 
when  the  bishop  said  that  he  did  not  only  come  to  pay  his 
duty  to  Jier  grace,  but  also  to  offer  to  preach  before  her 
next  Sunday,  if  she  would  be  pleased  to  permit  him..  On 
this  she  changed  countenance,  and  after  some  minutes'  si- 
lence, said,  "As  for  .this  matter,  I  pray  you,  my  lord, 
make  the  answer  to  it  yourself;"  and,  on  the  bishop's 
urging  his  offer,  as  a  matter  of  conscience  and  duty,  she 
repeated  the  same  words,  yet  at  last  told  him,  that  the 
doors  of  the  parish  churtsh  should  be  open  to  him,  where 
he  might  preach  if  he  pleased,  but  that  neither  herself  nor 
any  of  her  servants  should  hear  him.    '*  Madam,"  «aid  the 

916  E  I  D  L  £  Y, 

bishopi  ^*  I  trust  you  will  not  refuse  God^s  word»''-^^<  I  caan 
not  tell  what  you  call  God's  word.  That  is  not  God's  word 
nowy  which  was  God's  word  in  my  father's  days,"  Thf 
bishop  observed,  that  God's  word  is  the  same  at  all  times, 
but  has  been  better  understood  and  practised  in  some  ages 
than  in  others.  Mary,  enraged  at  this,  jansweced,  ^^  Yo^ 
durst  not  for  your  eUrs  have. avouched  tbat  for  God's  word 
in  my  father's  days,  that  you  do  now ;"  and  then,  to  shew 
how  well  she  h^d  prepared  her^lf  to  argue  with  the  prelatf^ 
she  added,  '<  As  for  your  nevi  books,  I  tbaok  God,  I  never 
read  any  of  them  -,  I  never  did  and  never  will."  She  then, 
after  making  use  of  much  hansh  language*  parted  from  him, 
wfth  these  words,  **  My  lord,  for  your  civility  in  coming,  to 
see 'me,  I  tbank  you ;  but  for  your  joffering  to  preach  before 
me,  I  thank  you  not  a  whit."  After  this  the  bishop  was  conr 
ducted  to  the  room  where  they  had  dined,  and  where  sir  Tho- 
mas Wharton  now  gave  him  a  glass  of  wine.  When  he 
b^ad  drank  it,  be  seemed  concerned,  and  said,  *^  Surely  I 
have  done  amiss,"  l/pon  being  asked  wby^  he  vehemently 
reproached  himself  for  having  drank  iq  that  place,  where 
God's  word  had  been  refused  \  **  whereas,"  said  he,  ^/  if  | 
bad  remembered  my  duty,  I  ought  to  ;baye  departed  iqime^ 
diately,  and  to  have  shaken  off  the  dusit  frofxt  my  feet  for  a 
testimony  against  this  house."  On  this  interview,  his  bio^ 
grapber  remarks,  *^  One  of  our  l^roed  l>istorians  suggests, 
that  as  the  princess  wftt  under  no.ex^^omippnication,  th^ 
bishop  discovered  his  re^ntment  too  far,  Too  far  in  world-v 
]y  prudence  be  certainly  did,  for  the  princ^ess  never  forgave 
him;  but  Christ's  directions  to  his  apostles  were  not  given 
to  persons  who  had  been  cast  out  of  their  communion,  but 
to  persons  of  a  different  belief  refusing  to  be  iostructed, 
And  the  princess  having  avowed  an  ob^ti^ate  persevering 
refusal  of  ever}'  mejin  of  instruction,  reading  and  hearings 
no  wonder  if  the  bishop  blamiedhimsjelf  for  so  far  f^rgettitig 
his  master's  command,  as  to  accept  a  pledge  of  friendship 
in  the  house  of  one  who  bad  so, wilfully  rejected  the  word 
of  God.  .  This  bigotry  of  her's  gave  him  a  sorrowful  pror 
spect  of  what  was  to  be  expected,  if  ever  the  priEncess  came 
to  the  throne." 

When  the  parliament  assembled  ju  1553,  the  king,  who 
was  languishing  under  the  decline  which  soon  put  an  end 
to  his  life,  ordered  the  two  houses  to  attend  him  at  Whiter 
hall,  where  bishop  Ridley  preached  before  him,  reicom* 
Daending  with  such  energy  the  duties  of .  h^nefipepco  and 

fi  I  D  L  E  Y.  217 


S  that 'his  majesty  sent  forhim,  to  inquire  hew  he 
could  best  put  in  practice  the  duties  which  he  had  so  well 
and  so  strongly  enforced  i  and  the  result  of  this  sermon  and 
conference  was  a  determination  in  the  king  to  founds  or 
incorporate  anew,  and  endow  with  ample  revenues,  those 
noble  institutions,  Christ^s,  Bartholomew's,  Bridewell,  and 
St.  Thomas's  hospitals. 

Upon  the  death  of  JETdward  VI.,  Ridley  was  earnest  in 
attempting  to  set  lady  Jane  Grey  on  the  throne ;  but,  when 
.the  design  ha<)  miscarried,  he  went  to  Mary,  to  do  her  ho* 
mage,  and  submit  himself  to  her  clemency.  Hisreceptioh 
was  socfa  as  he  might  hav€  expected :  he  was  tmmediately 
committed  to  the  Tower,  where,  howeveri  he  was  treated 
with  much  less  rigour  than  Granmer  and  Latimer,  who  were 
likewise  prisoners  in  .the  same ,  fortress.  Ridley,  it  has 
been  thought,  might  have  recovered  the  queen's  favour,  if 
he  would  have  brought  the  weight  of  his  learning  and  autho- 
rity to  countenance  her  proceedings  in  religion.  He  was, 
however,  too  honest  to  act  against  bis  conviction ;  and  be 
was,  after  eight  months*  imprisonment  in  the  Tower,  con* 
veyed  from  thence  to  Oxford,  where  he  was,  on  the  1st  df 
October,  1535,  condemned  to  death  for  heresy.  During  the 
ft^rtnight  between  bis  condemnation  and  execiition,  the 
.priests  tried  all  th^ir  means  of  persuasion  to  gain  him  over 
to -their  cause;  but  be  was  deaf  to  therr  remonstrances, 
and  was  not  to  be  shaken  in  the  principles  which  he  had 

The  i  5th  of  October  being  the  day  appointed  by  the 
ioourt  for  his  execution,  he  met  the  trial  with  calmness  and 
fortitude.  He  called  it  his  marriage-day,  and  supped  on 
the  preceding  evening  with  the  utmost  cheerfulness,  having 
invited  some  friends  on  the  occasion.  When  they  rose  tp 
depart,^  one  of  them  offered  to  sit  up  with  him  through  the 
night,  which  he  would  not  permit,  saying,  he  meant  to  go 
to  bed,  and,  by  God's  will,  to  sleep  as  quietly  that  night 
as  he  ever  had  done  in  his  life.  On  the  following  morning, 
having  dressed  himself  in  his  episcopal  habit,  he  walked  to 
the  place  of  execution,  between  the  mayor  and  one  of  the 
laldermen  of  Oxford;  and  seeing  Latimer  approach,  from 
whom  he  had  been  separated  since  their  condemnation,  he 
ran  tameet  him,  and  with  a  cheerful  countenance  embraced 
him,  and  exclaimed,  ^^  Be  of  good  heart,  brother,  for  God 
will  either  assuage  the  fury  of  the  flames,  or  else  give  us 
strength  to  endure  jthem."  ^hen  walking  to  the  stake,  he 

filS  RIDLEY. 

knelt  down,  and  kissing  it,  prayed  earnestly,  as  Latimer 
did  also,  and  both  suffered  the  cruellest  death  with  the 
greatest  courage. 

Anthony  Wood  says  of  bishop  Ridley,  that  **  he  was  a* 
pei*son  of  small  stature,  but  great  in  learning,  and  pro« 
foundly  read  in  divinity/'  He  ascribes  to  him  the  follow- 
ing works:  1.  <'A  treatise  concerning  Images  not  to  be 
■et  up,  nor  worshipped  in  churches/*  2.  **  Brief  declara- 
tion of  the  Lord's  Supper,'*  1555  and  1586,  8vo,  written 
during  his  imprisonment  at  Oxford,  and  afterwards  trans- 

'  lated  into  Latin  by  William  Whittinghara.  3.  "  A  friendly 
farewell,  written  during  his  imprisonment  at  Oxford,'*  1559, 
6yo.     4.  **  A  piteous  lamentation  of  the  miserable  state  of 

.  the  church  of  England,  in  the  time  of  the  late  revolt  from 
the  Gospel,"  1567,  Svo.  5.  **  A  comparison  between  the 
comfortable'  doctrine  of  the  Gospel  and  the  traditions  of 
popish  religion.*'  6.  *<  Account  of  the  disputation  held  at 
Oxford,"  1688,  4to.^  7.  "  A  treatise  of  the  Blessed  Sacra- 
ment."— ^To  these  we  are  enabled  to  add,  from  another  au- 
thority, 8.  ^^  Injunctions  of  Nicholas  Ridley,  bishop  of 
London,  to  his  diocese,"  1550,  4to.  9.  "The  way  of 
peace  among  all  Protestants,  in  a  Letter  to  bishop  Hooper," 
Lond.  1688,  4to.  10.  "  A  Letter  of  reconciliation  to  bi- 
shop Hooper,"  ibid.  1689,  4to.  Many  of  his  letters  are 
in  Fox's  "  Acts  and  Monuments,"  and  in  Dr.  Glo^ter 
Ridley's  valuable  account  of  bishop  Ridley's  life,  from 
which  chiefly  we  have  taken  the  preceding  particulars.* 

RIDLEY  (Dr.  Gloster),  a  learned  divine,  descended 
collaterally  from  the  preceding  bishop  Ridley,  was  born 
at  sea,  in  1702,  on-board  the  Gloucester  East  Indiaman, 
to  which  circumstance  he  was  indebted  for  his  Christian 
name.  He  received  his  education  at  Winchester-school, 
and  thence  was  elected  to  a  fellowship  at  New  college, 
Oxford,  where  he  proceeded  B.  C.  L.  April  29,  1729.  In 
those  two  seminaries  he  cultivated  an  early  acquaintance 
with  the  Muses,  and  laid  the  foundation  of  those  elegant 
and  solid  acquirements  for  which  he  was  afterwards  so  emi- 
nently distinguished  as  a  poet,  an  historian,  and  a  divine. 
During  a  vacancy  in  1728,  he  joined  with  four  friends,  viz. 
Mr.  Thomas  Fletcher  (afterwards  bishop  of  Kildare),  Mr. 
(afterwards  Dr.)  Eyre,  Mr.  Morrison,  and  Mr.  Jennens,  in 
writing  a  tragedy,  called  ^^  The  Fruitless  Redress,"  each 

'  Life  by  Dr.  G.  Ridley. — Strypc'a    Cranmer  /><uitm.— A th.  Ox.  vol.  L— 
Wordsworth**  Eccl,  Bio|^.  vol.  III.— Fox's  Acto  and  Monuments,  &c. 

RIDLEY.  ais 

undertaking  an  act,  on  a  plan  previously  cbncerted.  When 
tbey  deliyered  in  their  several  proportions/  at  their'oieeting 
in  the  winter,  few  readers,  it  is  said,  would  have  known 
that  the  whole  was  not  the  production  of  a  single  hand. 
This  tragedy,  which  was  offered  tb  Mr.  Wilks,  but  never 
acted,  is  still  in  MS.  with  another  called  ^'  Jugurtha.**  Dr. 
Kidley  in  his  youth  was  much  addicted  to  theatrical  per* 
formarices,  Midhurst,  in  Sussex,  was  the  place  where, 
they  were  exhibited ;  and  the  company  of  gentlemen  actors 
.to  which  he  belonged,  consisted  chiefly  of  his  coadjutors  in 
the  tragedy  already  mentioned.  He  is  said  to  have  per- 
formed the  characters  of  Marc  Antony,  JaflBer,  Horatio, 
and  Moneses,  with  distinguished  applause.  Young  Cibber, 
being  likewise  a  Wykehamist,  <:alled  on  Dr.  Ridley  soon 
after  he  liad  been  appointed  chaplain  to  the  East  India 
Company  at  Poplar,  and  would  have  persuaded  him  to  quit 
the  church  for' the  stage,  observing  thM  "  it  usually  paid 
the  larger  salaries  of  the  two,*'  an  advice  which  he  had  too 
much  sense  to  follow.  For  great  part  of  his  life,  he  had  no 
other  preferment  than  the  smiall  college  liviifg  of  Weston,, 
in  Norfolk,  and  the  dona,tiveof  Poplar,  in  Middlesex,  where 
he  resided.  To  these  his  college  added,  some  years  after, 
the  donative  of  Romford,  in  Essex.  **  Between  these  two 
places  the  curricle  of  his  life  had,^*  as  he  expressed  it, 
.  ^  rolled  for  some  time  almost  perpetually  upon  post-chaise 
wheels,  and  left  him  not  time  for  even  the  proper  studies 
of  oeconomy,  or  the  necessary  ones  of  his -profession."  Yet 
in  this  obscure  situation  be  remained  in  possession  of,  arul 
content  with, domestic  happiness;  and  was  honoured  with  the 
intimate  friendship  of  some  who  were  not  less  distinguished 
for  learning  than  for  worth  :  among  these,  it  may  be  sufficient 
to  mention  Dr.  Lowth,  Mr.  Christopher  Pitt,  Mr.  Spence, 
and  Dr.  Berfiman.  To  the  last  of  these  he  was  curate  and 
executor,  and  preached  his  funeral  sermon.  In  1740  and 
1741,  he  preached  "  Eight  Sermons  at  Lady  Moyer's  lec- 
ture," which  were  published  in  1742,  8vo,  and  at  different 
tioies,  several  occasional  sermons.  In  1756,  he  declined 
an  offer  of  going  to  Ireland  as  first  chaplain  to  the  duke  of 
Bedford ;  in  return  for  which  he  was  to  have  had  the  choice 
of  promotion,  either  at  Christ-church,  Canterbury,  West- 
minster, or  Windsor.  His  modesty  inducing  him  to  leave 
the  choice  of  these  to  bis  patron,  the  consequence  was, 
that  he  obtained  none  of  them.  In  1761  he  published,  in 
4to^    ^'  De   Syriacarum   novi  foederis    versionum   indole 

eao  JR  I  D  L  E  Y. 

ntque  u!lu»  dis»ertatio/'  occasioned  by  a  Syriac  Tersion, 
whichy  with  two  others,  were  sent  to  him  nearly  thiirty 
years  before,  by  one  Mn  Samuel  Palmer  frpm  Amida,  in 
Mesopotamia.  His  age  and  growing  infirmities,  the  great 
expence  of  printings  and  the  want  of  a  patron,  prevented 
him  from  availing  himself  of  these  MSS. ;  yet  at  intervals  he 
employed  himself  on  a  transcript,  which  being  put. into  th<^ 
lutnds  of  professor  White,  was  published  a  few  years  ago, 
with  a  literal  Latin  translation,  in  ^  vols.  4to,  at  the  ex* 

Eence  of  the  delegates  of  the  Clarendpn  preds*  In  176S 
e  published  the  ^'  Life  of  bishop  Ridley,'*  in  quarto,  by 
subscription,  and  cleared  by  it  as  much  as  brought  him 
800/.  in  the  public  funds.  In  this,  which  is  the  most  use- 
ful of  all  his  works,  he  proved  himself  worthy  of  the  name 
he  bore,  a  thorough  master  of  the  popish  controversy,  and 
an  able  advocate  for  the  reformation.  In  1765  he  publish- 
ed his  "  Review  of  Philips's  Life  of  Cardinal  Pole'*  (see 
Philips);  and  in  1768,  in  reward  for  his  labours  in  this  con* 
troversy,  and  in  another  which  "The  Confessional'*  pro- 
duced, he  was  presented  by  archbishop  Seeker  to  a  golden 
prebend  in  the  cathedral  church  of  Salisbury  (an  option), 
but  it  is  probably  a  mistake  that  Seeker  honoured  him  with 
the  degree  of  D.  D.  that  honour  having  been  conferred  up- 
on him  by  the  university  of  Oxford  in  1767,  by  diplomay  the 
highest  mark  of  distinction  they  can  confer.  At  length,  worn 
out  with  infirmities,  he  departed  this  life  in  Nov.  1774,  leaving 
a  widow  and  four  daughters.  An  elegant  epitaph,  written  by 
Dr.  Lowtfa,  bishop  of  London,  is  inscribed  upon  bis  monument. 
Two  poems  by  Dr.  Ridley ,'  one  styled  "  Jovi  Eleutherio, 
or  an  Offering  to  Liberty,"  the  other  called  "  Psyche,"  are 
in  the  third  volume  of  Dodsley*s  Collection.  The  sequel  of 
the  latter  poem,  entitled,  "  Melampus,"  with  "  Psyche,"  its 
natural  introduction,  was  printed  in  1782,  by  subscription,  for 
the  benefit  of  his  widow.  Many  others  are  in  the  Sth  volume 
of  Nichols's  "  Collection.**  The  MSS.  Codex  Heraclensis, 
Codex  Barsalibaei,  &c.  (of  which  a  paiticular  account  may  be 
seen  in  his  Dissertation  "  De  Syriacarum  Novi  Fcederis.ver- 
sionum  indole  atque  usu,  1761,*')  were  bequeathed  by  Dr. 
Ridley  to  the  library  of  New  college,  Oxford.  Of  these  an- 
cient MSS.  a  fac- simile  specimen  was  published  in  his  Dis- 
sertation above  mentioned.  A  copy  of  "The  Confessional," 
with  MS  notes  by  Dr.  Ridley,'*  was  in  the  library  of  the  late 
Dr.  Winchester.* 

*  Gent.  Mag.  vol.  XLIV.— Nichols's  PoeiD»  and  Bowyer. 

RID  LEY.  221 

/  RIDLEY  (Jambs),  son.  to  the  preceding,  was  educated 
at  Winchester,  and  New  college,  Oxford,  and,  after  tak«» 
log  orders,  succeeded  his  father  in  the  living  of  Rumford^ 
ifk  Essex.  In  1761,  while  attending  his  duty  as  chaplain 
to  a' inarching  regiment  at.  the  siege  of  Bel  leisle,  he  laid 
the  foundation  of  some  disorders,  from  which,  to  the  un^ 
speakable  grief  of  his  family  and  friends,  he  never  reoo-* 
vered,  and  which  some  years  after,  being  then  happily 
married  and  preferred  in  tbexhurch,  terminated  his  life  in 
February  1765.  The  following  extract  from  a  letter  which 
his  father  wrote  about  this  time  to  a  friend,  affords  a  proof, 
of  his  sorrow,  and  the  only  scanty  notices  which  havefbeen 
preserved  of  his  son's  merits. 

"  D£AR  Sir, 

'>  I  am  ashamed  to  have  appeared  so  negligent  in 
answering  your  kind  remembrance  of  me,  by  a  letter  so 
long  ago  as  the  fifth  of  February :  but  it  has  pleased  God 
to  visit  me  so  sorely  since,  that  I  have  had  no  leisure  to 
think. of  any  thing  but  my  sorrows,  and  the  consequent 
troubles  in  which  they  have  involved  me.  Preseotly  after 
receiving  your  letter,  I  went  to  spend  a  few  days  in  London, 
in  the  Temple,  from  whence  I  returned  very  ill,  and  three 
days  brought  on  the  gout.  My  son  went  ill  out  of  London 
the  day  before  I  did,  andj  during  his  illness,  my  own  con- 
finement would  not  permit  me  to  see  him.  About  eleven 
dajrs  carried  off  as  hopeful  a  young  clergyman  as  an  affec* 
tionate  father  could  wish  his  son  to  be.  So  generous  a 
heart,  such  an  intimate  knowledge  of  the  powers  and  work* 
ings  of  nature,  so  serious  and  earnest  a  desire  to  serve  God 
and  mankind,  with  a  cheerful  spirit  and  address  in  convey- 
ing his  instructions,  make  his  loss  as  great  to  the  world  as 
it  is  to  me.  Some  specimens  he  has  left  behind  him,  in 
the  humorous  papers  of  The  Schemer;  and  he  lived  just 
long  enough  to  finish  a  monthly  work,  in  which  he  engaged 
a  year  before  his  death,  publishing  his  last  number  of  the 
Tales  of  the  Genii  the  first  of  February,  in  which  month 
iie  died.'* — — 

The  "  Schemer,"  here  noticed,  was  a  very  humorous 
periodical  paper,  originally  written  fbr  the  London*  Chro* 
nicle,  but  afterwards  collected  into  a  volume  and  published. 
He  was  also  the  author  of  the  **  History  of  James  Love-* 
grove,"  esq.;  but  the  "  Tales  of  the  Genii"  is  the  work  on 
which  his  fame  principally  rests,  and  the  many  editions 
through  which  it  has  passed  sufficiently  attest  its  popu- 

tii  RIDLEY. 

;  Tbe  Tales  are  introduced  mth  the' life  of  HoraHn,  (bts 
supposed  original  author,  which  contains  some  animadvef^' 
sjious  equally  ingehious  and  just,  on  the  difference  betwedn 
tbe  professions  and  practice  of  many  Ciiristians.  The  story^ 
indeed,  is  so  contrived  as  to  include  a  very  keen  satire.' 
.  RIDLEY  (Thomas),  an  eminent  civilian,  descended  of 
a  family  of  that  name  in  Northumberland,  wais  born  in  tbe 
city  of  Ely,  and  became  master  of  Eton  school,  afterwards 
one  of  the  masters  in  chancery,  chancellor  to  the  bishop  of 
Winchester,  and  vicar-general  to  archbishop. Abbot.  He 
i^Iso  received  the  honour  of  knighthood.  He  died  Jan.  22 
or  23,  162d,  and  was  buried  in  the  parish  church  of  St 
Bennet,  Paul's  Wharf,  London.  He  was  a  general  scbo* 
lar,  and  published  <*  A  view  of  the  Civil  and  Ecclesiastical 
Law,'*  which  was  much  admired  by  king  James,  and  was 
afterwards  reprinted  by  the  learned,  but  unfortunatle  Gre- 
gory, chaplain  to  bishop  Duppa.  This  work,  says  Dr. 
Coote,  while  it  established  the  reputation  of  the  author* 
contributed  to  revive  the  declining  credit  of  that  juris- 
diction.'  .  . 

,  RIENZI  (Nicolas  Gabrini  de),  who,  from  a  low  and 
despicable  situation,  raised  himself  to  sovereign  authority 
in  Rome,  in  the  1 4th  century,  assuming  the  title  of  tribune^ 
and  proposing  to  restore  tbe  ancient  free  republic,  was 
born  at  Rome,  and  was  the  son  of  no  greater  a  personage 
than  a  mean  vintner,  or,  as  others  say,  a  miller,  named 
Lawrence  Gabrini,  and  Magdalen,  a  laundress.  However, 
Nicolas  Rienzi,  by  which  appellation  he  was  commonly 
distinguished,  did  not  form  his  sentiments  from  the  mean- 
ness  of  his  birth..  To  a  good  natural  understanding  he 
joined  an  uncommon  assiduity,  and  made  a  great  profici^ 
ency  in  ancient  literature.  Every  thing  he  read  he  com- 
pared with  similar  passages  that  occurred  within  his  own 
observation ;  whence  he  made  reflections,  by  which  he  re- 
gulated his  conduct.  To. this  he  added  a  great  knowledge 
in  the  laws  and  customs  of  nations.  He  had  a  vast  memoi^ :. 
he  retained  much  of  Cicero,  Valerius  Maximus,  Livy,  the 
two  Senecas,  and  Caesar's  Commentaries  especially,  which 
he  read  continually,  and  often  quoted  and  applied  to  the 
events  of  his  own  times.  This  fund  of  learning  proved  the 
foundation  of  his  rise :  the  desire  he  had  to  distinguish 

*  Nichols's  Bowyer.' 

9  A,th.  Or.  vol.  I.— Lloyd's  SUtaWorthieiv—Harwosd'sAlaiimi  Etontnses.**- 
Caote't  CaUlogue  of  CWUUns. 

R  I  E  N  Z  L  2M 

iHflikelf  in  the  knowledge  of  monumental  history^  drew  him 
.10  another  sort  of  science,    then  little  understood.     He 
passedi  whole  days  among  the  inscriptions  which  are  to  be 
found  at  Rome,  and  acquired  soon  the  reputation  of  a  great 
antiquary.     Having  hence  formed  within  himself  the  most 
^exalted  notions  of  the  justice,  liberty,  and  ancient  graadeur 
4>{  the  old  Romans,  words  he  was  perpetually  repeating  tp 
^he  people,  he  at  length  persuaded  not  only  himself,  but 
.the  giddy  niob  his  followers,  that  he  should  one  day  become 
the  restorer  of  the  Roman  republid.     His  advantageous 
stature,  his  countenance,  and  that  air  of  importance  which 
be  well  knew  how  to  assume,  deeply  imprinted  all  he  said 
i^n  the  minds  of  his  audience  :  nor  was  it  only. by  the  popu- 
lace that  he  was  admired  ;  he  also  found  means  to  insinuate, 
himself  into  the  favour  of  those  who  partook  of  the  admini- 
atratipn.     Rienzi^s  talents  procured  him  to  be  nominated. 
one  of  the  deputies,  sent  by  the  Romans  to  pope  Clement 
VI.  who  resided  at  Avignon.     The  intention  of  this  depu- 
tation was  to  make  his  holiness  sensible,  how  prejudicial 
bis  absence  was,  as  well  to  himself  as  to  the  interest  of 
Rome.     At  his  first  audience,  our  hero  charmed  the  court 
of  Avignon  by  his  eloquence,  and  the  sprightliness  of  his' 
<:onvetsation.    Encouraged  by  success,  be  one  day  took  the 
liberty  to  tell  the  pope,  that  the  grandees  of  Rome  were 
avowed  robbers,  public  thieves,  infamous  adulterers,  and 
illustrious  profligates;  who  by  their  example  authorized 
the  most  horrid  crimes.     To  them  he  attributed  the  desola- 
tion of  Rome,  of  yvbich  he  drew  so  lively  a  picture,  that 
the  holy   father  was  moved,    and  es^ceedinglys  incensed 
Ugainst  the  Roman  nobility.     Cardinal  Colonna,  in  othet* 
respects  a  lover  of  real  merit,  could  not  help  considering^ 
these  reproaches  as  reOecting^  upon  some  of  his  family;  and 
therefore  found  means  of  disgracing  Rienzi,  so  that  he  feljl 
into  extreme  misery,  vexation,  and  sickness,  which,  joined 
with  indigen.ce,  brought  him  to  an  hospital.     Nevertheless, 
tne  same  hand  that  threw  him  down,  raised  him  up  agaip. 
The  cardinal,  who  was  all  compassion,  caused  him  to  appear 
l^efore  the  pope,  in  assurance  of  his  being  a  good  man, 
and  a  great  paftizan  for  justice  and  equity.     The  pope  ap- 
prpvedof  him  more  than  ever;  and,  as  proofs  of  his  esteepa 
and  confidence,  made  him  apostolii;  notary,  and  sent  him 
back  loaded  with  favours.     Yet  his  subsequent  behaviour, 
shewed,  that  resentmeot  had  a  greater  ascendancy  over  him 
tban  gratitude.     Being  returned  to  Rome,  he  began  to 

execute  the  f oiKstiaiis  of  bis  office,  and  by  affability,  caadotii^ 
assiduity,  and  impartiality,  in  the  administration  ofjustioe, 
he  arrived  at  a  superior  degree  of  popularity ;  which  he 
atili  improfied  by  continued  invectives  against  the  vices  of 
the  great,  whom  he  strove  to  render  as  odious  as  possible ; 
till  at  last,  for  some  ilUtimed  freedoms  of  speech,  he  was 
not  only  severely  reprimanded,  hot  displaced.  His  dis^ 
mission  did  not  make  him  desist  from  inveighing  against  the 
debauched,  though  be  conducted  himself  with  more  pru«^ 
dence.  From  this  time  it  was  his  constant  c^ndeavoar>  to 
inspire  the  people  with  a  fondness  for  their  ancient  liberties; 
to  which  purpose,  he  caused  to  be  hung  up  in  the  most 
public  places  emblematic  pictures,  expressive  of  the  former 
splendour  and  present  decline  of  Rome.  To  these  be  added 
frequent  harangues  and  predictions  upon  the  same  subject* 
In  this  manner  he  proceeded  till  one  party  looked  on  him 
only  as  a  madman,  while  others  caressed  him.  as  their  pro'^ 
tector.  Thus  be  infatuated  the  minds  of  the  people,  and 
many  of  the  nobility  began  to  come  into  his  views,  while 
the  senate  in  no  wise  mistrusted  a  man,  whom  they  judged 
tO/have  neither  interest  nor  ability.  At  length  he  ventured 
to  disclose  his  designs  to  such  as  be  believed  mal-contents,^ 
£rst  separately,  but  afterwards,  when  he  thought  he  had- 
firmly  attached  a  sufficient  number  to  his  interest,  h^  as* 
sembled  them  together,  and  represented  to  them  the  de- 
plorable state  of  the  city,  over-run  with  debaucheries,  and 
the  incapacities  of  their  governors  to  correct  or  amend 
them.  As  a  necessary  foundation  for  the  enterprize,  be 
gave  them  a  statement  of  the  immense  revenues  of  the 
apostolic  chamber;  demonstrating  that  the  pope  could^ 
only  at  the  rate  of  four-pence,  raise  a  hundred  thdusn&d 
florins  by  firing,  as  much  by  salt,  and  as  much  more  by  the 
customs  and  other  duties.  **  As  for  the  rest,"  said  he,  ^^  I 
would  not  have  you  imagine,  that  it  is  without  the  pope^a 
consent  I  lay  bands  on  the  revenues.  Alas !  how  many 
others  in  xhis  city  plunder  the  effects  of  the  church  con«» 
trary  to  his  will !" 

By  this  artful  falsehood,  he  so  animated  his  auditors, 
that  they  declared  they  would  make  no  scruple  of  securing 
these  treasures  for  whatever  end  might  be  most  convenient, 
and  that  they  w^re  devoted  to  his  will.  Having  obtained  so 
much  to  secure  his  adherents  from  a  revolt,  he  tendered 
them  a  paper,  superscribed,  *<  an  oaih  to  procure  the  good 
establishment ;"  and  made  them  subscribe  and  swea;  to  it^ 

ft  t  £  N  Z  f .  221 

b'e^re  he  dismissed  them.  By  what  m^flns  be  prevailed  on 
tbe  pope's  vicar  to  give  a  tacit  sanction  to  bis  project  is  not 
certainty  known;  that  he  did  procure  that  sanction^  and 
that  it  was  looked  on  as  a  master-piece  of  policy,  is  gene- 
rally admitted.  The  20th  of  May,  being  Whitsunday^  be 
fixed  upon  to  sanctify  in  some  sort  his  enterprize ;  and  pre* 
tended,  that  all  he  acted  was  by  particular  inspiration  of 
the  Holy  Ghost.  Aboiit  nine,  he  came  out  of  the  church 
bare-beaded,  accompanied  by  the  pope's  vicar,  surrounded 
by  an  hundred  armed  men.  A  vast  crowd  followed  him 
with  shouts  and  acclamations.  The  gentlemen  conspirators 
carried  three  standards  before  him,  on  which  were  wrought 
itevices,  insinuating,  that  his  design. was  to  re-establish 
liberty,  justice,  and  peace.  In  this  manner  he  proceeded 
directly  to  the  capitol,  where  he  mounted  the  rostrum  ;  and^ 
with  more  boldness  and  energy  than  ever,  expatiated  on 
the  miseries  to  wbicfa  the  Romans  were  reduced ;  at  the 
same  time  telling  them,  without  hesitation,  *'  that  the  happy 
bour  of  their  deliverance  was  at  length  come^  and  that  he 
was  to  be  their  deliverer,  regardless  of  the  dangers  he  was 
exposed  tO'for  the  service  of  the  holy  father  and  the  peo- 
ple's safety."  After  which,  he  ordered  the  laws  of  what 
be  called*  the  good  establishment  to  be  read  :  and  assured' 
that  the  Romans  would  resolve  to  observe  these  laws,  he 
engaged  in  a  short  time  to  re-establish  them  in  their  ancient 
grandeur.  The  laws  of  the  good  establishment  promised 
plenty  and  security^  which  were  greatly  wanted;  and  the 
humiliation  of  the  nobility,  who  were  deemed  common* op- 
pressors. Such  laws  could  not  fail  of  being  agreeable  to  a 
people  who  found  in  them  these  double  advantages ;  and 
therefore  enraptured  with  the  pleasing  ideas  of  a  liberty  to 
which  they  were  at  present  strangers,  and  the  hope  of  gain^ 
they  adopted  most  zealously  the  fanaticism  of  Rienzi.— 
Theyresumed  the  pretended  authority  of  the  Romans; 
they  declared  him  sovereign  of  Rome^  and  granted  him 
the  power  of  life  and  death,  of  rewards  and  punishments, 
of  enacting  and  repealing  the  laws,  of  treating  with  foreign 
powers;  in  a  word,  they  gave  him  the  full  and  supreme 
authority  over  all  the  extensive  territories  of  the  Romans. 
Riedzty  arrived  at  the  summit  of  his  wishes,  kept  at  a  great 
distance  his  artifice  :  he  pretended  to  be  very  unwilling  to 
accept  of  their  offers,  but  upon  two  conditions ;  the  first, 
that  they  should  nominate  ^e  pope's^  vicar  (the  bishop  of 
Orvieto)  his  co-partner ;  the  second,  that  the  pope's  con-^ 

886  H  I  E  N  Z  jL 

fenl  fthoald  be  granted  bico,  wbicb  (be  tol4  %kem)  be  flM* 
.  tered  himself  be  sboYild  obtain.  On  the  on#  bwd^  be  bar^ 
toarded  notbing  in  tbu^  making  bi^  court  to  tbe  boly  fatber^ 
and,  on  the  other,  he  well  knew»  that  tbe  bisbap  of  Or* 
vieto  would  carry  a  title  only,  and  no  authority.    The  peo<^ 

f}e  granted  bis  request,  but  paid  all  tbe  honours  to  him : 
e  possessed  the  authority  without  restriction ;  the  good 
bishop  appeared  a  mere  shadow  and  veil  to  bis  enterprizea* 
Bienzi  was  seated  in  his  triumphal  chariot,  like  an  idol^  <e 
(riumpb  with  the  greater  splendor*  He  dismissed  the  peor 
pie  replete  with  joy  and  hope.  He  seiaed  upon  the  palace^ 
where  be  continued  after  be  bad  turned  out  the  senates 
and,  the  ^me  day,  be  began  to  dictate  bis  laws  in  tb«  ea^ 
pitc^  This  election,  though  not^  very  pleasing  to  the  poiMQ^ 
was  ratified  by  him ;  yet  Rienssi  meditated  the  obtaining  of 
a  title,  exclusive  of  tbe  papal  prerogative-  Well  verged 
in  tbe  Eoman  bistpryt  he  was  no  stranger  to  the  eiitent  of 
tbe  tribunitial  aqtbority ;  andt  as  be  owed  bis  elevation  |o 
the  people,  he  ehose  to  have  tbe  title  of  their  magi^tiale^ 
He  asked  it,  and  it  was  conferred  on  him  and  his  eo^pantnei) 
with  tbe  addition  of  deliverers  of  their  country.  Our  adr 
venturer's  behaviour  in  bis  elevation  was  at  first  svchaa 
commanded  esteem  and  respect,  not  only  from  tbe  Romansi 
but  from  all  the  peighboiftring  states.  His  contempm^ryj 
the  celebrated  Petrarch,  in  a  letter  to  Charles^  king  of  the 
Romans,  gives  tbe  following  account  of  him : — **  Not  }qii|| 
since  a  most  remarkable  man,  of  the  plebeian  race,  a  pei&t 
son  whom  neither  titles  nor  virtues  had  distinguished  ^^tA 
be  presumed  to  set  bimsitf  up  fpr  a  restorer  of  the  Roman 
liberty,  has  obtained  the  bluest  authority  at  Rome,  3q 
sudden,  so  great  is  bis  auocess,  that  this  man  has  already 
woo  Tuscany  and  all  Italy.  Already  Europe  and  the  wbcdt 
world  are  in  motion ;  to  speak  the  whole  in  one  werd^  I 
protest  to  you,  not  as  a  reader*  but  as  an  eye**  witness,  ti^ 
he  has  restored  tq  us  the  justice,  peaee*  iiitegrity,  apil 
every  other  token  of  the  golden  age,''  But  His  difficull 
for  a  person  of  mean  birth,  elevated  at  once>  by  the  capriw 
•  of  fortune,  to  tbe  most  exalted  station,  to  move  rightly  in  • 
sphere  in  which  he  must  breathe  an  ^it  be  bas  b^n  unacir 
custoimed  to.  Rienzi  ascended  by  degrees  the  summit  of 
his  fortune.  Riches  softened^  power  daz9led»  the  pomp 
of  his  cavalcades  animated,  and  formed  in  bis  mi^d  ideae 
adequaite  to  those  of  princes  born  to  empire.  Henee  luxury 
invaded  bis  table,  and  tyranny  took  possession  c^  hie  beaxl;» 
The  pope  conceived  bis  designs  contrary  to  the  interests  of 

R  I  £  N  Z  r.  827 

IJbe  holy  se%  and  the  nobles^  whose  power  it  had  been  hit 
constani  endeavoun  to  depress^  conspired  against  him ;  and 
Rienzi  was  forced  to  quit  an  authority  he  had  possessed 
little  more  than  six  months.     It  was  to  a  precipitate  flight 
that  he  was  indebted,  at  this  juncture,  for  his  life;  and  to 
different  disguises  for  his  subsequent  preservation.    Having 
made  an  ineffectual  effort  at  Rome,  and  not  knowing  where 
to  find  a  new  resource  to  carry  on  his  designs,  he  took  a 
most  bold  step,  conformable  to  that  rashness  which  had  so 
often  assisted  him  in  his  former  exploits.     He,  determined 
to  go  to  Prague,  to  Charles,  king  of  the  Romans,  whom 
the  year  before  he  had  summoned  to  his  tribunal,  and  who 
iie  foresaw  would  deliver  him  up  to  a  pope  highly  incensed 
against  him.     He  was  accordingly  soon  after  sent  to  Avig^. 
noo,  and  there  thrown  into  a  prison,  where  he  continued 
three  years.     The  divisions  and  disturbances  in  Italy^  occa«* 
ktoned  by  the  number  of  petty  tyrants  that  had  established 
themselves  in  the  ecclesiastical  territories,  and  even  at  Rome» 
occasioned  his  enlargement.     Innocent  VL  who  succeeded 
Clement  in  the  papacy,  sensible  that  the  Romans  still  enter*- 
tained  an  affection  for  our  hero,  and  believing  that  liis 
chastisement  would  teach  him  to  act  with  more  moderation 
than' he  had  formerly  done,  as  well  as  that  gratitude  would 
€rf^lige  .him,  for  the  remainder  of  his  life,  to  preserve  an 
inviolable  attachment  to  the  holy  see  (by  whose  favour  he 
should  be  re-established),  thought  him  a  proper  instrument 
to  assist  his  design  of  reducing  those  other  tyrants ;  and 
tlierefore,  not  only  gave  him  his  liberty,  but  also  appointed 
bim  governor  and  senator  of  Rome.     He  met  with  many 
bbstacles  to  the  assumption  of  this  newly-granted  authority^ 
idl  which,  by  cunning  and  resolution,  he  at  length  over* 
tame.     But  giving  way  to  his  passions,  which  were  immo* 
llerately  warm,  and  inclined  him  to  cruelty,  he  excited  so 
general  a  resentment  against  him,  that  he  was  murdered^ 
Uct.  8,  1354.     **  Such,'*  say  bis  biographers,  *<  was  the 
end  of  Nicolas  Rienzi,  one  of  the  most  renowned  men  of 
the  age ;  who,  after  forming  a  conspiracy  full  of  extrava- 
gance,* and  executing  it  in  the  sight  of  almost  the  whole 
world,  yifiih  such  success  that  he  became  sovereign  of 
Rome ;  after  causing  plenty,  justice,  and  liberty  to  flou- 
rish among  the  Romans ;  after  protecting  potentates,  and 
terrifying  sovereign  princes ;  after  being  arbiter  of  crowned 
headi ;  after  ife-establishing  the  ancient  majesty  and  power 
of  the  Roman  republic^  and  filling  all  Europe  with  bis  fame 

a  2 

229  R  I  E  N  Z  L 

during  the  sereo  months  of  bis  first  reign ;  after  baviiTg 
compelled  his  masters  themselves  to  confirm  bim  in  the 
authority  be  bad  usurped  against  their  interests;  fell  at 
length  at  the  end  of  bis  second,  which  lasted  not  four 
months,  a  sacrifice  to  the  nobility  whose  ruin  he  had  vowed, 
and  to  those  vast  projects  which  bis  death  prevented  bim 
from  putting  into  execution.''' 

RIGALTIUS,  orRIGAULT,  (Nicolas),  a  very  inge- 
nious  and  learned  man,  was  the  son  of  a  physician,  and  bom 
at  Paris  in  1577.  He  was  brought  up  among  the  Jesuits, 
and  afterwards  admitted  advocate ;  but,  not  being  able  to, 
conquer  the  disgust  he  bad  conceived  to  the  profession  of 
the  law,  he  devoted  himself  entirely  to  the  pursuit  of  polite 
literature.  The  public  received  the  first  fruits  of  bis  la- 
bours in  bis  '*  Funus  Parasiticum,''  printed  in  1596;.  the 
ingenuity  and  learning  of  which  so  charmed  Tbuanus,  thathe 
immediately  took  bim  into  bis  friendship,  and  made  bim  the 
<:ompanion  of  bis  studies.  This  excellent  person  conceived 
a  particular  esteem  for  him ;  as. appeared,  when  be  died  in 
1617,  from  naming  him  in  bis  will,  to  superintend  the  edu« 
cation  of  bis  children.  He  was  chosen,  with  Isaac  Casau- 
bon,  to  put  the  king's  library  into  order;  and  in  1610^ 
.when  that  learned  man  went  over  to  spend  some  time  in 
England  with  James  I.  succeeded  bim  in  the  ofiice  of  \i^ 
brarian  to  the  king.  His  majesty  conferred  on  him  other 
.  marks  of  distinction  ;  made  bim  procurator-general  of  the 
supreme  court  of  Nancyj  counsellor  of  the  parliament  of 
Metz,  and  then  intendant  of  that  province.  He  died  in 
1654,  after  having  given  aumerous  proofs  of  uncommon 
erudition  in  editions  of  **  Minutius  Fcelix,"'  ^'  Pbasdrus,"^ 
^^  Martial)"  'Mlei  accipitrarii  scrip.tores,*'  ^' Rei .  agrarian 
scriptores,"  the  works  of  "  Cyprian"  and  "  TertuUian," 
&c.  His  notes  upon  these  last  two  are  learned  and  criti- 
cal ;  but  thematter  of  some  of  them  shews  him  to  have  been 
not  a  rigid  catholip.  He  takes  occasion  to  observe,  from  a 
passage  in  Tertullian's  ^*  Exhortation  to  Chastity,'^  that 
laymen  have  a  right  and  power  to  consecrajte.  the  eucharist^ 
when  there  is  no  opportunity  of  recurring  to  the  regular 
ministers ;  and  this,  with  other  opinidns  of  a  similar  kind, 
not  only  gave  offence  to  those  of  his  own  commuuioo,  but 
even  to  some  of  ours.  ^'  Rigaltjus,"  says  Mr.  Dodwell, 
*^  though  an  ingenious  and  learned  critic,  is  by  no. means 
exact  upon  the  subjects  be  treats  of :  for,  though  of  the 

1  Memoiri  of  Rien^i,  by  Brumoy  and  Cerceau. 

Tl  J  G  A  L  T.  I  U  S.  2tf» 

Rdmaa  .commiiniony  be  is  often  found  on  the  side  of  the 
Cftivinistd;  and,  when  be  meets  with  anything  in  the  au- 
thors  he  publishes  that  appears  contrary  to  the  customs, 
not  only,  of  his  own,  but  pf  the  universal  church,  here* 
marks  it  witb  great  care ;  perhaps  to  render  his  notes  more 
agreeable  to  the  reader,  by  presenting  him  with  something 
new  and  unexpected.^'  It  is  probable,  that  many  persons 
may  not  think  the  worse  of  Rigaltius,  as  an  editor,  for  the 
censure  here,  passed  on  him  by  Mr.  Dodwell.  Rigaltius , 
was  aUo;  conperned  in  the  edition  of  Thuanus,  published  at 
Geneva  in  1620.^ 

RIGHTWISE,  or  RITWYSE  (John,  in  Latin  Justus), 
an  eminent  grammarian,  was  born  at  Sawl,  in  Norfolk,  and 
educated  at  Eton,   and  was  admitted  *  of  King's  college,' 
Cambridge,  in  1506.     He  was  first  usher  to  the  celebrated , 
William  Lilly,  master  of  St.  Paul's  school,  9.nd  afterwards 
second  master,   but  succeeded  Lilly,  as  head  master,  in 
1522,  which  situation  he  retained  until  his  death,'  in  1^(32. 
He  composed  a  tragedy  of  "  Dido"  out  of  Virgil,  which 
was  performed  at  St  Paul's  school  by  him  and  his  pupils,  .' 
before  cardinal  W.olsey,  but  deserves  more  notice  for  the 
improvements  he  introduced  in  Lilly's  Latin  grammar,  in 
the  edition  published  at  Antwerp  in  1533.     He  had  mar- 
ried Dion3rsia^  the  daughter  of  Lilly ;  and  after  his  death 
$fae  was  again  married  to  James  Jacob,  one  of  the  masters  ; 
oiF  St.  Paulas,  by  whom  she  had  a  son,  Polydore  Jacob,  who 
Was  probably  the  god-son  of  Polydore  Virgil,  who  speaks 
of  Right  wise  with  great  respect*' 

RILEY  (John),  an  EngKsh  artist  of  very  ccmsiderable 
merit,  was  born  at  London,  in  1646,  and  instructed  in  the 
art  of  paiuting  by  Fuller  and  Zoust.  Lord  Orford  asserts, 
that  he  was  one  of  the  best  native  painters  that  had  flou- 
rished in  England ;  and  that  there  are  draperies  and  hands 
painted  by  him  that  would  do  honour  either  to  Leiy  or 
Kneller ;  the  portrait  of  the  lord-keeper  North,  at  Wrox- 
ton,  being  in  every  respect  a  capital  performance.  After 
the  death  X)f  sir- Peter  Lely,  he  advanced  in  the  esteem  of 
the  pubHc,  and  had  the  honour  to  .paint  the  portraits  of 
king  Charles  IL  king  James  and  his  queen,  and  was  ap- 
pointed state  painter.  He  made  nature  his  principal  study, 
without  adopting  the  manner  of  any  master,  and  as  far  as 


^  Bateau  VU».— Niseroo,  vol.  XXr.— Moreri. 

*  Knight's  Colet,  corrected  in  Tanner,  and  Cole's  MS  Athenae  in  Brit.  Mus. 
— Warton'f  Hist,  of  Poetry.— Harwood's  Alumni  Etonenses. 

230  R  I  L  E  y.     • 

be  thoogbt  it  prudent  be  improTed  or  embelliibed  it  m  hit- 
pictures;  and,  like  many  other  meo  of  parts,  be  aeeawi  to' 
be  0iore  respected  bj  posterity,  tban  by  tbe  age  in  which  * 
be  flourished.     He  was,  intrutb,  humble,  modest,  and  of: 
an  amiable  character.     He  had  tbe  greatest-  diffidence  of 
himself,  and  was  easily  disgusted  witb  his  own  works,  tha 
source  probably,  says  lord  Orford,  of  the  objections  made* 
to  him.     Witb  a  quarter  of  Kneller's  vanity,  he  might  have 
persuaded  the  world  he  was  as  great  a  master.    The  gout- 
put  an  end  to  his  progress,  for  he  died  in  1691,  at  the  age' 
of  forty-five,  and  was  buried  in  Bishop^gtite^  church,  m 
w^ich  parish  he  was  born.  One  Thomas  Riley  was  an  actor, 
abd  has  a  copy  of  verses  in  Randolpb^s  Poems.     This,  lord 
Orford  thinks,  might  be  tbe  painter's  Attber.     In  the  same ' 
place  are  some  Latin  verses  by  Riley,  wboiti  the  same  bio«> 
grapber  takes  to  be  our  painter  himself.     Richardson  mar«r 
ried  a  near  relation  of  Riley,  and  inherited  about  SOOL  in ' 
piet'ures,  drawings,  and  effects. 

<  There  was  a  more  recent  artist  of  thiji  name,  but  nowise 
related  to  tbe  preceding,  Charles  Reuben  Rilbt,  wbo 
died  in  1798,  about  forty-six  years  of  age.     He  was  placed^ 
under  Mortimer,  and  in  1778  obtained  tbe  gold  medal  at' 
the  Royal  Academy,  for  tbe  best  painting  in  oil,  the  sub% ' 
ject,  the  Sacrifice  of  Iphigenia.     He  was  employed  in  the< 
decorations  of  some  noblemen's  and  gentlemen's  houses^' 
but  chiefly  in  making  drawings  and  designs  for  the  bock^ 
sellers.  * 

RINALDI  (ODERic),a  learned  Italian  ecclesiastical  his- 
torian  of  the  seventeenth  century,  was  a  native  of  Treviso, 
and  was  brought  up  in  the  congregation  of  the  oratory  at> 
Rome,  of  which  Baronius  had  been  a  member.     After  tbe 
death  of  that  cardinal,  Rinaldi  wrote  a  continuation  of  his ' 
<*  Ecclesiastical  Annals,"  from  1198,  where  Baronius  left 
ofl^,  to  1564,  and  witb  no  inferiority  to  the  ptt^ceding  vo«* 
Jumes.     It  consists  often  large  volumes  in  folio,  published^ 
at  Rome  at  different  periods^  from  1646  to  1677.    Rinaldi' 
also  was  the  author  of  a  sufficiently  copious  abridgment,  in 
Italian,  of  the  whole  annals,  compiled  both  by  Baroniiis 
and  himself.* 

RINGELBERQIUS  (Joachim    Fortiijs),  in  Gennaii. 
8terck,  an  eminent  Flemish  philosopher  and  matbematictani 

1  WaIpole*8  Anecdotes, — Edwards's  ContinUatiotih 
*  Landi  Hilt.  Litt.  d*  Italie, 


wM  bom  at;  Antwerp^  and  first  fttudtod  in  the  emperor 
MsxinUtaui  the  First's  palace,  and  afterwards  at  the  vni- 
i«rslty  of  Lduvain^  where  he  acquired. the  learned  Ian- 
goages,  phildsopby^  and  the  matheoiatioal  sciences.  He 
beoaoie  a  public  professor  in  that  university^  and  taught 
furious  sciettoes;  and  in  I5f8  went  ioto  Germany,  and 
caof  ht  the  matbeoiatioal  ddenced  and  the  Greek  tongue  ift 
variooi  semitiaries  of  that  country^  and  afterwards  at  Parii^ 
Oiieans)  and  Bourdeaui:^  and  other  places.  He  died  about 
1596.  Among  his  most  esteemed  worlts  were^  ^'  De  Ra<A 
tioue  Sindii/'  Antwerp,  15^9^  in  which  are  many  pat'ticu^^ 
lars  of  bia  own  studies ;  various  treatises  on  grammar ; 
^  Dialectioa,  et  Tabulte  Dtalectica;/'  Ley  den,  1547  $ 
^  De  ^onscilbendis  Epistolia  Lib.  ;'*  '<  lihetorlesd^  et  quia 
ad  earn  spectant  ;^'  *^  Sentential ;''  *^  Sph^rsi,  sive  Instl^ 
ttttibnom  Astrooomicarum,  Lib.  IIL,"  BasrI,  1508,  avo^ 
^^  Cosmograpbia ;"  '<  Optica ;"  *^  Cha^s  Matbematicum  )'^ 
'^  Aritbmetica ;''  all  which  were  collected  and  published  at 
Leyden,  in  153  i.^ 

RINGGLI  (OOTTHAftD)^  an  excellent  Swiss  artist^  nwi 
bom  at  Zoric,  January  2Tth|  1575,  but  of  his  master,  hi$ 
travels,  or  the  progress  of  his  younger  years,  his  biographer 
has  not  informed  os.  He  must  have  enjoyed  some  eele^ 
brity,  as  he  was  chosen  by  the  magistracy  of  Berne  to  dcM 
corate  with  painttnga  of  large  dimensions  the  senstte^house 
aad  aiinster  of  that  metreperfiS)  and  had  the  freedom  of 
their  oity  conferred  on  him.  Theie  pictures^  which  re^ 
pteseoted  facts  rdatire  to  the  foundations  of  Berne>  o« 
allegories  alluding  to  the  peeoliarities  of  its  situation  and 
ciiaioms^  Were  eqnally  distinguished  by  picturesque  con«> 
eeptioHy  boldMss  of  style#  and  correct  execution.  In  the 
a^aate-bouse  especially,  "iile  tf^trd  pic^tnre^  whose  subject 
was  the  building  of  the  town,  shewed  great  intelligeace  of 
foreshortening,  and  of  what  is  by  the  Italians  termed  ^6k 
aatio  in  so/*  Fo^  the  paUk  library  of  Zuric  he  painted 
^  arms  of  the  state  and  of  lis  dependenoiesj  supported  by 
Religion  and  Liber^ ;  Death  lies  lit  the  feet  of  Religion^ 
biat  to  the  tfsraal  allegorle  implements  in^  ber  bands  he 
added  a  bridle,  to  distinguisli  her  from  Fantiticism  atid  Sd'- 

Hie  eaieUpietures  were  either  few,  or  the  greater  part 
must  hafi9  perished ;  one  of  the  most  remarkable^  in  the 

1  Mor«vi  in  Fortiui.— Foppea  an  ditto/— >^el«1ii(»r  adam. 

*32  ft  I  N  G  G  L  1. 

house  of  Werdmidier,  is  Job  emaciated  and  diseased^  listen-^ 

iDg  patiently  to  the  invectives  of  bis  wife ;  a  picture  wbich^ 

even  on  close  inspection,  differs  little  in  baudling  and  tone 

from  the  best  works  of  Spagnoletto.    But  perbaps  the  most 

valuable  remains  of  Ringgli  are  bis  designs,    generally 

drawn   witb    the  pen,  and  washed  with  , bister  or  India 

ink ;  these  are  sometimes  of  considerable  size,  and  chiefly 

biblical  or  allegorical  subjects.  That  of  our  Saviour^s  burial, 

Susanpah  with  the  Elders,  the  royal  Fatber  shot  at  by  ha 

Sons  from  the  ^^  Gesta  Romanorum,"  Faith  sheltered  from 

the  storms  of  Persecution,,  and  many  more  of  mystic  con*^ 

tent,  are  remarkable  for  beauties  of  composition,  light, 

shade,  and  outline,  but  perhaps  obscure  in  their  meaning: 

they  were  in  Fuessli*s  possession  once,  but  now  are  proba^' 

bly  dispersed  in  different  collections.-    He  etched  severnt 

things  in  an.  easy  picturesque  manner,  generally  marked 

by  a  monogram  of.  the  letters  G..  and  R.     He  died  lit 


RINUCeiNI  (Ottavio),  an  Italian  poet  of  Florence^ 
who  went  into  France  in  the  suite  of  Mary  of  Medicis, 
queen  to  Henry  IV.  is. the  reputed  inventor  of  the  musical 
drama  or  opera,  that  is,  of  the  manner  of  writii>g,  or  re^^ 
presenting  comedies  or  ti'agedies  in  music,  to  which  the 
first  recitative  was  applied.  Others  give  this  invention  to 
a  Roman  gentleman  of  the  name  of  Emilio  del  Cavaliere, 
who  was  more  properly  the  inventor  of  th^  sacred  drama 
-ororatorio,  in  a  similar  species  of  music  or  recitative,  so 
nearly  at.  the  same  time  that  it  is  difficult  to  determine 
which/  was  first:  both  had  their  beginning  in  I6OO4  Ri- 
nuccini  wa&  author  ,of  three  lyric  pieces,  "  Daphne^" 
*^  Euridice,''  and  ^^  Ariadne,''  which  all  Italy  applaud^. 
Euridice^  written  for  the  nuptia||  of  Mary  of  Medicis,  was 
first  performed  with  great  splendor  and.  magnificence  at 
Florence,  at  the  court  and  expence  of  the  grand  .duke.  The 
poetry  is  truly  lyrical,  smooth,  polished,  and  mellifiuou«. 
He  died  in  1621,  at  Florence;  and  a  collection,  or  rather 
selection,  of  his  works  were  published  in  1622,  in  the 
same  city,  iu  4to,  by  his  son,  Pietro  FrancescoRinuccini, 
and  another  entitled  <^  Drammi  Musicale/'  in  18Q2,  8v(^ 
at  Leghorn.  The  family  is  noble,  and  was  subsisting  m 
1770.  More  of  Ottavio  may  be  seeu  in  the  appendix  to 
Walker's  "  Life  of  Tassoni,'*  just  published,  1816.  • 

1  Pilkington  by  Faseli. 

^  Hawkins  and  Buraey'sHist.  of  Mosici  and  tbe  latter  in  R^es's  Cyclopttdia* 

R  I  O  L  A  N.  2S3  ^ 

KIOLAN  (JoHN)y  an  able  French  pbysician,  a  native 
of  Amien&y  and  distinguished  by  his  attainments  both  ia 
literature  and  science,  is  said  not  only  to  have  written 
and  spoken  the  learned  languages  with  facility^  but  to  have 
been  thoroughly  intimate  with  the  contents  of  almost  all 
the  writings  of  the  ancients.  We  have,  however,  very 
few  particulars  of  his  life,  unless  that  be  gave  lessons  in 
natural  philosophy  at  the  college  of  Boncour,  at  Paris, 
where  he  took  his  degree  in  1574,  and  held  the  office  of 
dean  of  t^e  faculty  in  1586  and  1587.  He  died  Oct.  18, 
1606.  He  was  a  strenuous  advocate  for  the  doctrine  of 
Hippocrates  and  the  ancients,  whom  be  defended  with, 
great  ardour  against  the  chemists.  His  works,  which  are 
indicative  of  genius,  were  collected  and  published,  to- 
gether with  some  posthumous  tracts,  at  Paris,  in  1610, 
under  the  title  of  **  Opera  Omnia,'^  and  some  were  sepa- 
rately published,  particularly  one  against  the  ignorance  of 
the  practitioners  of  surgery  in  his  time,  entitled  ^^  Ad  Im- 
pndentiam  quorundam  Chirurgorum,  qui  Medicis  sbquari 
et  Cbirurgiam  publice  profiteri  volunt;  pro  veteri  dignitate 
Medicinae  Apologia  philosophica,"'  Paris,  1567.  This  waist 
followed  by  several  pieces  on  bath  sides. ' 

RIOLAN  (John),  'son  of  the  preceding,  was  born  at 
Paris  in  the  year  1577.  While  his  father  afforded  every 
encouragement  to  his  rising  talents,  his  mind  was  naturally 
directed  to  the  study  of  medicine,  in  which  his  progress 
was  uncommonly  rapid.  He  took  his  degree  in  1 604,  and 
a  very  few  years  after  acquired  great  reputation  ^s  an  authoiw^ 
In  1613,  he  was  appointed  royal  professor  of  anatomy  and 
botany  by  Louis  XIII. ;  and  in  this  latter  capacity  he  peti* 
tioned  the  king  for  the  establishment  of  a.  botanic  garden  in 
the  university  of  Paris.  He  subsequently  held  the  appoint* 
ment  of  physician  to  queen  Mary  de  Medicis,  and  accoo^- 
panied  that  princess  in  her  travels ;  he  arrived  at  Cologne 
after  her  death,  in  July  1642,  and  returned  to  Paris, 
where  he  resumed  his  ^profession.  After  having  twice 
undergone  the  operation  of  lithotomy,  he  lived  to  the 
age  of  eighty  years,  and  died  at  Paris  February  19,  1657. 

Riolan,  although  one  of  the  most  expert  and  learned 
anatomists  of  his  time,  was  hindered  in  his  progress  as  a 
discoverer,  by  his  extreme  devotion  to  the  ancients;  and 
yet. was  arrogant  in  bis  claims  to  originality,  and  by  his 

1  Eloy,  Diet.  Hist,  de  Medieine.— -Rees't  Cyelopadia. 

284  R  I  O  L  A  N. 

pertinacity,  and  contempt  of  others,  he  railed  himself  many 
opponents  and  enemies.  He  published  several  Dew  obser-*' 
vations,  however,  respecting  many  parts  of  anatomical 
science,  especially  the  structure  of  the  colon,  the  biliary 
duets,  the  uterus  an^  vagina,  the  tongue^  os  hyoides,  &c« 
but  he  did  not  iilustrate  them  by  engravings,  as  it  was  a. 
maxim  with  him,  that  no  representations  could  supersede 
the  study  of  nature.  His  principal  works,  which  were  by- 
no  means  confined  to  anatomy,  are  noticed  in  the  following 
list.  1.  ^<  Brevis  excursus  in  Battdlogiam  Quercetatii,  quo 
Alcbemiae  principta  funditus  dirutintiir,  et  Artis  Veritas 
demonstratur,'*  Par.  1604.  2:  **  Comparatio  veteris  Me- 
dicinee  cum  nova,  Hippocratica!  in  Hermetica,  Dogmaticis 
cum  Spargyrica,"  1 605.  3.  **  Disputatio  de  Monstro  Lo- 
tetise  1605  nato.'*  4.  <*  Incursionum  Quercetani  depolsio,'' 
id.  5.  *^  Censora  demonstrationis  Harveti  .pro  veritate 
Alchymise,''  1606.  6.  ^<  Schola  Anatomica  novis  et  ram 
observation ibus  iltustrata.  Adjuncta  est  accurata  fcetiM 
bumani  historia,"  1607;  enlarged  by  the  author  with  the 
title  of  "  Anatome  corporis  humani,"  1610.  7.  "  In  Li- 
brum  CI.  Galeni  de  Ossibus,  ad  Tyrones  explanatiohes: 
apologeticse  pro  Galeno,  adversus  novitios  et  novatores 
Anatomicos,"  1613.  8.  "  Gigantomachie,**  1615,  written 
in  refutation  of  Habicot's  account  of  the  discovery  of  the 
bones  of  the  giant  Teutobochus.  Riolan  published  two 
Other  tracts,  or  more,  upon  this*  controversy,  which  ended 
with  the  appearance  of  bis,  9.  **  Gigantoiogie ;  discours  sur 
Ja  grandeur  des  Grants,  &c."  in  1618.  10.  <<  Osteologia 
ex  veterum  et  recentiorum  prasceptis  descripta,"  Id  14, 
II.  *^  Discours  sur  les  Hermaphrodits,  oh  il  est  d^montr^, 
centre  Topinion  commune,  qu'il  n'y  a  point  de  vrais  Her-* 
maphrodits,*'  1614.  12.  <*  Anatomica,  sen  Antbropbgra« 
phia,'*  1618.  13.  <<  Enchiridium  anatomicdm  etpatholo^ 
gicum,"  1648,  andt  many  times  reprinted ;  the  best  edition 
is  of  Paris,  1658.  14.  ^*  Opuscula  anatomica  nova,"  Lond^ 
164^,  containing  remarks  on  the  anatomical  works  Of  the 
most  celebrated  physicians,  and  an  attack  upoii  Harvey^ 
and  his  doctrine  of  the  circulation,  of  Which  Riolan  was  a 
great  antagonist*  15.  '<  Curieuses  R^cberebes  sur  lea 
<coles  de  M6d6cine  de  Paris  et  de  Montpelier>'*  165  Iv 
He  also  published  three  different  works,  entitled  •*  Opus^ 
cttla  anatomica,**  in  1650,  and  the  three  following  years; 
opposing  the  doctrines  of  Bartholine  and  Pecquet,  respect- 
ing the  absorbents  and  lacteds^  and  Hs^ey*s  On  the  cir* 

^  • 

RIPLEY.  i35 

ctrlatioA ;  und  two  mof e  on  the  same  subjects,  with  the 
titles  of  '<  Responsio  priIB(^  et  alter^,^*  I65i2  and  1655.  * 

RiPLEY  (GEOaaSy  or  Greoory),  a  cbemkt  and  poet 
ill'  the  tikne  6f  Hehty  VII.  was  a  canon  of  Bridlingtoni  and 
accomplished  in  maitj'  branches  oJF  erudition;  and  still 
maintains* his  pepiltalioR  aB  a  learned  chemist  of  the  lower 
ages.  He  was  a  great  traTeller,  and  studied  both  in  France 
and  Italy.  At  his  return  from  abroad,  pope  Innocent  VIIL 
absolved  him  from  the  observance  of  the  rules  of  his  order, 
that  he  might  prosecute  his  studies  with  more  convenience 
atid  freedom.  But  his  convent  not.  concurring  with  this 
verj  liberal  indulgence,  he  turned  Carmelite  at  St.  Bo«- 
tolph'S  in  Lincolnshire,  and  died  in  that  fraternity  in  1490. 
His  chemical  poems  are  nothing  more  than  the  doctrines 
of  alchemy  cloathed  in  plain  language,  and  a  very  rugged 
versification.  His  capital  performance  is  the  ^'  Compound 
of  Alchemic,''  written  in  1471,  in  the  octave  metre,  and  de-* 
dfcated  to  Edward  IV.  He  has  left  a  few  other  composi- 
tions on  his  favourite  science,  printed  by  Ashmole,  who* 
was  an  enthusiast  in  this  abused  species  of  philosophy; 
and  some  lives  of  saints  in  MS.' 

RISCO  (MAKUfiL),  a  learned  Spanish  ecclesiastic  of  the 
Augustine  order,  was  born  at  Haro  about  1730,  and  ac- 
quired such  reputation  for  knowledge  in  ecclesiastical 
history,  that  he  was  appointed  by  the  king,  Charles  III. 
to  continue  that  history  of  which  Florez  published  29  vols. 
4to.  To  these  he  accordingly  added  six  volumes  more, 
written,  according  to  our  authority,  with  equal  ability,  and 
equal  liberality  of  sentiment.  Some  notice  of  this  work, 
entitled  ^<  Espana  Sagrada,*'  is  taken  in  our  account  of 
JSorez.  Risco  died  about  the  end  of  the  last  century,  but 
the  exact  time  is  not  specified.' 

RISDON  (Tristram),  an.  English  topographer,  was  the 
son  of  Thomas  Risdon,  bencher  of  the  Jnner  Temple, 
afterwards  treasurer  of  that  society,  and  lastly,  recorder  of 
Totness,  who  published  some  law  *•  Readings,"  and  died 
in  1641.  His  son  was  educated  at  Great  Torrrngton,  De- 
vonshire, previous  to  his  studying  at  Exeter  college,  Ox-^ 
f6rd,  which  he  left  without  a  degree,  in  consequence;  as 
Ptince  supposes,  of  his  coming  to  some  family  property 
which  required  hi*  presence,  atid  rendered  him  indepen^ 
t.  .  •  • 

1  Eloy,  Diet.  Hist.  deMedioioe.— -Rees^sCycIopiBdia. — Biog:,  Brit.  See  Index^ 
)  Tanner.r-Elay,  Diet.  H\$t.  de  MediciQO.-^PlMllips's  Tbeatruitt^  by  tirK, 
Brydges.— Warton's  Hist  of  Poetry,  »  DicL  Hist. 

336  R  I  S  D  O  N. 

debt.  On  thU*  wbich  was  an  estate  at  Winscot,  be  ap- 
pears to  h^ve  lived  in  retirement^  and  died  in.  16 40.  He 
drew  up  an  account  of  Devonshire,  which  remained  in;  MS. 
of  which  there  were  several  copies,  until  1714,  when  it 
was  printed,  under  the  title  of  '*  The  Chorographical  De-^ 
scription  or  Survey  of  the  •County  of  Devon,  &c.'*  Wil- 
liam Chappie,  of  Exeter,  intended  a  new  edition  of  this^ 
work,  and  actually  issued  proposals;  but  dying  in  1781, 
his  design  was  not  completed,  although  in  1785  a  portion 
of  it,  printed  at  Exeter,  appeared  in  4to,  with  many  notes 
and  additions.  There  is  a  *^  continuation^'  of  Risdon's 
Survey,  which  is  paged  on  from  the  first  part,  and  very 
rarely  to  be  met  with,  but  there  are  copies  iu  the  Bodleiaii 
and  in  the  library  of  St.  John's,  given  by  Dr.  Rawlinson.*  • 
RITSON  (Joseph),  a  poetical  critic  and  editor,  was 
born  Oct  2,  1752,  at  Stockton^upon-Tees,  in  the  count} 
of  Durham,  aud  was  bred  to  the  profession  of  the  law, 
which  he  practised  chiefly  in  the  conveyancing  branch. 
In  1.785  he  purchased  the  office  of  high  bailiff  of  the  liber- 
ties of  the  Savoy,  and  retained  it  until  his  death.  Thes^ 
seem  the  only  particulars  of  Mr.  Ritsou's  progress  in  his. 
profession,  which,  have  been  recorded  by  his  friends.  He 
became,  however,  far  better  known  for  bis  researches  into 
the  antiquities  of  English  literature,  ^particularly  poetry ; 
and  these  he  was  enabled  to  carry^  on  for  many  years,  by. 
dint  of  memory  and  extraordinary  industry.  In  recovering 
dates,  assigning  anonymous  fragments  to  their  authors, 
and  those  other  minute  particulars  which  are  important  to 
poetical  antiquaries,  Mr.  Ricson  had  perhaps  few  superi* 
ors;  but  all  he  performed  was  disgraced  by  a  harsh,  rugged, 
and  barren  style,  and  an  affectation  of  a  new  orthography, 
and  yet  more  by  the  contempt,  approaching  to  malignity^ 
with  which  he  treated  Mr.  Warton,  Mr..  Malone,  and  his 
other  contemporaries  who  had  acquired  any  nftme  in  the . 
world.  Although  not  absolutely  incapable  of  civility,  his 
conversation  partook  much  of  the  harshness  of  his  writings; 
and  giving  the  lie  was  not  uncommon  with  him,  even 
when  the  subject  in  dispuce  had  nothing  in  it  to  exoite 
passion.  His  wretched  temper  seems  also  to  have  been 
exasperated  by  the  state  of  public  affairs,  his  hatred  of  the 
reigning  family,  and  his  attachment  to  republicanism. 
Many  instances  might  be  given  of  his  unhappy  prejudices, 

<  Aib.  Ox.  Tol.  I.  new  edit.— Prince's  Worthies  of  DeVon. 

K  I  T  S  O  N.  237 

but  it  appeared  at  last  that  the  whole  might  be  traced  to  a 
diseased  mind,  which  was  completely  overthrown  by  in- 
sanity. When  this  became  too  visible  to  be  neglected,  he 
was  removed  to  a  receptacle  for  insane  persons  at  Hoxton, 
where  he  died  a  few  days  after,  Sept.  3,  1803,  leaving 
many  works  which  will  prove  useful  and  interesting  to 
poetical  antiquaries  long  after  the  peculiarities  of  his  tem- 
per are  forgotten.  His  first  publication  was  an  anony- 
mous quarto  pamphlet  of  *'  Observations  on  the  three  vo« 
lumes  of  Wartou's. History  of  English  Poetry ;"  one  of  the 
most  illiberal  productions  that  bad  then  appeared.  He 
wrote,  abo  anonympusly,  three  sets  of  remarks  on  the 
editors  of  Shakspeare :  1.  On  Mr.  Steevens's  edition,  177S, 
entitled  "  Remarks,  critical  and  illustrative,  on  the  Text 
^nd  Notes  of  the  last  edition  of  Shakspeare,**  8vo ;  2.  *^  The 
Quip  modest,*'  &c.  on  Mr.  Reed's  republication  of  that 
edition,  particularly  illiberal ;  3. "  Cursory  Criticisms,"  &c.. 
on  Mr.  Malone*s  edition.  He  published  also  a  select 
collection  of  English  Songs,  in  3  vols.  8vo.  Ancient  Songs, 
from  the  time  of  Henry  IH.  to  the  Revolution,  8vo.  A 
volume  of  pieces  of  ancient  popvilar  poetry,  8vo.  <<  The 
English  Anthology,*'  a  selection  of  poetry,  in  3  small  oc-^^ 
tavo  volumes.  **  Robin  Hood ;  a  collection  of  all  the  an- 
cient  Poems,  Songs,  and  Ballads,  now  extant,  relative  to 
that  celebrated  Outlaw.  To  which  are  added.  Historical 
Anecdotes  of  his  Life,**  1795,  2  vols.  8vo.  A  collection 
of  Scotch  Songs,  with  the  genuine  Music,  2  vols.  12mo. 
^^  Biographia  Poetica:  a  Catalogue  of  English  Poets  of 
the  twelfth,  thirteenth,  fourteenth,  fifteenth,  and  sixteenth 
i^nturies;  with  a  short  Account  of  their  Works.*'  1801, 
12mo.  He  put  his  name  to  **  Ancient  English  Metrical 
Romances;  selected  and  published  by  Joseph  Ritson," 
1802,  3  vols.  12mo.  Tliis  last  publication  is  perhaps  the 
least  interesting  of  the  list. 

.  His  last  work  was,  a  ^^  Treatise  on  abstinence  from  ani- 
^nal  food,"  in  which  he  collected  so  many  impious  and  ex- 
travagant sentiments,  that  he  could  not  for  some  time  find 
a  publisher.  His  catastrophe,  however,  followed  soon  after 
.publication,  and  the. book  was  forgotten.' 
^  RITSON  (Isaac),  a  young  man  of  very  considerable 
literary  talents,  was  a  native  of  Emont- bridge,  near  Pen* 
(ith,  and  was  born  in  1761.     At  the  age  of  sixteen,  he 

1  Gent  Maf .  volt.  LXXIIl.  and  LXXIV.-^Nicholf *i  Bowyer. 

2S8  R  I  T  S  O  N. 

began  to  teach  school  with  credit  to  hiinself>  and  advantftg% 
to  his  pupils.  After  superintending  a  school  for  about  four 
years,  he  relinquished  the  employment^  and  repaired  ta 
Edinburgh,  where  he  studied  medicine;  and  he  maintained 
himself  by  writing  medical  theses  for  such  of  bis  fellow 
students  as  were  too  indolent,  or  too  illiterate,  to  write 
for  themselves.  From  Edinburgh  he  went  to  London^ 
where  he  attended  on  the  hospitals,  and  on  lectures,  and 
where  he  also  supported  himself  by  his  literary  exertion^s* 
In  London  be  took  a  few  private  pupils,  and  was  engaged 
for  some  time  in  writing  s  the  medical  articles  in  the 
Monthly  Review.  Like  Chaijfterton,  however,  whom  in 
many  particulars  Ritson  greaily  resembled,  he  had  to 
*  lament  the  neglect  of  the  world,  and  after  a  short  and  irre^ 
gular  life  in  London,  he  died  of  a  few  weeks  illness,  aft 
Islington,  in  1789,  and  in  the  twenty- seventh  year  of  his 

Mr.  Ritson  published  an  excellent  translation  of  HomerV 
•*  Hymn  to  Venus,"  4to,  which  was  well  received  by  the 
public,  and  wrote  one  equally  masterly  of  Hesiod's  "  Tbeo^ 
gony,*'  which,  it  is  much  to  be  regretted,  was  neveir  published, 
and  is  now  entirely  lost.  He  wrote  also  *^  Essays  on  Moral 
and  Philosophical  Subjects,"  which  were  never  published ; 
the  preface  to  Clarke's  "  Survey  of  the  Lakes,"  very  ably 
executed  ;  and  several  other  pieces.  He  was  a  warm  ad-^ 
roirer  of  Shakspeare,  and  he  frequently  talked  of  producing 
a  dramatic  work  on  the  Grecian  model,  similar  in  its  kind 
to  Mason's  Elfrida  and  Caractacus. ' 

RITTANQELIUS,  or  RITHANGEL  (John  Stephen), 
a  native  of  Forcheim,  in  the  bishopric  of  Bamberg,  is  said 
by  spme  writers  to  have  been  born  a  Jew ;  but  others  assert 
tnat  he  was  first  a  Roman  Catholic,  then  a  Jew,  and  lastly, 
a  Lutheran..  This,  however,  is  certain,  that  he  published 
several  books  containing  Judaical  learning,  was  professor 
of  Oriental  languages  in  the  academy  of  Konigsburg,  and 
died  about  1652.  His  works  are,  a  Commentary  on  the 
book '^  Jezirah,  or,  the  Creation,"  attributed  to  Abraham, 
Amsterdam,  1642,  4to;  a  treatise  *^  De  veritate  Religioniy 
Christians,"  Franeker,  1699;  *^  Libra  veritatis,"  1698,  in 
which  he  asserts  that  the  Chaldee  paraphrase  furnishes  ar- 
guments against  the  Jews  and  Anti-Trinitarians;  ^^  Let«< 
ters ;"  a  German  translation  of  the  Prayers  used  by  thar 

*  Hutchinson's  Hht.  of  Cumberland. 

R  I  T  T  A  N  G  E  L  I  U  S.  889 

Jews  in  their  synagpgoea^  on  the  iirat  day  of  each  year ;  %nA 
ether  works,  Rittangeiius  maintained  this  paradox,  that 
the  New  Testament  *^  contains  nothing  but  what  was  taken 
from  the  Jewish  antiquities," ' 

RITTENHOUSE  (David),  an  American  philosopher 
and  mathematician,  was  born  in  Pennsylvania  in  1739* 
By  the  dint  of  genius  and  applicatioui  he  was  enabled  to 
mingle  the  pursuits  of  science  with  the  active  emplayments 
of  a  farmer  and  watbh-maker.  The  latter  of  tliese  occupa* 
tioDS  he  filled  with  unrivalled  eminence  among  bis  coun^ 
trymen.  In  1769  he  was  with  others  invited  by  the  Ame-» 
rican  Philosophical  Society  to  observe  the  transit  of  Venus^ 
when  he  particularly  distinguished  himself  by  his  observa- 
tions and  calculations.  He  afterwards  constructed  an  ob« 
servatory,  where  he  made  such  valuable  discoveries,  as 
tended  to  the  general  diffusion  of  science.  After  the 
American  war,  a^  he  was  a  strenuous  advocate  for  inde<* 
pendence,  he  successively  filled  the  oflSces  of  treasurer  of 
the  state  of  Pennsylvania,  and  director  of  the  national 
sunt ;  in  the  first  of  which  he  manifested  incorruptible  in<* 
tegrity,  and  in  the  last,  the  rare  talent  of  combining  theo«» 
ries  in  such  a  way  as  to  produce  correct  practical  effects^ 
He  succeeded.  Dr.  Franklin  in  the  office  of  president  of  the 
American  Philosophical  Society ;  but  towards  the  close  of 
kia  days  he  withdrew  firom  public  life,  and  spent  bis  time 
in  retirement.  After  a  very  severe  iltness,  but  of  no  long 
Gontinuanoe,  he  died  July  iO,  1796,  about  the  age  of  64* 
He  had  the  degree  of  LL.  D*  conferred  upon  him.  To 
the  '^  Transactions^'  of  the  American  Philosophical  Society 
be  contributed  several  exceUeni  papers,  chiefiy  on  Astro- 
nomical subjects, ' 

RITTERSHUSIUS  (ConraDus),  a  learned  civilJM  and 
phibloger  of  Germany,  was  the  son  of  Baltbasar  Ritter- 
sbnsius  of  Brunswic,  and  born  there  Sept.  25,  1560f  He 
waa  taught  Greek  and  Latin  in  his  own  country,  at  the 
school  of  which  his  mother's  brother,  Matthias  Berg,  was 
rector;  and,  in  15B0,  went  to  Helmstad,  where  he  applied 
bimeelf  to  the  civil  law ;  but  without  neglecting  the  belles 
lettres,  which  formed  his  most  lasting  pursuit.  After  re- 
covering from  the  plague,  by  which  he  was  endangered  in 
this  town,  he  removed  to  Altorf  in  1584,  to  profit  by  the 
lectures  of  Gifanius,  for  whom  he  ^conceived  a  particular 

1  Geo.  Diet.—- Moreri. 

^  Rstlon't  DictiQDary.— Diet  Hitt.  Sapplement,F— Rees't  Cyclopi^is. 

5540  R  I  T  T  E  R  S  H  U  S  I  U  S. 

esteeiti.  He  began  to^  travel  in  1587,  went  through  part 
of  Germany,  and  came  to  Bohemia.  Being  afterwards  at 
Basil  in  1592,  be  took  the  degree  of  doctor  of  law,  and 
returned  to  Altorf,  to  fill  the  professor's  chair,  which  the 
l^urators  of  the  university  had  given  him  some  time  before. 
He  had  many  advantageous  proposals  from  other  universi- 
ties of  Germany  and  Holland,  but  his  attachment  to  Altorf 
woujd  not  suffer  him  to  accept  them.  He  died  at  Altorf 
May  25,  1613,  after  having  married  two  wives,  by  whom 
lie  had  nine  children.  Two  of  his  sous,  George  and  Ni- 
colas, distinguished  themselves  in  the  republic  of  letters  ; 
and  George  wrote  the  life  of  bis  father. 
'  He  was  a  man  of  extensive  learning,  and  perfectly  skilled* 
in  the  Greek  and  Latin  tongues.  He  is  said  to  have  had 
Homer  and  Hesiod  so  well  by  heart,  as  once,  in  a  conversa- 
tion with  a  learned  young  gentleman,  to  have  expressed 
all  he  had  occasion  to  say  in  the  verses  of  Homer.  He 
was  also  a  judicious  critic,  and  wrote  notes  upon  many 
ancient  Greek  and  Latin  authors,  Petronius,  Phaedrus, 
Pppian,  &c.  which  have  been  inserted  in  the  best  editionsi 
of  those  authors.  Thus  Burman,  in  his  edition  of  ^^  PhsB* 
drus,^'  1698,  8vo,  has  carefully  inserted  the  entire  notes 
of  Rittershusius,  whom  he  calU  in  his  preface  **  Germanias. 
suss  quondam  ornamentum,  &  non  minoris  Gallioe  decus.*' 
He  published  a  great  number  of  works,  sixty-six  of  whicli 
are  enumerated  by  Niceron,  many  on  civil  law,  but  most 
on  the  belles  lettres  and  criticism.  His  edition  of  **  Op- 
pian,'*  Greek  and  Latin,  appeared  in  1657,  8vo.  His  son 
Nicholas,  born  at  Altdorf  in  1597,  was  also  a  man  of 
learning  and  a  jurist,  and  particularly  applied  to  historical^ 
and  genealogical  inquiries.  He  studied  at  Helm^tadt,  and 
afterwards  travelled  into  various  countries  of  Europe.  On  his 
return  he  took  a  doctor's  degree  in  1 634,  and  was  appointed 
professor  of  feudal  law  at  AltdorfF.  He  died  in  1670^ 
Nicholas  edited  several  of  his  father's  works,  and  in  1638; 
published  an  oration  on  '^  Hanno's  Periplus.*'  He  was  the 
atfthor  of  a  large  work,  entitled  ^<  GenealogiaB  Imperato^ 
rum,  Regum,  Ducum,  Comitum,  &c.  ab  anno  1400  ad 
annum  1664,"  7  vols,  in  4,  folio,  a  work  of  rare  occurrence. 
Several  of  his  letters  are  printed  in  the  *^  £pistols&  cele«» 
brium  Virorum,*'   1705.* 

>  Niceroo,  ▼o1.  XXXII.— Moreri.—Melchior  Adam.— Life  by  big  sod  in  WiU 
len'i  **  Memorie  jarisQontuit.  Hfoningi."—- Saxii  OnonitiU 

R  I-V  A,  U  L  T.  ■  241 

'  \ 

.    RITWYSE.    See  RIGHTWISE.         .      , 

^    RIVAULT  (David),  a  learned  French  writear,,  wasiborA 

St  Laval^  in  the  province  of  Perche,  ,about',1571..  He  wais» 
j^  rought  up  in  the  family  of  the  count  de  Laval,  arid  for 
some  time  followed  the  military  profession,  serving  in  Italy 
and  in  Holland.  In  1603,.  Henry  IV.  appointed  him  one 
oFthe  gentlemen  of  his  bed-chamber.  In  1605  he  entered 
into  the  service  of  tb^  emperor  against  the  Turks  :  but  on 
his  return  he  devoted  him^self  to  hferary  and  spientific  stu- 
dies ;  and  in  16 1 1  be  wa$i  appointed  preceptor  tp  the  youn^ 
king,,  Le<vis  XIIL  with  a  pension  .of  3000  iivre?,  and  the 
title  of  counsellor  of  state.  An  in3Ult.  he  received  froj3Q  bis 
royal  pupil  obliged  him  to  quit  his  office  for  some  time. 
The  king  had  a  favourite  dog,  who  was  perpetually  jump- 
ing on  Rivault  during  his  giving  lessons^  and  Rivault  one 
day  gave  him  a  kick.  The  king  was  so  incensed  ^s  to  strike 
Rivault,  who  retired  ;  but  it  appears  thiey  were  soon  i:econ- 
oiled,,  and  by  the  king^s  orders  Rivault  acconi^panied  ma- 
dame  EUzabeth  of  France  as  far  as  Bayonne,  on  her  way 
to  be  married  to  the  king  of  Spain.  On  his  return  from 
that  voyage  he  died  at  Tours,  Jan.  i6i6,  about  the  age  of 
forty-five.  He  is  spoken  of  with  high  esteem  by  several 
of  the  most  celebrated  writers  of  his  time^  partioulacly  by 
.Casaubon,  ^caliger^  Vossius,  Erpenius,  and  Meaage.,  Hi^ 
works  consist  of,  I.  "|Les  Etats,"  or  VT^®  States,  or  a 
.discourse  concerning  the  privileges  of  the  prince,  the  no- 
bles, and  the  Third  Estate,'  &c.''  2.  "  Les  Elemens  d'Ar- 
tillerie,"  Paris,  1608,  ?vo,  a  curious  and  very  scarce  wprk. 
i,  "Archimedis  Opera  quae  extant,  Gr.  et  Lat.  novis  de-» 
mdnstratiouibui^  illustrata,*'  &c.  Paris,  1615,  folio;  and 
ether.pieces  op  education,  &c,' 

,  RIVE  (John  JoseIph),  a  French  writer,  chiefly  on  subr 
jects  of  bibliography  and  literary  history,  wjas  born  May ' 
19 f  1730,  at  Apt  in  Provence,  and  was  bred  to  ttie  church. 
He  was  first  professor  of  philosophy  in  the  seminary  of  St, 
.  .Charles,  at  Avignon,  a  situation  for  which  he  was  rtot  very 
^well  qualified.  Be  then  beqame  curate  of  Molleges,  in 
the  diocese  of  Aries,  but  was  not  much  better  satisfied  with 
this  than  his  preceding  occupation,  as  he.  had  more.tastfs 
for  bibliographical  researches  than  fpr  pastoral  duues* 
.While  here  he  had  the  credit  of  an  amour  with  a  marriecl 

>         ■  •  '  .      *  *  *  •     ' 

woma^,  that  did  not  advance  him  much  in  the  public  ppi- 

1  Niceron,  vol.  X^^yil.-— V^^saiusdeJScientii^  l^aUi.— -Saxii  Ooomait^ 

Vol.  XXVI.'  R 

W2  RI  VX' 

nkm;  abd  wben  the 'biiBbaiid  repfoaobed  binr,  tfai  AM 
threw:  him  headlong  OQt  of  the  window,  fifom  which,  how^ 
ever,  he. received  no  great  injury,  hi  1767  he  x^ame  t0 
Parb,  andfaid'tam  for  books  being  already  known,  thedabe 
de  VaHiitre  appointed  him  his  librarian,  and  in  allusion-  to 
ills  arrc^j^ant  manner  of  decidifng  on  literary  points,  used  to 
ealf  him  his-  bull-dog;  On  the  revolution  breafking  out,  he 
becUme  one  of  the  most  implacable  of  the  anarchists,  autt 
d'enoonced  vengeance  on  the  clergy,  the  nobility^  and 
cilpeciaNy  those  writers  who  were  his  rivals  in  bibliograr 
pbii^al  pursnits,  particularly  William  Debnre,  and  the  abb€ 
lifiefcrer,  to  whom  be  was  uncommooly  abusive.  He  afieN 
wards  led  a  Hf^  of  turbulence  and  hostilHy,  whieh  at'  laal 
closed  at  Marseilles  in  1792.  Among  his  numerot^  publir 
cations,  the  most  useful  were,  K  **  f^ircissemens  sur  Pint 
Tention  des  Cartes  a  jouer,'*  Paris*,  .1780,  8vo.  2.  *<  Pjpoj- 
spectiUs  sur  Pessai  de  veriftcv  Tage  de  Miobtures,^*  sDcbilb 
appedr.on  «ianu8cripts  from  the  fourteenth  to  the  seveq^ 
teeoth  century ;  ibid.  1 782,  fol*  9.  ^  Notices  hisioriqoes  e^ 
.critiques,  sur  d^uz  manuscrits  de  la  bib)iotheque  du  duc.^^ 
la  Vailiere,*^  ibid.  1779>  4tq,  4*  ^•^Notipes.  .sur  le.trail^ 
xnanuscrit.  de  Gateotto  Martta,.  intitule  .Oe  .£xcet1fi>^ 
bus,'*  ibid.  17$5,  8vq.  5.  "  Htstoijre  critique  de  la  Pyr^ 
Widede  Cahis  Slestiusr"  &c.  tbid.  1787,  hi  :6.  La  Cba^s^ 
aux.  Bibliogra'pbes  et  aux '  Antiquaires  m^l  avii^s,^^  ibi^. 
1 78?,  2  vols,  a  receptachei^  of  alitiost.  every,  kiurd  of  abn;^ 
and  awkwiU'd  wit  against  Le .  Lovfg, .  I>,  Mercier,  ^. 
7.f^Dictionnaire  de  critique  iM;terairei''&C.  with  other  worN 
of  a  similar  kind,  which,  are  very-scarce  ^«to  ijn  France^  |^ 
he  printed  but  a  small  mimber,  of  each  editionv.^     . 

.  RIVET.  (Alf DREW),  a  celebrated  French  protes^ufit  dir 
Vine,  was  born  at  St:  Maxeut,  in  Poitou,  Aug.  l,  1372,  ai^ 
after  some  schoor  education  near  hooie,  was  sent.ta  Ro^ 
cbeUe  in  1585,  where  he  studied  the  learned  kdgo^gea  aaj) 
tohitosophy.  In  1590  he'#as  removed  to  the  coUege  i|t 
JBearn,  where  be  took  his  master^s  degree,  aqd  began^  tb/^ 
study  of  divinity.  Having  finished  that  pqurse,  he  was  in 
1595  appointed  tbinister  of  the  church  of  Tboars,  and  cbapi- 
lain  to  the  duke  of  Tboars,  who  admitted  him  into  bis  G0Q^ 
fidence,  and  frequently  employed  him  in  matters  of  ikxir 
portaoce*  While  in  this  situation  he  married  the  daughter 
<f  f  a  divine  at  Tboars*     He  was  frequently  the  represCT^tdr 

.    'XHst  Bigt«*->IKbdiii'f  BibGbaiai^ii 

tivf;  of  thq  9i)^|;#it^i|t  chiireb^^  and 

9Do4%  aa4  i^.  8Qineo£dieii^$l]^d't)i«cJii4rof  pnesideat^ 
ftairti^i^rl^  in.tbat  of  Vitry»  iii  1617*  <  In  1600  he  was  Bp^ 
ppi^tfKli  pro^ssor  of  diyinity  ajt  Leydet)^  bat  i^bout  ihesain(6 
^m^  bad  tbe  a(ii9f9rtojW>  (o  loie  bk  wife.  In  16Jil  be  vi-^ 
I|ilei4  Eogjandi  andgoipg  tO'Qff^rd' was  ineorporated  doc- 
tor in  dNmty^  lybjjcb  degree  bad  beea  conferred  on  bim  at 
iM^deu.  juH  'b^<m.  He -gave,  oti  ibk  occasion,  se^era^ 
|iooi»  to  tbe  BodleiXQ  library.  Wbiie  isl^$ngland  be  mar'* 
fted,  ai^  bis  second  wife»  Mai^a,  tbe  sister  of  Peter  da 
ldk>iiUn>  i^Qd  widow  pf  Aotbony  der.Guyoli  upou  whose 
4eath  in  tbe  cii^il  wars  in  (FiaACe«<  sbeftbok.refuge,  in  EngU 
land.    Wbet  s^rv^d  .  tio  iotr odaeei  bim  at  Qx&rd  was  hist 

Kivioiis  aequainuincerWitb  Jolm  Ru^mc^  ^or  Boiise^  wbo  had 
god  same  tiioe  wit;b  bii9  i^t.Th^ars^  and  was  nowiin  tbe 
aiiwtioja'of  liibraifian.oflhQBodleieai  <Afv»:  his  retiuu  te 
|heydei)  be  semmed  bia  professorship,  4ad  passed  the  rest 
^^d^y»  in  teaebiog  atid  writing.  He  died  ia  1647^^  aged 
fevsenty-'fite.  His  ^orks,  cMsistiog  of  commetitaries  on 
ihO' scripthreS)  sennpns,  and  controversial  pieces,  were 
irery  numerous,  but  it  is  unnecessary  to  ipecify  tb6m  se^ 
|fhrat#^^  as  tbey^were  ^oUei^  in  3  vols.  foL  and  printed 
^  Bolteidaai  in  I65h  :  His  bi^]tber  William,  who  was 
'^)E«(wfae  in  the  ehur4b,  pnWifdied  on  !^  Justification, V  «nd 
tit|ii<  Bc^lasiastlci^l  Ubertyy  ' We  haTe< id  £nglish,<<  A  re- 
lntiOQ  of  thelast  boars  of  I>r.  Andrew  Eivetf:'Manio,  trans« 
htfed  «nd  publbbed  by  Nebeaaiah  Ooxe,  by  which  it  ap« 
"peHBiH  that'  Dr.  :Ri¥et  war  not  mere  a  man  of  great  learning 
^atf'of  gv^slt{rie(y»^ 

'RIVET  DB  LA  oaANGE  (AmrHaNY),  of  the  same  family 
fis  the  preeedtngy  but  descended  from  a  oatbolic  branch, 
^irtti  born  October  M,  1683,  at  Goofolens,  a  small  town  in' 
^eietiers. ''  He  studied  phttosopby  sioder  the  Jacobins  at 
Vieictiisrs,  but  an  escape  frbm  very  imminent  danger  de^ 
^leiHnined  bitn  to  put  on  tbe  Benedictine  habit,  which  Ik 
-^ftecofdingly  did  at  Marmoutter>  in  1 704y  and  took  bis  irows 
Hdiere  ih  1305.*  In  1714  he  was  teansferred  to  tbe  monas^^ 
"terjr  of  St'  Cyprian,  and  summoned  to  Paris  the  yearfoU 
hfvnhg^  to '  assist  some  other  monks  in  compiling  a  history 
Hfillasteioaa  meoof  the  BenediettoeMder;  but'  this  pro^ 
jeet' failings  Riv^t  turned  his  thoughts  entirely  to  the  lU 
terary  histpiy  of  Fraace^  whi^b  hebad  before  farmed  ^a 

1  Frekeri  Tlwatf iiDi.-*-M tfmb«*-^tlU  Or,  ▼•!.  !« 
*     41  2. 

Ut  ^^  RIVET- 

design  of  writing,  and  which  employed  the  rest  bf  his  We^ 
He  was  assisted  in  this  work  by  three  of  his  brietbren,  Joseph' 
Duclou,  Maurice  Ponc'et,  and  John  Colombo  who  were  all 
his  particular  friends,  good  critics,  and  accurate  and  indus- 
trious writers.  In  172?  Rivet  published  at  Amsterdam 
•*  Le  NecTologe  He  Port  Royal  des  Champs,"  a  work  of 
which  he  was  very  fond,  and  added  to  it  a  long  historical 
preface.  This  publication,  joined  to  his  warm  opposition 
to  the  bull  Uuigenitus,  from  which  he  had^appealed,  obliged 
him  to  retire  into  the  abbey  of  St.  Vincent  at  Mans,  the 
same  year,  where  he  laboured  assiduously  during  more 
than  thirty  years  to  complete  his  "  Literary  History  of 
France."  He  published  the  first  volume  in  1733,  4to^  and 
was  finishing  the  ninth,  which  contains  the  first  years  of  the 
12th  century,  when  be  died,  February  7,  1749,  in  his 
sixty*-sixth  year,  worn  out  with  intense  ap^plica:tion,  aus^ 
teriiies,  and  the  strict  and  rigorous  observation  of  bis  rule^ 
from  which  he  never  departed.  His  history  was  afterwards 
extended  to  12  volumes,  to  which  Clemencet  added  a  13tb; 
It  is  a  very  useful  work,  but  the  French  literati  have  never 
thought  of  completing  it*  * 

RIVIERE,  or  Riy ERIUS  (Lazarus),  an  eminent  French 
physician,  was  born  at  Montpellier  in  \5S9,  He  studied 
in  the  university  of  his  native  place,  but  having  failed  in 
his  exaniinations  for  his  degree,  be  was  impelled  to  redouble 
his  exertions,' and  in  1611  was  admitted  to  the  degree 'of 
doctor  with  great  credit.  In  1622  he  was  appointed  to  the 
professorship  of  medicine  in-the  university,  an  office  which 
he  continued  to  fill  with  great  honour  until  his  death  inl 
1655.  Riverius  published  **The  Institutes  of  Medicine," 
in  five  books,  in  Latin,  which 'went  through  many  editions; 
but  the  work  which  has  gained  him  most  reputation,  is  A 
course  of  medicine,  entitled  "Praxis  Medica,'*  of  which 
editions  were  long  multiplied  in  France,  Holland,  and 
England.  It  treats  of  most  of  the  diseases  to  which  the 
body  is  subject,  in  seventeen  books,  in  a  clear  style ;  but 
in  many  places  he  appears  to  have  borrowed  copiously  frotki 
Sennertus.  He  published  also  a  work  entitled  HObserva* 
tiones  Medicse  et  Curationes  insignes,''  which  has  been 
frequently  reprinted,  and  is  not  now  without  its  value. 
These  works  have  been  collected  and  published  togetberj^ 
jttnder  the  title  of  **  Opera  Medica  Univetsa,*^  Geneva^ 

*  MoierL— Diet,  Hiit      - 

R  I  V  I  ERE.  2^^, 

;1737,  andt  Ley  den,  173  8,  fol..    Eloy  observesr,  that  a  friar, 
^ernardin  Christin,  who  had  been  a  pupil  of  Riverius^  com- 
piled some  secrets  of  chemistry,  which  he  published  witb 
the  Riverius ;  and  although  it  has  been  clearly 
proved  that  he  was  not  the  author  of  these  papers,  yet  they 
nave  been  frequently  printed  in  the  collections  of  his  works/  . 
and  separately,  under  the  title  of  "  Arcana  Riverii."  ' 
,  RIVINUS  (Augustus  Quirinus),  an  eminent  botanist 
and  physician,  was  the  son  of  a  learned  physician  and  cri- 
tic, Andrew  Bachmann,  vyhose  name  in  Latin  became  Rivi« 
iius.     He  was  born  at  Leipsic  in  1652.     After  a  successful 
course  of  study   he  became  professor  of  physiology  and 
botany. in  his  native  university.     He  was  also  a  member  of 
various  learned  societies,  and  died  in  1723,  aged  seventy^ 

The  botanical  system  of  Rivinus  is  fpunded  on  the  most 
elegant  and  attractive,  if  not  the  most  solid  and  important^ 
parts  of  plants.  His  classes  are  marked  by  the  number,  the 
regularity,  or  irregularity,  of  the  petals.  He  could  not 
proceed  far  in  this  path  without  percjeiving  that  he  made 
most  unnatural,  and,  as  Haller  justly  terms  them,  para-* 
^o2:ical,  combinations.  He  thjerefore  asserted,  and  doubts 
tess  beliqved>  the  inutility  and  impracticability  pf  a  really, 
natural  classification.  This  principle  bi*ougbt  him  to  ot>e; 
^ight  conclusion,  which  even  the  philosophical  Ray  did  not  , 
attain,  or  was  a-fraid  to  admit,  that  the  old  primary  distri^ 
bution  of  vegetables  into  trees,  shrubs,  and  herbs,  is  un-^ 
jicientific  and  erroneous.  ^ 

^  Rivinus  published,  at^  his  own  expence,  in  1690,  his 
splendid  illustratipn  of.  the.  first  class  of  his  system,  com-* 
prising  such  plants  as  have  a  monopetalpus  irregular  Bower. 
This  part  consists  of  one  hundred  and  twenty-five  plates  ; 
^ut  the  catalogue  of  species  is  imperfect.  A  learned  ^'  lu- 
4roductio  generalis  in  rem  herbariam^'  ia prefixed;  and  this 
introductory  part  was,  at  different  times,  republished  in  a 
smaller  form.  The  second  part  of  this  sumptuous  work 
came  forth  in  1691,  and  consists  of  one  hundred  and  twenty-, 
one  plates,  of  plants  with  folir  irregular  petals ;  injo  which 
class,  by  means  of  some  contrivance,  and  many  grains  of 
allowance,  are  admitted  all  the  papiTianaceous  tribe,  the 
cruciforoi  genus  Iberis,  the  Euphorbia,  and  a  few  things 
besides.     In  1699  the  third  part,  containing  flowers  with  ^ 

*  E^oy>  Diet.  Hist,  de  Medicibe. — Rees'b  Cycioi)aedia. 

fire  irregobr  petal:},  ^ais  given  to  tSe  W5rld«     ^ven  inoi;i 

liberty;  is  taken  ia  the  aas^mbUge  df  getierii  here  tfian  Bfi 

Ibe  former  class.    It  coiisists  bf  oive  hundi^ed  and  thiri^- 

nine  plates.    A  fourth  part,  the  bestapetalse  irreg^Iafes, 

^nsistuig  of 4he  Orchides^, ^^asfini&hed,  but iiot  puVlisbe^, 

}>efore  the  author's  death  ;  nor  iiid^ed  have  any  more  fHsMi 

tsvery  few  copies  of  this' ^ver'gottabrbad  into  the  wprldt  |0 

that  it  donsticotes  4tie  6fth^  greatest  biblibtbecal  raritiiap* 

With  respect  to  utility  or  'beatttjr,  those  wbo'atre  possesVeA 

ef  the  transcendarit  engrtavitigs  of  this  favotiri^e  tribe  lYi 

Hauler's  Hiltory  of  Swiss  Plapts,  may  dispense  /yuh  tbi 

'iigurea  of  Rjlyi^ob.     The. author  had  pi^c^pared  seVi^ral  slip* 

plementaiir  phieB  to  bis'  work^  which  never  came  'fovta, 

^apd  of  which,  perli^sips  the  only  Specimens  are  to  be  Seen  ijk 

.  sir  Joseph  Banks's  fine  copy  of  the  whole  work,  except  t;wi^ 

dupbeat0  plates  pifeseiit^  Ky  the  learned  baronet  to  tbv 

.pi^ldieiwt4>f;tb€  l^Mu^aa  ^dieCy.    There  is  iev^ry  tr^astihr 

.to  beliey^^  thai  the eibpy  in  qtieiitrdQ  belonged  to  iUe  adtl^QV 

himself^  or  t6  hi#  son,,  ais  may  be  g;^th€ar€^  from  it^  niapi)-^ 

Mripi  addiiibhs  and  cQrnBctions.    A  complete  copy,'  of  eVexi 

ibe  three  first  p^tsof  Riirinus's'bp^k  is,  itide^d, '(|lffijcy]t 

•40  Ve  met94th;;far  9even^l  of  the  ptites  haiviWg  from  if&e 

tp  diM  feeetved  addit^dns  <>f  ^ed«vessds,  or  oretili^Q 

phmli;  the;^i4tejp  itvipresi»i6ns  of  subh  plates  are'cojprsf- 

^fineiltly  ili>petfect«    The  best  ebpi^s^re  required,  By  p&^ 

tidions  ^otleictors,  -to  have  civery  plate  with>nd  wiiliout:tiie 

additiomi.    -  .  '  ,,  ,..L* 

As  a  medical  wr^r^  Jlivinus  has  the  n|i<erlt  of  fal^^pi 

Q^serva^ibnr  and  descHptioil)^  in  his  treAtUe^'  de  Pgstel^p* 

aiensi,'*  published  in  1 6 80^     He  wrbte  also  oh  Idy spepsia, 

em  intermittent  fevers,  and  various  oth^  dubji^cts.    He  did 

not  scruple  tctiattai^  whatever  praeUceW  opihibh^he^founH 

established  on  the  baaiis  of  prejudice  aiid  ignoyahce;,  Tn 

Ihis  respect  his  *^  Gensuta^l^edidamebidrum  bfficibaliub^^ 

ranks  very  bigb^     His  commendable  tiim,  in  tliis  i^6rk,  iii^as 

to  clear  the  materia  medica  of  iHs  various  di^raceful  li6cu%- 

brance# ;  so  many  of  vyhich  originated  in  ierrbr,  impdsitfpn^ 

or  sttperstitiom     Rk  attempts  have  been  fdHcMved  vip  By 

Various  m^n  of  ability  and  authority ;  and  it  is  to  the  unli^d 

labour  arid  good  sense  of  such  that  the  world  is  indebtled 

for  the  purified  and  impfeved  state  of  6ur  mbderii  pli&r- 

macopeias.  ^  ^  ........         ,   .    . 

Though  not  a  great  practical  anatomist^  of  dissector,  Ri- 
yinus  is  said  to  have  discovered  a  new  salivary  duct.     He 


4«ft  «tSQii»  Jd«H  ituausirw  Rm«Ql^»  ivlio  «iieoeitd«clihiin  «i 

S"  raf^or,  and  under  wbqse  presideDoy  was  iptibliifaisd  ii 
itaertattoity  in  ITSa^  oo  '^  MedkiBaUSariiM/V   ITtiis^gdti- 
tleman  died  in  1725,  aged  tbirtyi-tbree,  tiaving^urviireti 
liis&tfaer  bill  two  jwars.    Uit  ipi^ematiire  nteath  seeoon  to 
liave  .prdir^nted  the  puUicalion  of  iheiloiirtib  .patt^of  fbh 
fiitbar^s  great  faoianical  src^fe^   ai  ileast   for  some  ttimt. 
«BaIler  says,  ^Ludwig  aftetwards  edited  tbe  iplates  lOf  )t^e 
.^chideie,  withottt  any  letter^press.;  hut  Ibis  ipoblicatiim 
%as  never  come  mnder  our  in&(»3ction. ' 
-:^  RlZZIO^'or  RICCI  (DikVin),  a  musician  of  tb^  $iic* 
'^i^ntb  'Centuj^y,  urbose  ooisecmdiict  or-mtsfprtuoesrhatefOb- 
mned  bim  a  place  in  the  bistoi;y  af  Scolk^d^  was  bor<l:^at^ 
^l^orin,  but.brougbt  up  in  iFraitce.    jHis  rfadidr  ewas  a  tniH 
Isician  and^dancing*n>a8ter»  aodthie sdn'pmbjlblylpoisoss«(i 
^ those  talents  which  serred  to  amuse. a? courtly  tciircle.    'fie 
. 'appears  to  have  come  to  Scotland  abuat  4  j€4^  wbaii)  ati- 
'  cordmg  to  moat.accdunts,  he  .was  ifcitbar  :young  norifaand** 
some.    The  count  de  Uftretsi&D  hrongfat  him  hither  (in  his 
iuiie,  as  ambassador  frood  Satby  to  tibC'Oourt  of  the  ticifoi»- 
tunate  queai  Maii^.    Sir  Jain^s.Melv4t9  in* bt^  *<  MeoMoirs/' 
^  tells  us  th2tt  ^^  tbe  queen  had  three 'Tabtsi  of  ^fa^r  chambtr 
'Who'spng  in  l&ree  parts,  and  wanted  <a  base,  t^aicigitbis 
^Yburdi .  part ;  therefore,  telling  ^ hei^  ma^ty !  xif;  thssi  matt, 
"Itizzb^  iiff  ode  fit  to  ihake  thi^ffiQ«Mrth^n  c6na0rt5^«>w|te 
^ra^n  in  soatvetim^stib  aln^  with-the  resfi.^^   .He  qfuidbljr, 
^lioweVer,  or^t^nto  the.  .^o^eeii'Hi  frvo^r ;  «liidiiier  rFrandh 
aecretary  tiappeniug  at  that  time  to.  repirn  to  hisowncdun* 
Hry;'RtZ2iO  was  p^efei'rdd  bf  W  nmjesity  to  that  office. 
"lR6  h^gan  to  make  a  figure-«t:Caart^aiidia^appear«&a 
^  man  of  weight  and*  cotfseqdeDC^.  ^  Nor  -  was  he .  cai^eftil  to 
f  aibate  that^envy  *  which  al^ay^  «aui»3»ds  «tt«h  aue^  traotdioary 
'and  rapid  change  oPforttiiDe*'  'On-  thd  ^outsary,  {he  seems 
[  to  h$ved0hee>r^rythinj^fto  increase  its  y^t^isrwas  not  his 
exG^bitaht  |lowe^dbh^'whiebelt«spetvat&^^  they 

cdnsidered  him  aa^n  dangerousetiiMny 4o  thi^/protestant re* 
figiouy  and  bc^^ed  that  he  held  for  dlla  frorpese  a  con* 
iiini  cbi^eqi|tnidence  withth^^Gouft'Of  Rome^  His  pre« 
'Valence,  however,  was  very  short^hved ;  for,  ia^  L5  6  6,  car « 
:  tsiin  ,  nobtes,'-  with  lord  Darnly  at  their  head,  caospiced 
^g^inst  him,  and  dispatched  limn  in  ihequaen^  presence 

*  J' 

1  ^rotn  the  account  drawn  up  by  tbe  presidlent  of  the  Linnaean  society  for 
Itfes'f  Cf  clopisdi^,.  i 

Tt4y  .  Rizzio; 

.with.firty-shc  wounds.  /The  oofisequeoces*  of -tUb  tntifJifMr 
.to  tlie  que^n  aiyd  to  the  nation  are  amply  detailed  in  Scotch, 
history,  and  have  been  the  subject  of  a  very  fertiiet  con- 

'  As  a  musician,  Rizzio^s  instrument  was  the  lute,  which 
^tFas  at  that  time  the  general  favourite  all  over  Europe;  and 
an  opinion  has  long  prevailed  that  he  was  the  great  im- 
prover of  Scotch  music,  and  that  he  composed  most  of  the 
Scotch  tunes  which  have  been  heard  with  so  much  pleasure 
for  two  centuries  past,  and  are  in  their  style  to  be  di$tin««. 
guisbed  from  all  other  national  airs.  This  matter,  however, 
has  been  investigated  both  by  sir  John  Hawkins,  from  re^' 
-cords,  and  by  Dr.  Barney,  from  personal  inquiry  atTurin9 
and  the  result  is,  that  the  opinion  has- no  foundation. .  Some 
part  of  Dr.  Burney's  sentiments  on  the  subject  we  have 
already  given  in  our  account  of  king  James  I.  of  Scotland* 
It  does  not,  in  fact,  appear  that  Rizzio  was  a. composer  at 
all ;  and  bis  stayin  this  country  not  exceeding  twoyearsi 
with,  the  variety  of  business  in  which  he- was,  fatally  for 
himself  and  his  royal  mistress,  engaged,  'could  have  left; 
him  little  leisure  for  study,  or  for  undertaking  tbeJmprove^' 
ment  of  the  national  music.  ^  .,.•,! 

^  ROBERTS  (Barre' Charles),  an  ingenious yopng. writer; 
and.  medallist,  the  third  child  and  second  son  of  £dwar4 
Roberts,  esq.  deputy -^clerk  of  the^  pells  of  the  excbequeCy. 
.was  burn  March  13,  1789,  in  St.  Stephen's^ court,  West*. 
minster.  His  frame  and  constitution  were  delicate,  whiete 
probably  created  an  aversion  to  the  usual  exercises  oi 
youth,  and  his  early  pursuits  evinced  vivacity  without  ,1^^ 
vity.  They  were^  qf  a  nature  to  exercise,  but  not  to  weary 
the  faculties ;  and,  springing  from  a  desire  for  knowledge^ 
^^flbrded  to  him  a  perpetual  variety  of  objects.  The  first  vui% 
diments  of  education,  asv  far  as  it  related  to  habits,  heacnt 
quired  himself,  or  perhaps  he  imbibed  them  from  the.^*>f 
tuation  in  which  he  was  placed.  In  his.  father^s  house .at^ 
Ealing,  the  well-ordered  ceconomy  of  time  which  preyails^ 
in.  a  tegular  family,  taught  him  to  appreciate .  ao^d  toi 
profit  by  the  means  of  tranquillity  thus  placed  within  hiac 
reach.  The  salubrity  of  the  air,  and.  the  extent. of  the; 
grounds,  which  allowed  him  as  much  exercise  as  be  wished 
for,  contributed  to  the  health  of  bis  body.;  andhebadih% 
advantage   of   a  well-chosen  collection   of  books^  whixjiK 

A  Barney  and  Hawkins's  Hist,  of  Music, 

H  O  B  E  R  T  S:  24^ 

^sffiirdedbim  the  opportunity^  of  indulging '  his  taste  for 

'  In  the  earliest  periods  of  bis  life  he  seemed  to  be  fully 
impressed  with  the  importance  and  value  of  time,  no  mo- 
ment of  which  he  suffered  to  be  unemployed;  Whatever 
was  curious  in  literature  attracted  his  attention,  but  sub- 
jects of  antiquity  were  those  which  he  most  delighted  to 
investigate.  In .  these  his  patience  and  perseverance  were 
"Very  remarkable ;  and  though  he  read  with  eagerness' and 
rapidity,  he  never  neglected  to  note  down  particular  cir- 
cumstances, or  to  mark  for  subsequent  reference  such  things 
as  he  could  not  at  once  completely  embrace.  To  a  natural 
Quickness  of  observation  was  added  a  retentive  memory^ 
and  the  exercise  of  these  was  matured. into  an  habit  of  at* 
tention  and  arrangement. — Fortunately  for  Barre  these,  en« 
dO)wments  did  not  escape'  the  eye  of  him  who  was  most 
interested  by  affection  and  consanguinity  in  his  welfare. 
Hta  father  early  discovered  and  cultivated  them.  Barre, 
when  at  home,  was  his  constant  companion,  and,  soon  after 
the  years  of  infancy  were  passed,  became  his  most  intimate 
friend.  Indeed  it  is  not  possible  to  imagine  a  greater  de- 
gree of  confidence  between  two  persons,  even  of  similac 
ages,  than  that  which  existed  between  this  youth  and. his 
jtarent ;  and  so  well  was  it  supported  and  understood,  that 
Barnl  never  for  a  moment  lost  sight  of  his  relative  situation, 
HOT' transgressed  the  limits  of  respect  which  Blial  love,  even 
kad  there  been  na  other  motive,  would  have  taught  him  to 
observe.  The  clearness  of  his  perceptions,  and  the  cor« 
r^tness  of'his  understanding,  secured  him  from  any  over- 
rated idea  of  his  own  talents,  and  rather  added  than  de-^ 
Iract^d  from  the  docility  of  his  disposition  :  a  docility  not 
in  him  the  result  of  feebleness,  or  indolence,  nor  tending 
to  the  obliteration  of  his  natural  character,  but  derived 
from  a  comparison  of  his  own  inexperience  with  the 
matured  ju  Jgment  of  advanced  life,  and  a.just  estimate  and 
oonviction  of  his  father^s  love;  Barre,  in  this  free  and  con^ 
ftdential  intercourse,  jmbibed  all  the  advantages  which  a 
system  of  perfect  intimacy  with  one  so  much  his  superior  in 
age  and  worldly  experience  could  produce,  divested  as  it 
was,  by  the  discriminating  hand  of  a  parent,  of  all  the  evils 
which  attend  on  the  formation  of  an  artificial  character.  It. 
ivouid  have  been  of  the  highest  gratificatipn  to  his  father  ta 
have  retained  constantly  \inder  his.  own  eye  a  son  so  much 
the  object  of  his  care  and  affection,  and  who  seemed  to> 

Md  it  O  8  C  It  T  Jl 

«ciiirt;.all  tUe  instrtiictioii  vefaiqh  coold  be  bdstomd  M^Uftii; 
but  as  ibis  would  have  demanded  leisurcj^  and  qualifioatioip 
wbicb  fall  to^he  lot  dffbdt  few  person^,  Barre  was  senft  in 
May  1797^  to  Dr.  iHortie^  aobool  at  Chi»wick,4md  in, Jonb 
119%  was  (Placed  under  llhe  care  of  thb  ReV«  Willtaai 
Goodenb^gb^  at'Ealiugy  between  whose  family  andihat  of 
bis  pupil  a  long  intimiacy  and  friendship  bad  subsisted. 
Here  be  temained  six  years,  and  acquired  a  competent 
knowledge  of  tbeclMicsy  and  some  share  of  Blatbernatici^ 
bistory,  and  amiquities,  tbB  study  of  which,  last  bad  been 
previously  familiar  to  him  while  enjoying  his  fatber^^  lib'rary 
at  home.  /  . 

It  was  during  tbe'salmb  time  that  he  form'ed'bis  fine  cot- 
lection  of  coins,  wUicb'is  now  in  tb6  British  museum,  bar^ 
ing  been  purchased  by  the  trustees  with  consent  of  pan* 
liament.    This  collection  was  begun  to  be  formed  wbeli 
Barri^  was  Tery  yboog.     He  accidentally  saw  a'fdw  Roniaii 
coins  in  his  faither's  possession,  ^icb  be  preseiitly  igiit 
Ireosferred  to  his  own.     They  were  boarded  by  him  widi 
infantine  oace,  and  esteemed  by  bifn  as  invaluable  property; 
The  occasiooai  piiesents  of  'friends,  and  such  specimen's  as 
a  child's  pocket-money  could  procure,  soon  incresised  tti^ 
More,  which  be  would  display  and  comment  upon  with  tba 
air  and  importance' of  a' connoisseur.    As  be  advanced  Hi 
,age,  however,  be  perceived  that  to  form  a  completie  aid 
universal  collection  of  coins  was  an  object  only  in  the  power 
of  individuals  possessed  of  Isrrger  means  than  be  could' ^veii^ 
expect  to  ei^oy.     He  therefore  reUnqpiisbbd  it  in  this  cKa* 
racter,  and  confined  his  attention  only  to  those  connected 
*  with  his  own  country.     His  father  encouraged  the  pur^uiit, 
as  he  followed  it  in  the  light  of  a  science^  which  illustrated 
and  confirmed  him  in  bis  historical  studies ;  and  his  ria(me 
as  a  collector  fobn  became  known  among  the  dealers, 'who 
did  not  fail  to  bring  him  whatever  coal d  be  discovered  inost 
tare  and  curious  in  their  linel  of  search.  -^      ' 

.  On  the  1 1th  of  October,  1 805,  he  was  entei^ed  as  a  opmV 
moner  of  Christ  Church  at  Oxford/  in  which  bouse' be  be^ 
came  a  student  at  the  Cbrisunas  following,  by  the  j[)resefita«* 
tion  of  Dr.  Hay,  obtained  at  the  request  of  lord  Viscofint 
Sidmoutb.  As  be  never  bad  been  separated  from  bis  &- 
mily  till  this  period,  for .  a  week  together,  the  dislahde 
between  Ealing  and  Oxfard  appeared  to  him  a  very  6onsi«* 
dcrable  oney  and  a  plan  of  correspondence  wail  iminediaitely 
established*    His  aai^UefttlettclrsiCoataiu  a  picture^  of  ^^ 


mitjd  uui^r  lliib  "ti^aeiic^  of  dew  ftnj^reisfehs,.  and  lietir 
JiabiUt  ^bila  they  display  tiis  condbotas  utiiformljr  corredit 
tdd  praifMB<^^ortbir>  Md  he  tdok  his  first  degree  in  Nov^ 
^.S08,  wUli  ^^t  iBtpprQbkUion;  Before  tbts  time  be  hak 
:.l)eeD  ^  frequentcorrespdhdentin  the  Gentlem'an^s Maga- 
jsti^e  on  the  Subject  OJF coins,  sind  that  not  superficially,  bdft 
jvith  a  degilde  ofknd^edge  which  would  hare  been  cre^ 
ditable  to  a<<r^teKttU.c^iect6r.  He  Was  also  invited  to  con- 
tribute to  one  of  thtfse  literary  journals  in  wbich  personal 
attack  is  more  an  bbjiect  than  sound  criticism;  biit  we  ai^ 
tidt  sorry; tcv^^ftndtbbt  be  made  little  progi'ess  iaan  employ- 
ipient  so  ktbluiULbfe' to  an  in^nuous  miiid.  /     : 

The  ca^ecir,  however,  bf  this  sibiiable  ybiihg  roan  w^s 
destined  to  be  sbbrt^     During  his  residence  in  the  last  twb 
j^ears  at  bxlto^d,  be  texp^riiinced  itttacks  which  ihdlcatelft 
that  all  was  Mt  rigiit  abotit'hiin ;  btit  their  short  duratiotj, 
and  the  ei^tt^tbe  riepUghah^e  that  be  felt  towards  drawing 
attehtion  to  himself  on  sucb  aceoiints,  which  made  hiiti 
i>erbaps^cbhtieal  their  extehi:,  ^preife^ted  th'e  aiarrti  whicli 
'Otherwl^  bift  friehds  and  family  «r6uld  ha^e  entertained. 
In  the  autumn  5f  I^07'be  wds  seize'd  witfh  a  hsembrrhage  at 
the  tiose,  add  not  long  afterwards  with' frequeiit  fits  of  gid- 
diness. Itie  e&citementv^bich  he  Underwent  it!  iBOS.whilb 
'r^ualifying  bittiself  to '  take  his  degree,  rendered  him  still 
inore  ot>noa:ious  to  these  baneful  influences. '  Under  ibb 
constant  agitation  of  bis  mind,  the  deterioration  in  bis  health 
%ecaibe  vidble  by  caprice  of  ippetite,  and  increased   ner- 
vous irritability.    In  the  summer  b^  that  yearhe  \vas'seize^ 
Vith  a  cough,  which,  though  neither  violent  hor  freqUent, 
'n^ver  left  him  afterwairds.     llis  illness,  however,  made  no 
rapid  advances ;  and  when  be  returned  home  after  his  efr- 
^mination,  be  continued  toMik  in  the  society  of  his  frieh^ 
as  usual*    In  a  i^isit  to  Londoh  rn  the  cold  and  unhealthy 
jfpring  of  1809,  bis  disposition  to'mal&dy  wa^  increased  by 
accidental  oaases,  too  minute  to  arrest  his'  attention  ;  and 
unfortutiately  also'at  this  period  he  was  sumnf^Oned  to  OjC- 
ford'  by  intelligence  of  the  fire'  at'  Christ  Church,  by  which 
^U  rooms  \vere  damaged,  and'  his  books  endangered;     The 
aeaftoh,  and  the  *  business  he  went' upon,  were  pecUli&r^y 
linfavouifable to  an  invalid;  be' was  necessairily  iti^oived'iti 
a  good  deal  of  bodily  agitation,  in6rderto  ascertain  and 
aeciire  his  property,  and  exposetl  to  the  air  at  a  time  when 
repose  and  seclusion  were  of  the  utn^ost  importance  to  him, 
As  the  summer  advanced,  his  disorder  did  not  abate,  though 

S52  ir  O  6  E  R  T  $ 

t}>e  symptoms  of  it  nrere too. equivocal  Co  efhabld  bi^  ifiedi'*. 
cal  attendaQts  to  give  it  a  decrded  name. 

He  was  prevailed  upon,  with  some  entreaty,  to  make  a-^, 
journej'  early  in  July  to  Southampton,  in.  the  company  of 
a  near  relation,  with  wh9m  ^he  had  ever  lived  on  t/erms  of 
affectionate  intimaqy,  and  who  rejoiced  in  offering  him 
such  attentions  as  he  would,  accept.  Qo  his  return  tp 
Ealing  at  the  end  of  September,  the  symptoms  of  his  dis^ 
order  had  not  increased  in  violence  ;  but  the  effect  of  its 
'secret  ravages  upon  him^  were  but  too  visible*  During  thq 
whole  progress  of  his  ailment,  his  mind  remained  unaltered 
in  its  inclinations  and  desires.  The  thirst  forfknowledge 
continued,  but  the  exhausted  state  of  his  corporeal  system 
opposed  physical  obstacles  to  its  gratification  ;  he  bore  up 
^ith  cheerfulness  and  courage  against  evidences  of  that 
which  certainly  he  himself  could  not  be  ignorant  of,  and 
lamented  only  the, languor  of  nervous  debility  wbich  ren« 
dered  him  unable  to  pursue  his  favourite  and  wonted  oc^ 
cupations.  He.  died  Jan.  1,  .1810,  and  was  buried  on  th«r 
8th  in  Ealing  church,  where,  on  a  tablet  of  w:hite  marble^ 
is  an  elegant  Latin  inscription  from  the  pen  of  his  early 
.  tutor  and  triend,  the  rev  Mr.  Goodenough.  In  1 8 1 4,  a  vo- 
lume, in  4to,  of  his  '*  letters  and  Miscellaneous  Papers,*' 
was  published  with  an  elegant  dnd  affectionate  memoir  of 
bis  life,  written  by  his  cousin  Grosvenor,  Charles  Bedford^ 
esq. '  .     , 

ROBERTS  (fRANCis),  a  puritan  divine,  the  sou  of 
Henry  Roberts  of  A  slake,  in  Yorkshire,  was  borii  there  or 
in  that  county  in  1609,  and  entered  a  student  of  Trinity 
college,  Oxford,  in  1625.  In  1632  he  completed  his  der 
grees  in  arts,  and  .was  ordained.'  Where  he  first  officiated 
does  not  appear  ;  but  on  the  breaking  out  of  the  rebellioB 
be  went  to  London,  too)c  the  covenant,  and  was  appointed 
ininister  of  St.  Augustine's,  Watling-street,  in  room  of 
Ephraio)  Udal,  ejected  for  his  loyalty.  In  )  649:  he  wa3 
presented  to  the  rectory  of  Wrington  in  Somersetshire  by 
bis  patron  Arthur  lord  Capel,  son  of  the  beheaded  lord 
Capel.  While  on  tliis  living  he  was  appointed  one  of  the 
commissioners  for  the  "  ^ectment  of  those"  who  were 
called  ^'  ignorant  and  insufficient  ministers  and  school- 
masters." At  the  restoration,  however,  he  coiiformed, 
tired  out,  as  many  others  were^  by  .th^  dbtractipps  of  tbe 

>  Memoir  as  above. 

R  O  B  £  R  T  Si  .   ZSi 

contending  parties,  and  disappointed  in  every  hope  which 
the  eticouragers  of  rebellion  had  held  forth.  It  does  noC 
appear  whether  he  had  any  additional  preferment,  except 
that  of  chaplain  to  his  patron  lord  Oapel  wheffh^  became 
earl  of  Esse^c;  and  when  that  nobleman  was  lord-lieutenarit 
of  Ireland  in  1672,  it  is  supposed  he  prdcured  him  tb6  de- 
gree of  D.  D.  from  the  university  of  Dublin.  He  died  at 
Wrington  about  the  end  of  1675,  and  most  probably  wag 
interred  in  that  church.  He  published  some  single  ser- 
mons :  "  The  Believer's  evidence  for  Eternal  Life,"  &c. 
1649,  1655,  8yo,  and  the  "Communicant  instructed," 
1651,8^0,  often  reprinted  ;  but  his  prhicipal  work  is  en- 
titled "Clavis  Bibiiorum,  the  Key  of  the  Bible,"  in- 
cliitling  the  order;  names,  times,  penmen^  dccasion,  scope, 
and  principal  matter  of  the  Old  and  New  Testament.  This 
was  first  printed  at  London  and  Edinburgh,  1649,  in  2  vols, 
dvo,  and  afterwards  in  4to;  and  the  fourth  editi(>n,  1675^ 
in  folio.  Wood  mentions  another  work,  "  Mysterium  & 
Medulla  Bibiiorum,  or  the  Mystery  and  Marrow  of  the 
Bible,"  1657i  2  vols.  fol.  as  he  says,  but  this  is  doubtful^ 
tod  «« The  Triie  way  to  the  Tree  of  Life,"  1673,  Svo.* 

ROBERTSON  (Joseph),  a  learned  English  divine  and 
Miscellaneous  writer,  was  deseendetl  fVom  a  reputable 
family,  which  from  time  immemorial  possessed  a  consider- 
able estate  at  Rutter,  in  the  parish  of  Appleby,  in  West- 
moreland. His  father  was  an  eminent  maltster;  and  his 
mother,  the  only  daughter  of  Mr.  Edward  Stevenson,  of 
Knipe,  in  the  same  county,  cousin  to  Edmund  Gibson,' 
bishop  of  London.  He  was  bbrn  at  this  latter  place,  Au- 
gust 28,  1726;  bdt  his  father  soon  afteru'ards  removing  to 
Rutter,  he  wis  sent,  at  a  proper  age,  to  the  free-school  at 
Appleby,  «vhere  he  received  the  rudiments  of  classicail 
learning  under  Mr.  Richard  Yates,  a  man  of  eminent  abili- 
ties, and  distinguished  character  in  his  profession.  From 
theiice,  in  1746,  he  went  to  Queen's  college,  Oxford, 
'where  he  took  his  degrees  in  arts,  with  considerable  repu- 
tation for  his  ingenuity  and  learning.  On  his  receiving 
t)rders  he  was,  for  some  time,  curate  to  the  celebrated  Dr. 
Sykes,  at  Raylciglrin  Essex,  and  in  1758  he  was  instituted 
t6  the  vicarage  of  Herriard  in  Hampshire ;  iA  1770,  to  the 
rectory  of  Sutton  in  Essex;  and  in  1779,  to >the. vicarage 
of  Hbrncastle*  in  Lincolnshire,  16  which  he  \^a8  presented 
'by  his^relatloft;  Dir.  Edmund  Law,  bishop  of  Carlisle.      . 

I  Alb.  Qx.  vol.  U. 

9S4  R  p  9  E  B  1^  B  Q^  N. 

Itk  1761  b^  pijibU4>fsd  attelioonf  enj:itled  ^*  The  wb{rer«» 
lion  of  an^cieiit  j^iqgdonis  cop^idered/*  ^eacbed  M  f^ 
J:Obn'i^  W^^tfniusterj  Feb.,  13,  the  dfy  appointed  b^r-  4. 
general  faajt.  Ii|.  1772)  be  reyi^d.  and  cofrecti^  ^  lb<^ 
pre&s,Pr.  Gregory.  Sharpens  ppsthmnoiis  sermons;  and  tb^ 
8a,Qcie  year  <|OjcnpljeM  a  nj^w  edition  Ojf  Algernon  Sido^y-f 
Discourses  on.  Governoient)  with  bbitqricm  ^Qt^  in  oiu^ 
volume  q^arto^  at  ibe  persuai^iQiii  of  Thoipas  HoUis,  mq^ 
wbo  bigbly  apprQTed  bis  perfornanoe.  >        ^^ 

In  1775:  a  i;^inarkable  ii^cidenj^  h^ppen^x  ^^^>P^  ^^i^^^^cd 
tbe  public  attention.     A  Miss  Butteriield  vjras  afiCuseA  vf 
ppisoniqg  Mi;.  Wok  Scawen,  of  Woodcote  tpdge .in  Stirf^ 
Mr.  Robertson  tbougbf  )j^eT  yerycrueUy  trea^d^  aiid  i09J|( 
fo  ajctive  pa^  in  ber  defence.    Qn  tbis  ^jstsasion,  l^  pttb^ 
ijiaix^d .  a  letter  to  Mr.  Sanxay,  a  surgeo^ij^  on-  wbcoa  t^^^ 
i^Qnyt^fiisB  BUjtterfijeid  bad  been  cofniiiitte4.  ^o  prison  i  19 
wbjpb  he.Y^ty  severely  animadvert  90  ^b.e  co/idoct  ap4 
fvideiM^e  of  that  ge^tlem^,;    JCti^r  she  bf4  ^en  honourt 
^ly  ^cqtattfd  at  tbe  awsea  at  Croydpiis  be  poUisbei^f 
feeond  pan^pbieit,  containing  '<  Observations  on  thecal 
of  MUs  BpttpHrfieK^*^  $hewtpg  tbie  b^r<;^sbiF^  she  bfid^  sua4 
laiuedif  and.  tbe  iiecewty  of  prosecuting : her  right  i^  a 
tjQ^urt  of.jpsti^ei    tbat  is,   kp^  claim  to  a  considerably 
le^Oy^  W^(ih  A|r.  Sc^wm  bad  bequ^atb^^i  ber  by  ^  wili^ 
e]C^i|te4  y^tJk:  grc^  foirtnaUty,.  twp  or  three  years  beforf 
bid  deatl^.    Tbe  caus^  w^s  apcordiiigly  tried  in  PoctorsJ 
flommoos.  Rut)  ms  iiniversaUy  agreed,  that tluf 
imfortanate  youqg  womaa  ha^.  been,  unjustly  accused,  and 
thaA  IVIr.  Spaw^n'  had  beea  iuduced,  by  false  saj^estiontj 
Hd  sign  aiv>tbi9r  testamentary  pap^?s:  m  which  ber  napoe 
lias  not  meptioned,  yet  DO  repress  poi|ld  b.e  pbuipedi  aa 
tbe  judge  observed,  ^  that  it.was  tb^  bpisin^ss  pf  tbe  court 
to  determipe  tbe  cause,  apcprdipg  to.  whijit  the  testator  A04 
4fi$xe ;  pot  according  to  what  be  ought  to  have  dope/'        < 
Mr.  R.  is  said  to  have  been  tbe  a^uthpr  of  a  useful  ti^actf 
published  ip  17^1^  <'  On  CaUpary  PoUopi^.''    Ip  1783,  bf 
l^blidiad  an.degant  little  vokme  fdr.tbf  improyepipnt  <^ 
youpg  people  in  eeadiug,  entitled  ^^An. Introduction  to 
ibe  study  of  Polite  Literature."    This  ^'performance  way 
sientioned  as  tbe  j^«l  volume  of  an  int^p^ed  seriea  op  the 
«Mae aubjeirt ;  but.the  <s^<;pn«(  ne^er appearei|>  omn^  asit. 
is  supposed,  to  part  of  it  having  been  reprinted  in  a  tracts . 
fpr  the  use  ef  Sunday-scboobii  wikbput  his  coosfpt,  bj 

R  €^  B  S  II  7  8  ei  9i  8^t 

jtr^Mcaemv  l^alty  *•  In, tbe  Aam^  yewr  be  ravAedJaod  pvth* 
h^9d  a  medical  wofk  of  his  frietKi  sifr  Oli&on  Wiatcingt 
ka^  ^  De  McHTbis  quibundam  GommenM^rii/'  in  o.iie  voL 
INo;  io  irtiicli  a  scMB^ad  vetume  was  afterwarda  added  in 

•'  !»  I.785>  itfe  pabliibed  an  ^  Essay  on  Pui^^lvia^an,'*  in 
il^Qiev  In*d»s  treatise  lie  ha»illt|stcated  a  d«y  i^  unpro^ 
Ifiiaii^g  tiftbjeely  with  a  variety  of  elegant  and  entertaini»g 
eMiffiples;  a^  fouvth  edition  of  ttiis  easay  was  pointed  itt 
Wm.  '  Ifi  1768  appeared  <<The  Parian  Chronicle^  or  th# 
ISbiomcl^  of:  the  :^lniridelmn  Marbles,  with  a  Dissertation 
«PQo^#niiig  its  iSuthentkity.*^  The  tendency  of  this  work 
iitvto  Aew,  that « the  authentioity  of  this^  famous  inscription 
4s^e<tf€kneiy''qi»estionable;  but  although  we  may  pva4se  the 
tngentiity, '  acutefness,  and  learning,  of  the  auihor,  we  majr 
ke'  ptomitted  to  donbt  wbelhei!  be  has  fully  established  hi* 

In  1795  be  published  a  translaition  ol  Teleaaachusi  witk 
MteSi  atid  the  life  of '  Fenelon^  in  4^wo  volumes  l2mo; 
-^i«;b<  bears  tkeiviarks  of  his-  usuat  elegaaee>  taste,  and« 
ItHmAiig.  By  a  note  to  'the  dissei^t&tton  on  the  Parian 
£hro0iele  it  appcifars,  that  be  was  cmoeirned  in  writing  the 
Critical  Heviev<r  <<  for  tv^enty-one  years^  frotn  August  17<M# 
jbio  Septembeif  17^5,  inclusinev  During  th^  period  he  wa< 
Iba  authoi?  of  aboYe  S^20  articles,  on'  th0o)ogkal,  cbssicali 
^eet'iea),  and  misceikLheous  pubtieatiens;"  * 

^;  In^  1797;  Mr./R<>beptson  publisted  <<  Obsennttions  on  the 
Aiet  for  ^lagfoentiOg  the  Salai ief^  of  Curates^  in*  four*  Letters 
$fiiH8FrieQd,^*9ro,  Written:  in  'ccm^equence  of  what  th4 
auibor^houghta^disproponionate  and  oppresu^ve  enfovcen 
aaeot  of  the  curates'  act  In  179$^  he  published  ^^  An 
Bssay  on  the  Education  of  Young  Ladies,  addressed  to  a 
|iersoh  of  disttnciion/V8?o J  and  the  next  year,  ^<An  Essay 
en  the^  Nature  of  the  English  Verse^  with  Direetioos  fef 
feadiog  Poetry,**<  }2mo. 

*f.  Mr.  Robertson'  married  in  1758,  Miss  Baikes^  the  daugh^ 
Mr  of  Mr.  Timothy  Raikes^  apothecary^  in  Loo<ion,  hf 
wlioin  be  had  several  chitdren,  who  died  in  their  infancy^  ^^ 
t :  Mr  Robertsen^j^  health  had  been  considerably  impaired^ 
ewing  to  some  f^  of  apoplexy  which  attacked  him  about 
l>7B^.    ji^firiiig  180i  be  seemed  to  bave^  in  some  measure^ 

Jnag.  Toi.  LXIu  ' 


recovered ;  bot  on  Jan.  1 8,  1802,  he  was  seized  with  %  • 
violent  effusion  of  blood,  which  occaisioned  his  deaths  on 
tBe  very  next  day,  in  the  seventy -seventh  year  of  his  age* 
He  Was  tall,  stout,  and  handsome,  of  a  ruddy  complexion^ 
prepossessing  look,  gentle  and  unassuming  manners,  and 
exceedingly  polite  in  conversation':  he  w^  an  accomplished 
moral  character  in  every  sense  of  the  word.  Without 
violently  condemning  any  of  the  Christian  persuasion,  he 
was  enthusiastically  devoted  to  the  church  of  England  ; 
and  without  indulging  in  any  illiberal  animadversions  on 
foreign  governments,  he  was  duly  sensiljle  of  the  unrivalled 
advantages  and  the  invaluable  blessings  of  the  British  Con* 
stitution.  As  to  his  domestic  virtues,  one.  of  his  biogra- 
phers thinks  he  cannot  exhibit  a  more  finished  picture  of 
them  than  by  stating  what  Mrs.  Robertson  told  him,  ^^  Dur* 
jng  the  fortyrfour  years  we  have  lived  together, .  never,  for 
a  single  night,  did  he  desert  the  domestic  society,,  to  seeH 
elsewhere  for  amusement  T'  * 

.  .  The  literary  character  of  Mr.  Robertson  would  rank  high 
among  those  of  his  contemporaries  in  the  same  line,  if  .he 
bad  concentrated  his  ideas  in  one  large  aod  compact  woi'k. 
Taken,  however,  as  it  is,  it  will  unqpestion^bly  exhibit'|» 
learxied  critic  and  philologer,  and  one  of  the  most  accurate 
writers  of  his  age.  Although  he  was  endowed  with  a  vigo^ 
f9us  understanding,  and  enriched  with  an  uncommonly 
extensive  knowledge,  his  predominant  power  was  memory; 
and  his  favourite  study,  civil  and  literary  history.  In  the 
last-mentioned  ))ranch  heJiad,  perhaps,  no  superior ;  andT 
perhaps  too,  not  many  among  the  very  professed  biblio# 
graphers  could.rival  him  in  the  science  ofbooks^  author% 
and  literary  anecdotes.  ^  .  .       > 

ROBERTSON  (Thomas),  an  eminent  grammarian,  was^  ' 
according  to  Bale,  ^*  JEboracensis  urbis  alumntis^^^whici^ 
may  mean  ths|t  he  was  educated  at  York  ;  but  Wood  says^ 
be  was  bom  at  or  near  Wakefield  in  that  county.  He  wa^ 
originally  of  Queen^s  college,  Oxford,  but  afterwards  a 
semi-commoner  of  Magdalen,  and  succeeded  the  famoui} 
John  Stanbridge  as  njaster  of  the  school  adjoining  to  tha( 
college.  He  took  his  degree  of  M.  A.  in  1^25,  and  was 
elected  a  fellow  of  Magdalen.  In  1532  he  was  collated  ta 
the  prebend  of  Welton-W;esthall  in  the  cathedral  of  Lin- 
coln ;  in  the  year  following  to  that  of  Sleford,  and  in  1534^ 

1  From  Memoirt  written  by  hiin«tif  m  Nicb(4|||  SOwyer;  and  a  Sketch'by 
Mr.  Damiani. 

&  6  B  E  R  T  S  0  T^.  «5T 

\6  that  of  GrettOD,  in  the  same  churohz  It  seems  probable, 
but  Wdod  does  not  mention  it  as  certain,  that  he  took  bis 
d^ree  of  B.  D.  in  15S9,  at  which  time  he  says,  Robertson 
^as  esteemed  the  ^^Jlos  et  detus  Oxonia^^  and  was  trea* 
surer  of  the  church  of  Salisbury.  He  held  also  the  arch- 
deaconry of  Leicester  and  vicarage  of  Wakefield^  to  which 
Browne  Willis  adds  the  rectory  of  St.  Laud's,  at  Sherting* 
ton,  Bucks.  ' 

In  1 549  he  was  associated  with  other  divines,  ordered  by 
Edward  Vlth's  council  to  form  the  new  liturgy  or  coiamoa 
prayer ;  and  thus  far,  as  Dodd  remarks,  he  complied  with 
the  reformers^;  but  it  does  not  appear  that  he  advanced 
iHuch  further.  In  queen  Mary's  reign,  1557,-  he 'was 
made  dean  of  Durham,  and  refused  a  bishopric.  This 
dignity  be  niight  hate  retained  when  Elizabeth  came  to 
the  throne,  or  have  obtained  an  equivalent;  but  he  refused 
to  take  th^  oath  of  supremacy.  Nothing  more  is  known 
with  certainty  of  his  history,  unless  that  be  died  about 
1560.  Among  the  records  collected  at  the  end  of  Burnet- s 
History  of  the  Reformation,  are,  of  Robertson's,  ^'  Resohi* 
tions  of  some  questions  concerning  the  Sacraments/'  and 
'^  Resolutions  of  Questions  relating  to  Bishops  add  Priests.'* 
His  grammatical  tracts, ,  entitled  '<  Annotationes  in  Lib. 
Gulielini  Lilii  de  Lat  Nom.  generibus,"  &c.  were  printed 
together  at  Basil,  1532,  4toi.  -  His  reputation  as  a  correct 
grammarian  and  successful  teacher  was  very  great.  Strype 
Says^  that  after  refusing  the  oath  of  supremacy,  he  began 
to  propagate  his  opinions  against  the  reformation,  and  was 
overlooked  ;  but  Willis  thinks  he  was  taken  into  custody.^ 

ROBERTSON  (Wiluam),  a  very  Jearned  divine,  was 
born  in  Dublin,  Oct  16,  1705.  His  father  was  a  native 
of  Scotland,  who  carried  on  the  linen-manafacture  there; 
and  bis  mother,  Diana  Allen,  was  of  a  very  reputable  fa- 
mily in  the  bishopric  of  Durham,  and  married  to'  his  father 
in  England.  From  his  childhood  he  was  of  a  very  tender 
and  delicate  constitiition,  with  great  weakness  in  his  eyes 
till  he  was  twelve  years  of  age,  at  which  period  he  waa 
sent  to  school.  He  had  his  grammar-education  under  the 
Celebrated  Dr.  Francis  Hutcbeson,  who  then  taught  in 
Dublin,  but  was  afterwards  professor  of  philosophy  in  the 
university  of  Glasgow.  He  went  from  Dr.  Hutehesoa  to 
that  university  in  1722,;  vCrhere  be  remained  till  1725,  ^ind 

I  Ath.  Ox.  f  ot.  I.  asw  ediUoD.«*Oodid't  Ch.  aUU 

Vol.  XXVI.  S 

95$  B  O  B  E  S  T  S  O  N. 

took  the  degr6e  of  M.  A«    He  had  for  his  tutor  Mr.  Jp^ 
Lowdoa,  professor  of  philosophy ;  and  attended  the  h^o^ 
ture»  of  Mr.  Ross,  professor  of  humanity ;  of  Mr.  Duplop, 
professor  of  Greek;  of  Mr.  Morthlandi  professor  of  ,t;h^ 
Oriental  languages ;  of  Mr.  SimpsoPi  professor  of  mathe- 
matics ;  and  of  Dr.  John  Simpspn,  professor  of  divinity. 
In  the  last-^mentioned.  year,  ^  dispute  was  revived,  whiqh 
had  been  often  agitated  before,  between  Mr.  Joha  Ster* 
Ufig  the  principal,  and  the  students,  about  a  right  t,o  chuse 
a.  rector,  whose  o0ice  and  power  is  somewhat  like  that  of 
the  vice-chancellor  of  Oxford  or  Cambridge.    Mr.  Robert^ 
$011.  took  part  with  his  fellow- students^  and  wa^  appointed 
by  th^m,  together  with  William   Campbell,  esq.  son  of 
Campbell  of  Mamore»  whose  family  has  since  succeeded 
to  the  estates  and  titles  of  Argyle,  to  wait  upon,  the  print 
cipal  with  a  petition  signed  by  more  than  threescore  mat 
triculated  staclents,  praying  that  he  would,  on  the  1st  day 
of  March,  according  to  tb^  statutes,  summon  an  univ^r* 
«ity*meeting  for  the  electiou  of  a  rector ;  whicb.  petition 
he  rejectee^  with  contempt.     On  this  Mr.  Caa^pbe)),  in  bis 
own  name  and  in  the  name  of  all  the  petitioners,  .protected 
against  the  principars  refusal,  and  siU  the  petitioners  went 
'   to  the  house  of  Hugh  Montgomery,  esq.,  the  unlawful  rec«* 
lor^  where  Mr.  Robertson  read  aloud  the  protest  gainst 
him  and  his  authority.     Mr.  Robertson^  by  these  proceed* 
ingsy  became  the  immedijate  and  indeed  the  only  object  o( 
prosecution.     He  was  cited  before  the  faculty,  i.e.  thor 
principal  and  the  professors  of  the  university,  of  whom  th^ 
principal  was  sure  of  a  majprity,  and,  after  a  trial  wbiqH 
ksted  several  days,  had  the  sentence  of  expulsion  pfo*. 
nounced  against  him  ;  of  whiqh .  sentence  be  df^manded  a 
copy,  and  was  so  fully  persuaded  of  thQ  justice  of  hif^: 
cause,    and  the  propriety  of  his  proceedings,    that  h^ 
openly  and  strenuously  acknowledged  and  adhered  to  what 
he.  bad  done.     Upon  this,  Mr.  Lowdon,  his  tutor,  and  Mh 
Di^Iopf  professor  of  Greek,  wrote  letters  to  Mr.  Robert** 
son^s  father,  acquainting  him  of  what  had  happened,  and 
assuring  him  that  his  son  had  been  expeUed,  not  for  any 
crime  or  immorality,  but  for  appearing  very  zealous  io  a 
dispute  about  a  matter  of  right  between  the  principal  and 
the  students.     These  letters  Mr.  Jlobertson  sent  inc^losed 
in  one  from  himself,  relating  his  proceedings  and  ^ugerings 
in  the  cause  of  what  he  thogght  justice  and  right.     Upon 
this  his  father  desired  him  to  take  every  step  he  might 


think  pii*oper,  to  assert  and  maintain  his  own  and  his  felfoir^ 
students  claims;  and  accordingly  Mr.  Robertsoti  went  op  to 
London,  and  presented  a  memorial  to  John  duke  of  Argyle^ 
containing  the  claims  of  the  students  of  the  university  of 
Glasgow,  their'  proceedings  in  the  vindication  of  them, 
aiid  his  own  particular  sufferings  in  the  causel  The  duke 
received  him  very  graciously^  bui  said,  that  <^  he  was  little 
Acquainted  with  things  of  this  sort  ;^'  and  advised  him  ^^  to 
apply  to  bis  broths  Archibald  earl  of  Hay,  who  was  better 
versed  in  such  matters  than  he.*'  He  then  waited  on  lord 
Hay,  who,  upon  reading  the  representation  of  the  case, 
said  <*  he  would  consider  of  it***  And,  upon  consideration 
'Of  it,  he  was  so  affected,  that  he  applied  to  the  king  for  a 
<:ommission  to  visit  the  university  of  Glasgow,  with  full 
pow^r  to  examine  into  and  rectify  all  abuses  therein.  la 
the  summer  of  1726,  the  earl  of  Hay  with  the  other  visitors 
repaired  to  Glasgow,  and,  upon  a  full  ezamipation  into 
the  several  injuries  and  abuses  complained  of,  they  re>^ 
■  stored  to  the  students  the  right  of  electing  their  rectory 
recovered  the  right  of  the  university  to  send  two  gentle* 
men,  upon  plentifiil  exhibitions,  to  Baliol  college  in  Ox** 
^'ord ;  took  off  the  expulsion  of  Mn  Robertson,  and  ordered 
that  particularly  to  be  recorded  in  the  proceedings  of  the 
eommission ;  annulled  the  election  of  the  rector  who  had 
b6eh  named  by  the  principal ;  and  assembled  the  students^ 
who  immediately  chose*  the  master  of  Ross,  son  of  lord 
Ross,  to  be  their  rector,  &c.  These  things  so  affected  Mr* 
Sterling,  that  he  died  soon  after ;  but  the  university  re* 
vived,  and  has  since  continued  in  a  most  flourishing,  don* 

Lord  Hay  had  introduced  Mn  Robertson  to  bishop 
•Roadly,  who  mentioned  him  to  archbishop  Wake,  and  he 
wtis  entertained  with  much  civilvty  by  those  great  prelates. 
As  he  was  then  too  young  to  be  edpnitted  into  orders,  be 
employed  his  time  in  London  in  visiting  the  public  librae 
rie^  attending  lectures, -and  improving  Tiimself  as  oppor- 
ttmities  bfferedi  He  bad  the  fadhoor  to  be  introduced  to 
lord-chancellor  King,  by  a  veiy  kind  letter  from  Dn  Hort^ 
bishop  of  Kilmore,  and  was  often  with  his  lordship;  la 
1727  Dn  John  Hoadly,'  brother  to  the  bishop  df  Salisbury, 
was  nominated  to  the  united  bishoprics  of  Ferns  and  Leigh- 
lin  in  Ireland.  Mr.  Robertson  was  introduced  to  him  by  hi« 
brother ;  and,  from  a  love  of  the  nataU  solum^  was  desirous 
to  go  thitber  with  lum*    Mr.  Robertsoti  then  informed  tke 

a  a 


archbishop  of  Caiiterbtiry  of  his  design  i  and  his 
gave  him  a  letter  of  recommendation  to  Dr.  GoG^win, 
archbishop  of  Cashel,  who  received  him  in  a  mdst  frief^dly 
manner,  but  died  soon  afters    The  first  person  whomxDt. 
Hoadly  ordained,  after  he  was  consecrated  bishop  of  Ferns, 
-was  Mr.  Robertson,  whose  letters  of  deacon's  orders  bear 
"date  January  14,  1727;  and  in  February  the  bishop  nomi- 
Bated  him  to  the  cure  of  Tullow  in  the  county  of  Carlow : 
and  here  he  continued  till  he  was  of  age  sufficient  to  be 
ordained  a  priest,  which  was  done  November  10,  1729; 
ahd  the  next  day  he  was  presented  by  lord  Carteret,  tbeii 
lord-lieutenant  of  Ireland,  to  the  rectory  of  Ravilty  in  the 
county  of  Carlow,  and  to  the  rectory  of  Kilravelo  in  the 
county  of  Widow ;  and  soon  after  was  collated  to  the 
vicarages  of  the  said  parishes  by  the  bishop  of  Ferns. 
These  were  the  only  preferments  be  had  tiiri738,  wheft 
]>r.  Synge,  bishop  of  Ferns,  collated  him' to  th^  vicarages 
of  Rathmore  and  Straboe,  and  the  perpetual  cure  of  RahiV 
all  in  the  cojmty  of  Carlo\V.    These  together  produced  ah 
income  of  about  200/.  a-year.  '  But,  as  almost  the  whole 
latids  o(  these  parishes  were  employed  in   pasture/  the 
tithes  would  have  amounted  to  more  than  twice  that  sum  3f 
the  herbage  had  been  paid  for  black  cattle^  whidi  was  ceri> 
tainly  due  by  law.     Several  of  the  clergy  of  Ireland  had^  * 
before  him,  sued  for  this  herbage  in  the  Court  of  Exche* 
quer,  and  obtained  decrees  in  their  favour.     Mr.  Robert- 
son,, encouraged  by  the  exhortations  and  examples  of  his 
brethren,^  commenced  some  suits  in  the  Exchequer.for  this 
herbage,  and  succeeded  in  ievery  one  of  theto.  '  But  whea 
he  had,  by  this  means,  doubled  the  value  of  his  benefices^ 
the  House  of  Commons  in  Ireland  passed  several  severe  re* 
solutions  against  the  clergy  who  h4d  sued,  or  would  sue^  for 
this  ^^  new  demand,"  as  they  called  it,  which  encouraged  the 
.  graziers  to  oppose  it  so^obstinatety  as  to  put  a  period  to  dxBt 
demand.    This  prbcdeiing  of  the  Commons  provoked  Dean 
8wiit  to  write  "  The  Legion-Club."     Mr.  Robertson  soon 
after  published  a  pamphlet,  entitled  *^  A  Scheme  for  uttedy 
abolishing  the  present  heavy  and  vcixatioiis  Tax  of  Tithe;'* 
the  purport  of  which  was,  to  pay  the  clergy  and  impro- 
priators a  tax  upon  the  land  in  lieu  of  all  tithes.    Tbia 
went  through  several  editions:  but  nothing  farther  was 
•done  in  it. 

In  1739,  lord  Cathcart  (though  Mr.  Robertson's  person 
-was  quit^  unknowo  to  him)  sent  him,  by*  captain  Preseot^ 


-a  ▼ery  kind  message,  with  a  proper  qualification  under  his 
band  and.  seal,  to  \fe  his  chaplain. 

.  Mr.  Robertson  had,  in  1728,  married  Elizabeth,  daugh-> 
t^  of  msyor  William  Baxter,  who,  in  his  younger  years, 
bad  been  an  officer  in  Ireland  ip  the  armies  of  king  Charles 
li.  and  James  IL;  but  was  caslpiered  by  the  earlofTyr- 
conne),  Jameses  lord> lieutenant  of  Ireland,  as  a  person  not 
to-be  depended  upon  in  carrying  on  his  and  his  master's 
designs.  Captain  Baxter,  upon  this  repaired  to  Xondon, 
and  complained  of  it  to  the  duke  of  Ormgnd^  His  father 
.  was  at  that  time  steward  tp  the  duke's  estate.  His  grac«, 
.who  was  then  joined  w^th  other  English  noblemen  ip  a  cor* 
•cespondence  with  the  prince  of  Orange,  recommended 
him  to. that  prince,  .who  immediately  gave  him  a  company 
in  his  owu  forces.  In  this  station  he  returned  to  England 
with  the  prince  at  the  revolution,  and  acted  his  part  vigor- 
ously in  bringing  about  that  great  event.  While  the  cap- 
tain was  in  Holland,  he  wrote  that  remarkable  letter  tp  Dr. 
JBurnet,  afterwards  bishop  of  Salisbury,  which  is  iu^erUed 

'  iqthe  ^shop's  life  at  the  end  of  .the  ^^  History  of  his  qi^fii 
Ti^roes." ;  By  this  lady,  who  was  extremely  beautiful  in 
h<9f  person,  but  much  inore  so  in  her  mind,  Mr.  Rob^ertson 
bad  one  and  twenty  children.  ,Tbei;e  is  a  little  poem  writ- 
ten by  him  eight  yiears.  after  their  marriage,  and  inscribed 
to:ber,  upon  her  needle-work^,  inserted  in  the  Qent.  ^^g. 
1736. .  In  1743,  Mr. Robertson  obtained  the  bishop' cleave 
to  nominate  a  ct^rate  at  Ravilly,  and  to  ireside  for  some 

c  time  in  Dublip,  fqr  the  educatiop  af  bis  phi^dren.  Here 
he  was  in^mediately  invited  to  ^he  cure  of  St.  Luke's 

,  parish^  aud  in  this,  he  .contjiiued  five  years,  and  then 
returned;  to  Raviliy  in  1748,  the  town  air  not  agreeing 
wi;th  him.  While  he  w^s  in  the  cure  of  St.  Luke's^  he, 
together  witl)  Mr^  Kane  Perciyal,  then  curate,  of  St,  Mi- 
eban's,  formed  a  scheme  to  raise  a  fund  for  the  support 

:  of  widows  and  children  of  clergymen  of  ^the  diocese  of 
Publin,  which/hath  since  produced,  very  happy  eifects. 

v.  la  1758  he  lost  his  wife.  In  1759  Dr.  Richard  Robinson 
vras  translated  from  the  see  of  Killal^  to  that  of  Ferns; 
and,  in  his  visitation  that  year,  he  took  Mr.  Robertson 

,  aside,  and  told  him,  that  the  primate.  Dr.  .Scone  (who  had 

.  been  bishop  of  Ferns,  and  had  kept  up  a  correspondence 
w^tk  Mr.  Robertson),  had  recommended  him  to  his  care 
and  protection,  and  that  be  might  therefore  expect  every 

^  thing  in  his  power.    Accordingly,  the  first  benefice  that 


became  vacant  in  his  lordship^s  presentation  was  offered  to' 
him,  and  he  thankfully  accepted  it.  But,  before  he  could 
be  collated  to  it,  he  had  the  ^  Free  and  Candid  Disquisi- 
tions^ put  into  bis  hands,  which  be  had  never  seen  before. 
This  inspired  him  with  such  doubts  as  made  him  defer  his 
Itttendance  oil  the  good  bishop.  His  lordship  wrote  to 
him  again  to  come  immediately  for  institution.  Upon  this, 
Mr.  Robertson  wrote  him  the  letter  which  is  at  the  end  of 
a  little  book  that  he  published  some  years  after,  entitled/ 
'*  An  Attempt  to  explain  the  words  of  Reason,  Substance, 
Person,  Creeds,  Orthodoxy,  Catholic  Church,  Subscrip- 
tion, and  Index  Expurgatorius  ;'*  in  which  letter  Mr.  Ro« 
bertson  returned  his  lordship  the  most  grateful  thanks  for 
his  kindness,  but  informed  h$m  that  he  could  not  comply 
with  the  terms  required  by  law  to  qualify  him  for  such  pre-* 
ferment.  However,  Mr.  Robertson  continued  at  Ravilly 
)>erforming  his  duty ;  only,  thenceforward,  he  omitted  the 
Athanasian  creed,  &c.  This  gave  offence ;  and,  therefore, 
he  thought  it  the  houestest  course  to  resign  all  his  bene*' 
fices  together,  which  he  did  in  1764;  and,  in  1766,  he 
published  his  book  by  way  of  apology  to  his  friends  for 
what  he  had  done;  and  soon  after  left  Ireland,  and  re-^ 
turned  to  London.  In  1767,  Mr.  Robertson  presented  ohe 
of  his  books  to  his  old  Alma  Mater  the  university  of  Glas<<* 
gow,  and  received  in  return  a  most  obliging  letter,  with 
tiie  degree  of  D.  D.  In  1768  the  mastership  of  the  free^ 
grammar  school  at  Wolverhampton  in  Staffordshire  b^com* 
ing  vacant,  the  company  of  Merchant-Tailors,  the  patrons, 
iinanimously  conferred  it  on  hini.  In  1772  he  was  chosen 
one  of  the  committee  to  carry  on  the  business  of  the 
society  of  clergymen,  &c.  in  framing  and  presenting  the 
famous  petition  to  the  House  of  Commons  of  Great  Britain, 
praying  to  be  relieved  from  the  obligation  of  subscribing 
assent  and  consent  to  the  thirty-nine  articles,  and  all  and 
every  thing  contained  in  the  book  of  common-prayer* 
After  this  he  lived  several  years  at  Wolverhampton,  per- 
forming the  duties  of  his  office,  in  the  greatest  harmony 
with  all  sorts  of  people  there ;  and  died,  of  the  gout  in 
bis  stomach,  at  Wolverhampton,  May  20, 1783^,  in  the  79th 
year  of  his  age ;  and  was  buried  in  the  churchyard  of  the 
new  church  there. ' 

;   ROBERTSON  (William),  D.D.  one  of  the  most  illus- 
trious names  in  modern  literature,  and  one  of  the  most 

.       I 

9  Ufe  fiom  material!  famished  by  hiouelf  in  Gent,  M^g,  for  1789. 


eoiinjent  of  modern  historians,  was  born  in  1721,  at  Borth- 
wick,  in  the  county  of  Mid- Lothian,  where  his  father  was* 
then  minister;-  and  received  the  first  rudiments  of  his  edu- 
isation  at  the  school  of  Dalkeith.  In  1733,  when  his  father 
removed  to  EdiDburgb,  on  being  appointed  minister  of  the 
oid  Gray*friars^  church,  he  placed  his  son  at  the  university, 
where  his  industry  and  application  appear  to  have  been  of 
that  extraordinary  and  spontaneous  kind,  which  bespeaks 
» thirst  for  knowledge,  and  is  a  pledge  of  future  eminence. 
From  a  very  early  period  of  life  be  employed  every  means 
to  overcome  the  peculiarities  of  a  provincial  idiom,  and 
accustom  his  pen  to  the  graces  of  the  best  English  style. 
For  this  purpose  he  frequently  exercised  himself  in  the 
practice  of  translation,  and  was  about  to  have  prepared  for 
the  press  a  version  of  Marcus  Antoninus,  when  he  was  an- 
ticipated by  an  anonymous  publication  at  Glasgow.  Nor 
did  he  bestow  less  pains  on  acquiring  a  fluent  and  correct 
eloquence,  associating  for  that  purpose  with  some  fellow* 
students  and  others,  who  assembled  periodically  for  extem- 
pore discusrion  and  debate.  Thus  in  ail  his  early  pursuits 
be  deviated  knowingly,  or  was  insensibly  directed  into  those 
paths  which  led  to  the  high  fame  be  afterwards  enjoyed. 

Hi9  studies  at  the  university  being  finished,  he  was  li- 
Qcused  to  preach  in  1741,  and  in  1743  was  presented  to 
the  living  of  Gladsmuir,  in  East  Lothian,  by  John,  second 
earl  of  Hopeton.  This  preferment,  although  the  whole 
emoluments  did  not  exceed  100/.  a  year,  was  singularly 
opportune,  as  his  father  and  mother  died  about  this  tirne^ 
leaving  a  family  of  six  daughters  and  a  younger  son  unpro- 
vided for,  whom  our  author  removed  to  Gladsmuir,  and 
maintained  with  decency  and  frugality,  until  they  were 
settled  in  the  world.^«rDuring  the  rebellion  in  1745,  when 
the  capital  of  Scotland  was  in  danger  of  falling  into  the 
bands  of  the  rebels,  the  state  of  public  affairs  appeared  so 
critical  that  he  thought  himself  justified  in  laying  aside  for 
ft  time  the  pacific  habits  of  his  profession,  and  in  quitting* 
his  parochial  residence  at  Gladsniuii^,  to  join  the  volunteers 
of  Edinburgh ;  and,  when  at  last  it  was  determined  that- 
the  city  should  be  surrendered,  he  was  one  of  the  small 
hand  who  repaired  to  Haddington,  and  offered  their  ser* 
vices  to  the  commander-in-chief  of  his  majesty^s  forces. 
He  returned^  however,  as  soon*  as  peace  was  restored,  to 
Gladsmuir,  and  in  1751  married  bis  cousm,  miss  Mary 
Nesbit,  daughter  of  the  Rev.  Mr.  Nesbit,  o  e  of  the  mi- 
nisters of  Edinburglu 

t6%  E  O  B  E  R  T  S  O  N. 

He  now  applied  bitnself  to  bis  pastoral  duties,  wfaicb  1m 
discharged  with  a  punctuality  that  procured  biiu  thevene- 
rfU^iQQ  ^nd  attacbment  of  bis  parishioners,  and  as  bis  elo«- 
quence  in  the.  pulpit  began  to  attract  the  notice  of  the 
neigbbouring  clergy,  this  circumat^nce^   no  doubt,   pre- 
pared the  way  for  that  influence  in. the  cbdrch  which  be 
afterwards  attained.     In  1155  he  published  *<  A  Sermon 
preached  before  the  Society  for  promoting  Christian  know- 
ledge,^' which  has  been  deservedly  admired,  and  encou-t 
raged  by  a  sale  of  five  editions,  besides  a  trahslation  into 
Qeraap.     He  had  some  time  before  this  made  bis  appeavu 
ance  }n  the  General  Assembly  of  the  church  of  Scotland, 
and  had  taken  an  active  part  in  their  proceedings.    In  1757, 
he  distinguished  himself  in  the  defenqe  of  Mr.  John  Home, 
minister  of  Atbelstoneford,  who  bad  written  the  tragedy-of 
^*  Douglas.^'     This  was  considered  as  so  bold  a  departure 
from  the  austerity  expected  in  a  presbyterian  divine,  that 
the  author,  and.  some  of  his  brethren,  who  had  witnessed 
the  play  in  the  theatre,  were  prosecuted  in  the  ecclesiasti- 
cal court   » On  this  occasion.  Dr«  Robertson   contributed 
much,  by  hi^  eloquence,  to  the  mildness  of  the  sentence 
in  which  tbe  prosecutioix  terminated  ;  and  his  conduct  was 
DO  inconsiderable  proof  of  his  general  candour,  as  he  had 
never  himself  entered  within  the  walls  of  a  play-house, 
avoiding  such  an  indulgence  m.  iniconsistent  with  the  sdrn- 
pulous  circumspectioi)  which  he  maintained  in  bis  private 

In  ^  the  mean  time,  bis  leisure  hours  bad  been  so  well 
employed  that,  in  1758,  he  went  to  London  to  concert 
measures  for  the  publication  of  his  iirst  celebrated  work, 
<<  Tbe  History  of  Scotland  durlAg  the  reigns  of  queen  Mary 
and  king  James  VI.  till  his  accession  to  the  crown  of  Shg-* 
lan4 ;  ^ith  a  review  of  the  Scottish  history  previous  to  that 
period ;  and  an  Appendix,  containing  original  pa'persf**  2 
vols.  4to«^  The  plan  of  this  work  is  said  tp  have  bedn  form- 
ed soon  after  bis  siettlefiaent  at  Gladsmuir.  It  was  accord- 
ingly-published on  the  1st  of  February,  1759,  and  so  eager 
and.  extensive  was  tbe  sale,  that  before  the  end  of  that 
month,  be  was  desired  by  bis  bookseller  to  prepare  for  a 
second  edition.  ^'  It  ws^s  regarded,"  says  bis  biographer^' 
<f  as  an  attempt  towards  a  species  of  composition  that  had- 
been  cultivated  with  very  little  success  in  this  island ;  and 
accordiji)gly  it  entitles  the  author,  not  merely  to  the  praise 
which  would  now  b^  4vp  tpan  historian  of  equal  eminence^ 

R  O  BE  R  T  S  O  N,  J6» 

hm  to  a  high  rank  among  those  original  and  leading  minds 
that  forin  and  guide  the  taste  of  a  nation.*'  Contemporary 
publications  abounded  in  its  praises,  but  itirauld  be  super- 
fluous to  collect  opinions  in  favour  of  a  work  familiarized 
to  the.  public  by  so  many  editions.  Among  the  most  judi<- 
isious  of  the  literati  of  that  period  who  were  the  Brst  to  per- 
ceive  and  predict  the  reputation  our  author  was  about  to 
{establish,  were,  hon.  Horace  Walpole  *,  bishop  Warbur- 
ton,  lord. Roy ston,  the  late  sir  Gilbert  Elliot,  Dr:  Biroh, 
Pr  Douglas,  late  bishop  of  Salisbury,  Dr.  John  Blair,  late 
prebendary  of  Westminster,  and  Mr.  Hume.  It  may  suf- 
fice to  add,  that  fourteen  editions  of  this  work  were  pub« 
lisbed  in  the.  au thorns  life-time. 

,  While  the  "  Histgry  of  Scotland'*  was  in  the  press,  Dr.  . 
Robertson  removed,  with   his  family,  from  Gladsmuir  to 
£dinburgh,  in  consequence  of  a  presentation  which  he  had 
received  to  one  of  the  churches  of  that  city.     His  prefer- 
ments now  multiplied  rapidly.     In  1759,  he  was  appointed 
chaplain  of  Stirling  castle;  in  1761,  one  of  his  majesty V 
. chaplains,  in  ordinary  for  : Scotland;  and  in   1762  be  was 
chosen  principal  of  the  university  of  Edinburgh.     Two 
y^ars  afterward,  the   office,  of  king^s  historiographer  for 
Scotland  (with  a  salary  of  200/;  a  year)  was  revived  in  bis 
favour.     About  this  time,  likewise,  it  appears  that  he  was 
solicited  to  become  a  member  of  the  church  of  England, 
by  friends  who  considered  that  establishment  as  more  likely 
to  reward  his  merit. than  the  highest  emoluments  his..own 
church  could  afford.    He  resisted  this  temptation,  however, 
ifrith  a  decision  which  prevented  its  being  farther  urged, 
although  it  appears  at  the  same  time,  from  his  correspond*. 
€HK:e,.  that  he  would  not  have  been  sorry  to  accept  any 
aituation  which  might  have  relieved  him  from  the  duties  of 
l)is  pastoral  office,  and  afford  him  the  power  of  applying 
himself  wholly  to.  his  studies..   His  refusal  therefore,  as 
bis  biographer  justly  observes,  ^<  became  the  consistency 
and  dignity  of  his  character,^'  and  it  is  greatly  to  his  honour^ 
that  whatever  offices  or  wealth  be  acquired  throughout  life, 
vere  the  fair  reward  of  his  own  exertions. 

*  Oil  this  name,  we  may  rei^nark,  the  various  passages  ia  this  ii)^oir» 

in  the  laognage  of  Dr,    Robertsoa^i  with  the  sentiments  he  expresses  on 

biographer,  that  **  The  value  pf  .praise,  the  same  subject  in  hit  posthamoai  • 

whatever  be  the  abilities  of  bim  who  publication."     Walpole»  inde^    wai 

bestows  it,  depends  on  the  opinion  we  perhaps  the  most  insincere  man  of  hit 

•atertain  of  bis  candour  and  sincerity ;  age,  as  will  be  farther  noiicfid  in  outr 

qualities  which'  it  will  be.  difficult-  to  account  .of  hioi* 
lilfow  Mr.  Walpoie,  after  comparing 

S6ff  ieOBE;RTSON, 

He  waS|  hovrever,  about  this  time,  desirous  of  profitittg 
Vj  the  induigence  the  public  bad  shewn  hiniy  and  consulted 
bis  firtends  i^lstiye  to  the  choice  of  another  historical  sub* 
ject    A  history  of  England  was  strongly  recoaiinended» 
and  encouragement  promised  from  the  most  exalted  source 
of  honour.     His  majesty  was  pleased  to  express  a  wish  to 
aee  a  history  of  England  from  bis  pen,  and  the  efiri  of  Bute 
promised  him  every  assistance  that  could  be  derived  froo^ 
the  records  in  possession  of  government,  and  held  out  the 
inost  flattering  views  of  encours^cment  in  other  respects. 
At  first  Dr.  Robertson  was  averse  to  thb  scheme,  as  inter- 
fering witb  the  plan  of  Hume,  with  whom,  notwithstanding 
the  contrariety  of  their  sentiments,  both  in  religion  and 
« politics,  he  lived  in  the  greatest  friendship ;  but  afterwards^ . 
when  the  royal  patronage  was  so  liberally  tendered,  appears 
to  have  iaclined  to  th^  undertaking.    This  perhaps  cannot 
be  better  expressed  than  in  his  own  words.     ^^  The  case,  I 
now  think,  is  entirely  changed.     His  (Hume^s)  history  will 
have  been  published  several  years  before  any  work  of  mine 
ou  the  same  subject  can  appear :  .its  first  run  will  not  be 
marred  by  any  jostling  with  me,  and  it  will  have  taken  thatf 
atAtion  in  the  literary  system  which  belongs  to  it    Thift 
objection,  therefore,  which  I  thought,  and  still  think,  sO 
weighty  at  that  time,  makes  no  impression  on  me  at  pre- 
sent, and  I  can  now  justify  my  undertaking  the  Englisb 
history,  to  myself,  to  the  world,  and  to  him.     Besides,  our 
manner  of  vieiving  the  same  subject  is  so  different  or  pe-* 
Quliar,  that  (as  was  the  case  in  our  last  books)  both  may 
ipaiptain  their  own  rank,  have  their  own  partisans,  and 
possess  their  own  merit,  without  hurting  each  other.*' 
^  What  '<  station  in  the  literary  system*'  Hume^s*  history 
Alight  baire  occupied,  if  Dr.  Robertson  bad  executed  his 
intention,   it  is  impossible  to  conjecture^     It  is  certain, 
however,  that  after  a  lapse  of  nearly  half  a  century  no  work 
has  appeared  which  can  be  at  all  compared  to  Hume's,  i» 
icespect  to  popularity,  or  rather  that  commanding  infl^uence 
which  a  work  of  established  reputation  attains,  notwith- 
standing any  defects  which  criticism  or  superior  opportunii* 
ties  of  knowledge  may  point  out.     The  contest  between 
two  such  writers  would  have  been  a  noble  object  of  curio- 
sity ;  and  to  have  been  so  near  it,  as  the  world  once  was^ 
may  yet  be  felt  as  a  severe  disappointment. 

After  more  deliberation,  however.  Dr.  Robertson  deter- 
jnined  to  relinqubh  this  schema,   and  to  undertake  thf 

H  O  B  E  R  T  S  O  N.  267 

*'  History  of  Charles  V."  which,  indeed^  he  had  be|uti 
before  the  other*  plan  was  so  strongly  recommended.  His 
character  as  a  historian  now  stood  so  high  that  this  new 
prodtiction  was  expected  with  the  utmost  impatience,  nor 
was  that  ex))ectation  disappointed.  The  preliminary  di^«- 
sertation,  under  the  unassuming  title  of  an  *^  Introduction 
to  the  History  of  Charles  V."  is  particularly  valuable  as  an 
introduction  to  the  history  of  modern  Europe,  and  suggests 
in  every  page  matter  of  speculation  to  the  politician  and 
the  philosopher.  The  whole  appeared  under  the  title  df 
***  The  History  of  the  reign  of  the  Emperor  Charles  V.  with 
a  View  of  the  Progress  of  Society  in  Europe,  from  the 
subversion  of  the  Roman  Empire  to  the  beginning  of  the 
sixteenth  century,"   1769,  3  vols.  4td. 

After  an  interval  of  eight  years,  Dr.  Robertson  produced 
his  *^  History  of  America,'*  1777,  2  vols.  4to,  in  undertake 
ing  which  his  original  intention  was  only  to  complete  his 
account  of  the  great  events  connected  with  the  reign  of 
Charles  V.;  but  percfeiving,  as  he  advanced,  that  a  history 
df  America,  confined  solely  to  the  operations  and  concerns  of 
the  Spaniards,  would  not  be  likely  to  excite  a  visry  general 
intlsrest,  he  resolved  to  include  in  his  plan  the  transactionii 
of  all  the  European  nations  in  the  New  World.  The  origiA 
and  progress  of  ihe  British  empire  there,  however,  he  des- 
tined for  the  subject  of  one  entire  volume,  but  afterwards 
abandoned,  or  rather  suspended  the  execution  of  this  part 
of  his  design,  as  he  was  of  opinion  that  during  a  civil  war 
between  Great  Britain  and  her  colonies,  inquiries  and  spe- 
culations concerning  ancient  forms  of  policy  and  laws, 
which  no  longer  existed,  could  not  be  interestihg.  It 
would  be  superfluous  to  say  how  much  this  work  enlarged 
his  fame,  unless,  indeed,  which  is  no  hyperbole,  we  con- 
sider the  fame  arising  from  his  former  works  as  incapable  of 
enlargement.  He  treated  a  subject  here,  which  demanded 
all  his  abilities,  and  afforded  a  full  scope  for  his  genius,  and 
he  proved  how  eminently  he  could  excel  in  splendid,  ro- 
mantic, and  poetical  delineations,  with  the  originals  of 
which  be  could  not  be  supposed  to  have  much  interest. 
This  work,  however,  laid  him  more  open  to  censure  than 
any  of  his  former.  The  world  had  become  miore  critical^ 
and  from  having  enjoyed  the  excellence  of  his  histories  of 
Scotland  and  of  Charles  V.  more  fastidious ;  and  periiaps 
the  dread  of  his  acknowledged  name  had  in  some  degree 
Ibeea  s^bated  by  time.     Besides,  it  was  impossible  by  anj 


force  of  argument  to  vindicate  the  disposition  be  shews  to 
palliate  or  to  veil  the  enormities  of  tbeSpaniards  in  their 
American  conquests.  This  was  the  more  un^^ccountable  in 
an  author  whose  writings  in  gen^r^l  are  niost  friendly  to  the 
.interests  of  humanity,  aud  who  in  his  previous  researches 
and  inquiries  after  information;  lay  under  no  extraordinary 
obligations  to  the  Spanish  court.  .  This  blemish  in  his^^is- 
tory  was  soon  followed  by  a  compliment  which  shews  too 
evidently  the  light  in  which  it  was  viewed  in  Spain.  He 
was  elected  a  member  of  the  Royal  Academy  of  History 
at  Madrid,  *^in  testimony  of  their  approbation  of  thejn<» 
dustry  and  care  with  which  he  has  applied  to  the  study  of 
Spanish  history,  and  as  a  recompense  for  bis  merit  in  hav-r 
ing  contributed  so  much  to  illustrate  and  spread  the  know- 
ledge  of  it  in  foreign  countries."  The  academy  at  the 
same  time  appointed  one  of  its  members  to  translate  the 
History  of  America  into  Spanish,  but  the  governnientput  a 
stop  to  the  undertaking.— T-it  may  here  be  introduced,  that 
as  these  volumes  did  not  complete  Dr.  Robertson's  original 
design,  he  announced  in  his  preface  his  intention  to  resume 
the  subject  at  a  future  period.  A  fragment  of  this  intended 
work,  entitled  <^  Two  additional  chapters  of  the  History 
of  America,''  4to,  was  published  after  bis  death. 

In  consequence,  of  the  interruption  of  sDr.  Robertson's 
plans,  which  was  produced  by  the  American  revolution,  he 
was  led  to  think  of  some  other  subject  which  might,  in  the 
mean  time,  give  employment  to  his  studious  leisure.  Many 
of  his  friends  suggested  the  history  of  Great  Britain  from 
the  Revolution  to  the  accession  of  the  house  of  Hanover; 
and  he  appears  to  have  entertained  some  thoughts  of  ac- 
ceding to  their  wishes.  Mr.  Gibbon,  with  whom  be  was 
in  the  habit  of  intimate  correspondence,  recommended  to 
him  to  write  a  history  of  the  Psotestants  in  France.  What 
answer  he  returned  to  this  is  not  known ;  nor  have  we 
learned  what  the  circumstances  were  which  induced  him  to 
lay  aside  his  plan  with  respect  to  the  history  of  £ngland. 
For  some  time,  however,  he  seems  to  have  relinquished 
all  thoughts  of  writing  any  more  for  .the  publick.  His^  cir- 
cumstances were  now  independent,  he  was  approaching. to 
the  age  of  sixty,  with  a  constitution  considerably  impaired 
by  a  sedentary  life.  He  Retired  from  the  business  of  ^ba 
General  Assembly  about  the  year  1780;  and,  for  seven  or 
eight  years,  divided  the  hours  which  he  could  spar^  frpm 
bis  professional  duties  between  the  luxury  of  reading  and 
the  conversation  of  his  friends. 


-    To  this^  literary  leisure  the  public  is  indebted  forava- 

laable  performance,  of  which  the  materials  seem  almost 

.insensibly  to  have  swelled  to  a  volume,  long  after  bis  most 

intimate  friends  imagined  that  he  had  renouticed  all  thoughts 

:of  the  press.     The  ^^  Historical  Disquisition  coacerning 

the  knowledge  which  the  Ancients  had  of  India;  aiid  the 

Progress  of  Trade  with  that  country  prior  to  the  discovery 

of  the  Cape  of  Good  Hope/*  1791,  4to,  took  its  rise^  as 

be  himself  informs  us,  from  the  perusal  of  major  ReniiePs 

excellent  memoir  for  illustrating  his  map  of  Hindostan. 

This  suggested  to  his  mikid  the  idea  of  examining,  more 

fully  than  be  had  done  in  bis  History  of  America,  into  the 

knowledge  which  the  ancients  had  of  India  i  and  of  con^- 

aidering  what  is  certain,  what  is  obscure,  and  what  is  fa* 

bulous  in  their  accounts  of  that  remote  country.     It  is  di- 

.vided  into  four  sections.     He  published  this  work  in  his 

jixty-eighth  year ;  and  it  appears  to.  have  been  written  in 

about  twelve  months.     Although  less  amusing  to  common 

readers  than  his  former  works,  and  become  less  interesting 

«pon  the  whole,  in  consequence  of  the  discoveries  since 

brought  to  light  in  Asia,  it  is  not  inferior  in  diligence 

of  research,    soundness  of  judgment,    or  perspicuity  of 


With  this  publication  his  historical  labours  closed  —  la* 
bours  which,  for  extent  and  variety,  have  not  been  equalled 
l>y  any  writer  in  our  times.  All  the  essential  merits  of 
«  historian  were  his;  fidelity,  the  skill  of  narrative,  the' 
combination  of  philosophy  with  detail,  so  seldom  attempt- 
ed',  and  generally  so  unsuccessfully  eitecuted,  and  the 
power  of  giving  an  uncommon  interest  to  his  parsonages 
and  events  in  the  mind  of  the  reader.  His  style  has  been 
so  justly  characterized  by  his  biographer,  that  we  may, 
without  hesitation,  recomosend  it  as  a  decision  from  which 
it  will  not  be  easy  to  appeal  ^^  The  general  strain  of  his 
composition,"  says  professor  Stewart,  ^^  is  flowing,  equal, 
and  majestic;  harmonious  beyond  that  of  most  £ngiish 
writers,'  yet  seldom  deviating,  in  quest  of  harmony,  into 
inversion,  redundancy,  or  affectation.  If,  in  some  pas- 
sages, it  may  be  thought  that  the  effect  might  have  been 
heightened  by  somewhat  more  of  variety  in  the  structure 
and  cadence  of  his  periods,  it  must  be  recollected,  that 
this  criticism  involves  an  encomium  on  the  beauty  of  his 
jtyle;.for  it  is  only  when  the  ear  is  habitually  gratified| 
Ihat  the  rhythm  of  composition  beconaes  an  object  of  the 


reader^s  attention/*  The  same  judicious-  ethic  hti  re* 
narked)  that,  *^  perhaps,  on  the  who|e>  it  will  be  founS 
that  of  all  bis  performances  Charles  Y*  is  that  which  unites 
the  various  requisites  bf  good  writtBg  in  the  greatest  dei* 
gree.  The  style  is  more  natural  and  flowing  than  that  of  the 
History  of  Scotland  :  while,  at  the  same  time,  idiomatiieri 
pbrases  are  introduced  with  so  sparing  and  timid  a  hand^ 
that  it  is  easy  to  perceive  the  author's  attention  to' correct^ 
iiess  was  not  sensibly  diminished.  In  the  History  of  A'me^ 
rica,  although  it  contains  many  passages  equal,  if  not  su«- 
perior,  to  anything  else  in  bis  writings^  the  composttion 
does  not  seem  to  me  to  be  so  uniformly  polished  as  tbat  of 
bis  foriner  works  ;  nor  does  it  always  possess,  in  th^  same 
degree,  the  recommendations  of .  conciseness  and  simpli«> 
city.'\  • 

In  bis  own  country.  Dr.  Robertson's  reputation  was  con* 
•tderably  enhanced  by  his  conduct  as  a  leading  member  of 
the  General  Assembly  of  the  church  of  Scotland,  the  pro^ 
c^edings  of  which  he  regulated,  in:  difficult  times  and  trying 
emergencies,  with  great  political  skill,  address,  and  elo** 
quence,  for  nearly  thirty  years.  In  his  pastoral  office  be 
was  also  very  assiduous,  preaching- once  every  Sunday  uti«> 
til  a  short  time  before  his  death.  Of  his  sermons,  one 
only  Jias  been^print^d  ;  but  their  general  merit  may  be  un- 
derstood from  the  character  given  by  his  colleague^  the  fatfefe 
Dr.  Erskine :  ^'  They  were  so  plain,''  says  this  candid  and 
venerable  man,  ^^  that  the  most  illiterate  might  easily  nnA 
derstand  them,  and  yet  so  correct  and  elegant  that  they 
could  not  incur  their  censure  whose  taste  was  moee  te^ 
fined.  For  several  years  before  bis  death,  he  seldom  wrote 
his  sermons  fully,  or  exactly  committed  his  older  sermona 
to  nemory ;  though,  had  I  not  learned  this  from} himself,  I 
should  not  have  suspected  it;  such  was  the  variety  and 
fitness  of  his  illustrations,  the  accuracy  of  his  method^ 
^nd  the  propriety  of  his  style.  ^'-^To  his  other  merits  may 
likewise  be  added,  the  diligence,  address^  and  ability^ 
with  which  he  studied  and  promoted  the  interests  of  the 
university,  as  Principal,  which  will  be  long  remembered  to 
his  honour  In  all  his  public  characters  he  had  the  happy 
talent  of  gaining  influence  without  the  appearance  of  ef^ 
fort,  and  of  conciliating  differences  without  departing  from 
consistency,  or  endangering  friendship.  All  his  pursuits 
were  those  of  a  great,  a  steady,  and  a 'persevering  mind.  ^ 
His  private  and  social  virtues,  which  are  also  highly  spokea 


ef,  no  doubt  contribute  to  the  commanding  celebrity  of  hit 
public  character. 

In  1791,  hift  health  began  apparently  to  decline,  and 
on  this  he  retired  to,  and  for  some  tiote  was  enabled  to  en-> 
joy,  the  placid  comforts  of  a  country  residence,,  wherd)^ 
however,  his  disorder  terminated  in  his  death  on  the  11  th 
of  June>  1793,  in  the  seventy-first  year  of  his  age.  He 
left  a  widow,  three  sons  (the  eldest  an  eminent  lawyer 
at  the  Scotch  bar,  an'd  the  two  younger  embraced  a  mu 
litary  life),  and  two  daughters,  one  married  to  Mr.  Bry-^ 
done,  the  traveller,  and  the  other  is  the  widow  of  John 
Russell,  esq.  clerk  to  the  signet. 

.  It  yet  remains  to  be  mentioned,  as  a  part  of  Dr.  R«ibert'^ 
son's  iiterary  history,  that  in  1776,  he  reviewed,  and  made 
considerable  alterations,  in  his  ^'  History  of  Scotland.** 
He  took  the  same  pains,  in  1778,  with  his  '^  History  of 
America;"  and  these  f^  additions  and  corrections"  were 
sold  separately.  His  ^^  Histbry  of  Scotland,**  aiid  that  of 
*'^  Charles  V.**  were  translated  into  French.  'The' honour 
conferred  upon  him  by  the  Royal  Academy  of  History  at 
Madrid. has  already  been  noticed.  In  1781,  be  was  elected 
one  of  the  foreign  members  of  the  Academy  of  Sciences  aC 
Padua:;  and  in  1783  one  of  the  foreign  members  of  the  Im^ 
perial  Academy  of  Sciences  at  St.  Petersburgh.  The  lat# 
empress  Catherine,  a  warm  admirer  of  his  works^  sent  hint)  a 
present  of  a  very  handsome  gold  enamelled  snUfF*box^  richly 
net  with  diamonds.  These  honours^  however,  can  scarcely  he 
put  in  competition  with,  because  they  were  only  the  natural 
consequence  of,  a  higher  degree  of  fame  over  all  Europe, 
than  almost  any  modern  writer  has  enjoyed,  and  of  fame 
which  no  rivalship  has  been  enabled  to  impair.  ^ 

ROB£RVAL  (Giles-Personnb),  an  eminent  French 
4nathematician,  was  born  in  1602,  at  Roberval,  a  parish  kt' 
the  diocese  of  Beauvais.  He  wa3  first  professor  of  mathe* 
BuUics  at  the  college  of  Maitre->Gervai3,  and  afterwards  at 
the  coUege^Toyal.  '  A  similarity  of  tas^te  connected  him 
with  Gasaendi  and  Morin;  the  latter  of  whom  he  succeeded 
in  the  mathematical  chair  at  the  royal  college,  without 
quitting,  however,  that  of  Ramus.  Roberval  made  expe-* 
riments  on  the  Torricellian  vacuum :  he  invented  two  tiew 
kinds  of  balance,  one  of  which  was  proper  for  weighing 

1  Account  of  the  Life,  Stc,  of  Dr.  Winiam  Roberiion,  by  ProfeMor  I>agal4 
fi^wart,    1801,  8to. 

tl2  fe  d  B  E  R  V  A  L 

air;  and  .made  many  other  curious  experiments.  Hewa^ 
one  of  the  first  members  of  the  ancient  academy  of  science^ 
of  1666  ;  but  died  in  1675,  al  seventy-three  years  of  age/ 
His  principal  works  are,  I.  "  A  treatise  on  Mechanics.'^ 
2.  A  work  entitled  ^*  Aristarcfaus  Samos.'*  Several  me-^^ 
moirs  inserted  in  the  volumes  of  the  academy  of.sciences^ 
of  1 666 ;  viz.  1 ;  Experiments  concerning  the  pressure  of  the' 
air.  2.  Observations  on  the  composition  of  motion,  and 
on  the  tangents  of  curve  lines.  3.  The  recognition  of 
equations.  4.  The  geometrical  resolution  of  .plane  ancf 
eubip  equations.  5.  Treatise  on  indivisibles.  6.  On  thie 
Trochoid,  or  Cycloid.  7.  A  letter  to  father  Mersenne," 
8.  Two  letters  from  Torricelii..  9.  A  new  kind  of  balance.'; 
RobcrvdHian  Lines  were  his,  for  the  transformation  of 
figures^  They  bound  spTaces  that^  are  infinitely  extiendecl 
in  length,  which  are  nevertheless  equal  to  other  spaces 
that  .are  terminated  on  all  sides.  The  abbot  Gallois,  in  the 
Memoirs  of  the  Royal  Academy^  anno  1693,  observes,  that 
the  method  of  transforming  figures,  explained  at  the  latter 
end  of  Roberval's  treatise  of  indivisibles,  was  the  same 
with  that  afterwards  published  by  James  Gregory,  in  his 
Geometria  Universalis,  and  also  by  Barrow  in  his  Lec-^ 
tiones  GeometricsB;  and  that,  by  a  letter  of.  Torricelii,  ii 
appears,  that  Roberval.was  the  inventor,  of  this  manner  of' 
transforming  figures,  by  means  of  certain  lines,  which  Tor-' 
riqellr  therefore  called  Robervallian  Lines.  He  adds,  that 
it  is  highly  probable,  that  J.  Gregory  first  learned  the  me- 
thod in  the  journey  he  made  to  Padua  in  1668,  the  method' 
itself , having  been  known  in  Italy  from  1646,^  though  the 
book  was  not.  published  till  1692.  This  account  David- 
Gregory  has  endeavoured  to  refute,  in  vindication  of  hhr 
uhele  James.  His  answer  is  inserted  in  the  Philos.  Trans, 
of  1694,  and  the  abbot  rejoined  in  the  French  Memoirs  of 
the  Academy  of  1703J  -  ^ 

ROBESPIERRE;  (Maximilian  Isidore],  the  most  fero- 
cious of  those  tyrants  which  the  French  revolution  pro-' 
duoed,  was  born  at  Arras  \t\  1759,  where  his  father  was  » 
lawyer,  a  man  of  character  and  knowledge  in  his  profes- 
sion, but  so  improvident  as  to  die  insolvent,  and  leave  fair 
two  sons,  of  whom  Ma^cimiltan  was  the  eldest,  in  poverty. 
They  soon,  however,  found  a  generous  patron  in  De  Conw 

I  HvUon's  Diet — Eloj^es  deg  AcaUtmicieaii  vol.  |. — ^TbDmsoo's  Hist,  of  tiie' 
Koyal  Society. 


fte,  bishop  of  Arras,  wfao  in  a  manner  adopted  them,  but 
fao^Qtued  Maximilian  with  bis  particular  care,  and  after 
providing  him  with  school  education,  sent  him  to  Paris,  and 
procured  him  an  exhibition  in  .the  college  of  Louis  Le 
Grand.  The  manner  in  which  Robespierre  conducted 
himself  here,  answered  the  expectation  of  his  protector. 
He  was  assiduous  and  successful  in  his  studies,  and  ob- 
tained many  of  th^  yearly  prizes.  There  was  i^othing, 
however,  about  him,  which  indicated  his  future  destiny. 
Being  an  apt  scholar,  it  might  be  thought  that  he  would 
make  a  figure  in  the,  world ;  but  we  are  told  that  even  this 
was  not  the  case,  and  that  his  instructors  discovered  nei*/ 
ther  in  his  conversation  nor  his  actions  any  trace  of  that 
propensity,  which  could  lead  them  to  conjecture  that  hia 
glory  would  exceed  the  bounds  of  the  college.  Wheu  he 
had,  however,  attained  the  age  of  sixteen  or  seventeen,  he 
wad  advised  to  study  the  law;  and  this  he  pursued^  under 
the  auspices 'of  a  Mons.  Ferrieres,  .but  displayed  ^no  ex-* 
traordinary  enthusiasm  for  the  profession.  He  had  neither 
perseverance,  address,  nor  eloquence,  and,  according  to  one 
of  his  biographers,  bis  conspiousness  of  inferiority  to  those* 
who  were  making*  a  great  figure  at  the  bar,  gave  him  an 
air  of  gloominess  and  dissatisfaction.  It  was  at  first  deters 
mined,  that  he  should  practise  before  the  parliament  of 
PariS)  but  this  scheme  was  never  carried  into  execution, 
for  he  returned  to  his  native  province,  and  was  admitted  art 
advocate  in  the  supreme  council  of  Artois.  About  this 
time  he  ii  said  ,to  have  published,  in  1783,  a  treatise  oti 
electricity,  in  order  to  remove  the  vulgar  prejudices  against 
conductors.  In  this  piece  be  introduced  a  laboured  eloge 
on  the  character  of  Louies  XVI. ;  but  the  subject  of  his  liext 
literary  performance  was  yet  more  remarkable;  it  wa^ 
against  death  as  a  punishment,  and  in  this  he  reproackei# 
^H  modern  governments  for  pefEbitting  such  a  punishmeni 
to  remain  on  their  codes,  and  even  doubts- the^rigfat  cMm- 
ed  by  society  to  cut  off  the  life  of  all  individual ! 

Such  were  the  sentiments  and  situation  of  thi$  man, 
when  the  revolution  took  place,  and  raised  him,  and  bun<- 
dred^  equally  obscure,  and  perhaps  more  contemptible,, 
into  ^me  degree-  of  consequence.  Robespierre,  however 
inferior  hitherto  in  fame,  was  conscious  that  he  had  many 
of  the  materials  about'  hitn  that  ^ere  wanted  at  this  time. 
Sicilerhe  acluatly  had  good  qualities,  which' -is  scarcely 
Credible,  Or  by  tb^  oiost  consummate  hypocrisy,  be  per* 

Vol.  XXVI.  T 

d74  ROBESPlERRf. 

.imaged  tbe. people  that  be  was  a  steady  and  upright  ais(ti«. 
•He  was  elected  a  representative  tp.  thie  states  gep^eral,  but 
MUioUgb  be  attached  himself  by  turns  to  the  faction  that  > 
seemed  uppermost,   be  repained  long  io  a  state  of  o;b** 
acnrity.    He  was^  considered , as  a  passionate  jiot-beaded 
young  man,  whose  chief  merit  consisted  iu  bis  being  warm 
in  the  cause  of  iiberlgr*      H.e  bad^  we  are  told,  .another  . 
inerity  that  of  bringing  tbe  term  ari^toerai  iiiito  common  , 
use^  which  afterwards  becaai^  U19  watchword  of  his  pro* 
SCriptio^a.     He  tri^dytoo^  at  joqrjfial  called  ^  VUnion^  on 
fToticiial  de  la  Libert^^'V which  vM  eonducted  with  extreme 
yioleoce.    But  it  was  auited  to  (be  people  who  read  Ji^ 
ftfid  Robespierre,  obtained  the  surnaiBe  of  the /?u<Prrf^/«- 
ibU^  from  an  affectatioi»  o|  indepepdencey  and  eontinuaUj 
declaioung  against  ceurciy  ciorru^ion, 
.    The   Jacobia  rclalH    bowefer^   raised   Robe^ierre  tQ 
power  and  celebrity ;  they  eyei^  proclaimed  ^*  that  the  na* 
tif»oal  asaeo^bly  bad^rt^.ned  Hxjkt^^  and  Robespierre  alooe 
co.Qld8ave  it.'V    {t  was  during  the  national  convention  that  , 
be  attained  the  summit  of  his  ambition^  if  indeed  he  knew 
what  that  was..    In  the  first  legislature,  he  joined  the  pan. 
triots,.as  they. were  called;  in  the  second  be  declared  for 
the  republicanism  and  in.  both  the  party  to  which  be  attached  ^ 
himself  proved  victorious*    In  the  thirds  tbe  national  cou-*^ 
vention,  he  carried  all  befor^e  him';  the  commuw  of  }^9mp 
tb^  Jacobin  club^  and  even  the  convention  it$elf>   were 
filled  with  bis. crea|:Mr^9»  ai^  became  obedient  to  hist  com- 
mands^   A  scene. of  bipod.  foUowedy  which  e^e^ededthe 
pro$criptioQs  of  9yUa  and  Marina     Men  and  .women  of  all 
ranks  perished!  iodiserimiaately^    Suspected  pqrsoos>  tbai^ ' 
isj  those  either  drei^ied  of  bated,  by  this  monster  and  bis 
ac^pmplices,  were  arrested ;   domiciliary  visits  a^vakened 
4he  sleeping  victims. of  pers^utioa  to  misery  and  destruof» 
tiif^',  while  jFevolutionary  tribunal^  as  |hey  were  calledn . 
condemned  tbe^m  by  scores»  unpitied  and  even  qubeard. 
The  laws  W€jre  no  Jcuiger  maintained ;  the:  idea  of  a  coosti*,  > 
iution  bi^ame  intolerably ;  all  poM^r  was  concentrated  in 
a  junto,  called  the  ConiWttee  of  Public  Safisty,.  which  re** 
gjilatedeveryabing^  absolved  or  tried,  spoiled  or  enriched^ 
m^rderfid. or. saved;  aud.iJbi^t:oi|uiittte^  was^eutirely  regiin 
lated  by  tbe  will  of  Robespierre,  wbp  governed  it  .by.meana 
of  hi9  cir^aiunes^  St ^  Just  and  Couthpn.  la  tbe  short  space  ol 
two  years^  niearty  3.000  peiaoos  periab^  by  the  gMiU<MUn<t 
i^  Z^\M  QQly«    Sven  tba  ravoitt(iQnai;y  forma  ^w^  .thought 

R  O  B  £  S  P  1  £  R  R  e.  2f| 

too  dilatory;  the  execution  of  fotir  or  five  in  a  day  did'hot 

satiate  Robespierre'^  vengeance ;  the  muiNier  of  thirty  of 

forty  was  demanded,  and  obtained;    the  streets  became 

deluged  with  blood  ;  canals  were  necessary  to  convey  it  to 

the  Seine;  and  experimehts  were  actually  made  at  one  of 

the  prisons  with  an  instrument  for  cutting  off  half  a  score 

beads  at  a  single  motion.     Among  the  victims  of  this  tyir 

rant,  it  ought  not  to  be  forgot,  that  the  greater  part  of 

those  men  perished,  who  bad  been  the  means  of  revolui* 

tiianizing  the  people,  and  so  deluding  them  with  the  p^e*- 

tetiees  of  liberty,   that  they  could  calmly  exchange  the 

mild  government  of  a  Louis  XVI.  for  that  of  a  Robespt6rte» 

In  this  retributive  justice  was  glided  by  a  superior  hand>    - 

At  lenn^th  Robespierre  began  to  be  dreaded  even' by  hit 

own  accomplices,  while  the  nation  at  large,  roused  from 

its  infatuation,  looked  eagerly  forward 'to  the  destruction  of 

this  monster.     In  this,  however,  the  nation  at  large  had  no 

•hare.    It  was  the  work  of  his  accomplice^  ;  it  was  still  one 

faction  destroying  another,  and  although  a  second  Robesi- 

pierie  did  not  immediateiy  rise,  the  way  remained  open  to 

one  whose  tyrannical  afmbitioh  was  not  satisfied  with' France 

as  his  victim.     The  iSrst  storm  against  Robespierre  burst  iti 

the  convention  ;  and  after  exercising  its  violence  as  all  pre<i> 

ceding  storms  of  that  kind  bad,  Robespierre  was  arretted 

en  July  9,  1794,  and  next  day  was^Iedco  execution,  amidst 

^  the  execrations  of  the  people.     His  fall,  it  has  be^n  well 

observed,  was  the  triumph  of  fear  rather  than  of  justice  i 

aqd  the  satisfaction  with  which  it  must  be  contemplated, 

was  incomplete,  because  a  few  monsters-  even  worse  than 

himself' were  among  the  foremost  in  sending^  hita  to  the 

icafFotd.     H^s  punishment,  however,  was  as  signal  as  his 

crimes.     His  tinder  jaw  Was  »hatteired  with  a  pistol  shot, 

either  by  himself  in  an  ineffectual  attempt  at  suicide,  or  by 

a  gendarme  in  the  struggle ;  it  was  bottnd  up  with  a  slight 

dressing  as  he  lay  in  the  lobby  of  the  Convention,  he  wished 

io  wipe  away  the  blood  which  filled  hb  mouth,  they  gave 

bim  a  bloody  cloth,  and  as  he  pushed  it  from  him,  they 

•aid  to  him — **  It  is  blood->^it  is  what  thou  likest  !*'    There 

he  lay  oh  one  of  the  benches,  and,  in  his  agony  of  mind 

and   body,    clenched  one  of  his  thighs  through  his  torn 

clothes  with  such  force  that  his  nails  entered  his  own  fleshy 

and  were  rimmed  round  with  blood.     He  was  carried  to 

the  saoie  dungeon  which  Hebert,    and  Chaumette,  and 

Danton,  had  successively  occupied  ;  the  gaoler  knocked 

T  2 

t76  R  o  B  E  s  p  I  E  ft  R  je; 

him  about  without  ceremony^  and  when  he.  made  sigxinicm 
one  of  them  (for  be  could  not  speak)  to  bring  him  pen  and 
ink,  the  man  made  answer — *^Wbat  dost  thou  want  with 
it  ?  is  it  to  write  to  thy  Maker  ?  thou  wilt  see  him  pre^ 
sently  !'*  £[e  was  placed  in  a  ctrt  between  Henriotaad 
Coutbon  ;  the  shops,  and  the  windows,  and  the  house-tops 
were  crowded  with  rejoicing  spectators  to  see  him  passy 
and  as  the  cart  proceeded^  shouts  of  exultation  went;  be- 
fore it,  and  surrounded  it,  and  followed  its  way.  His  head 
was  wrapt  io  a  bl9ody. cloth  which  bound  up  his  shattered 
jaw,  so  that  his  pale  and  livid  cpuntenaoce  was  but  hilf 
s^en.  I'be  horseman  who  escorted  him  shewed  him  to  tb^ 
spectators  with  the  point  of , their  sabres.  The  mob  stopt 
him  before  the  house  in  which  be  lived;  some  women 
flanced  before  the  cart,  and  one  of  them  .cried  out  to  bim^ 
*^  Descend  to  hell  with  the. curses  of  all  wive;s  and  f>i  all  mo^ 
thers  !'*  The  executioner,  when  preparing  for  the  pexform- 
apceof  bis  pfBce,  roughly  tore  off  the  bandage  from,  his 
\yound  ;.  Robespierre  theu  uttered  a  dreadful  cry,  bi^.u/ider 
jaw  fell  from  theupper^.  and  the  h^ad  while  he  waa  yet 
living  exhibited  as  ghastly  a  spectacle  as  when  a  few  mi- 
nutes afterwards  Samp^on^  the  executioneir,  holding  it.  by 
the  hair,  exhibited  it. to  the  multitude/  >.  ' 

In  this  wretched  man's  person,  there  was  little  to  ^e- 
commepd  hiip.  Hi^. figure,  iU-deliueated,  without, i^gu- 
larity,  withput  proportion,  without  grace  19  the  outline,  ^ 
was  something  above  the  ix^iddle.  size.  He  bad  in  bis  bands, 
shoulders,  neck,  and  eyes,  a  convulsive. motipn,  His,pfa|y- 
siog^iomy,  his  look  was  without  expression.  He  carried 
on  hi§  livid  couoteiianqe,  and  on  his  brow,  which,  he  often 
wrinkled,  the  traces  of  a  choleric  disposjtipn*  His  manners 
were  brutal,  bis  gait  was  at  once  abrupt  and  heavy.  The 
harsh  inflections  of  his  voice  struck,  the  ear  disagreeably  ^ 
be  screeched  rather  than  »poke :  a  residence  in  the  capjlai 
had  not  been  able  to  overcome  entirely  the.  harsboes&^f 
his  articulation.  Ifi  the.pronunc^iation  of  many  word^^ms 
provincial  accent,  was  discbverable ;  and  this  deprived  bis 
speech  of  all  melody. 

Some  have  expres^d  their  surprise  that  a  man  to  whpm 
nature  had  thus  been  so  niggardly,  and  whose  mind  owed 
so  little  to  cultivation,  ji^bould  have  acquired  ^uch  an  as- 
cendancy ;  but  a  more  minute  acquaintance  with  the  lead* 
iug  men  in  France  during  bis  time  will  remove  much  of- 
this  surprise*     It   has  b^en  said  that  Nero  was  xxoi  t|it 

R  O  B  E  S  P'  I  E  «  R  E.  277 

worst  man  of  his  court;  and  it  is  certain  that  Robespierre 
was  preceded,  accompanied,  and  followed,  by  men  who 

'  could  have  acted  his  part  with  equal  inclination  and  faci- 

riitjf,  bad  they  been  placed  in  his  circumstances.^ 

ROBINS   (Benjamin),    an   English   mathematician  of 

'  gi-eat  genius  and  eminence,  wa6  born  at  Bath  in  Somer- 

"  set^hire  in  1707.  His  parents,  who  were  quakers,  were 
of  low  condition,  and  consequently  neither  able,  from  their 
fcircumstances,  nor  willing  froih  their  religious  profession, 
to  have  him  much  instructed  in  that  kind  of  learning  which 
ttrey  are  taught  to  despise  as  human.  Yet  lie  made  an 
early  and  surprising  progress  in  various  branches  of  science 
and  literature,  in  the  mathematics  particularly ;  and  his 
friends,  being  desirous  that  he  might  contiifue  his  pur- 
suits, and  that  his  merit  might  not  be  buried  in  obscurity, 
wished  that  he  could  be  properly  recommended  to  teach 
this  science  in  London.     Accordingly,  a  specimen  of  his 

'  abilitiies  was  shewn  to  Dr.  Pfemberton,  of  the 
*<  Viewt)f  Sir  Isaac  Newtdn's  Philosophy;'*  who  conceiv- 

'  ihg  a  good  opiuipn  of  the  writer,'  for  a  farther  trial  of  his 
proficiency,  sent  hini  some  problems,  ivhich  Robins  solved 

'  very  much  to  his  satisfaction.  He  then  came  to  London, 
where  he  confirmed  the  opinion ^which  had  been  formed 
of  his  abilities  and  knowledge. 

-.  fiuf  thoflgh  Robins  was  possessed  of  much  m6re  skill 
than  is  usually  required  in  a  common  teacher,  yet,  being 

'  veiy  yotingy  it  was  thought  proper  that  he  should  employ 
ioiiie  time  in  perusing  the  best  writers  upon  the  sublimer 
parts  of  the  mathematics  before  he  undertook  publicly  the 
in^stroction  of  others.  In  this  interval,  besides  improving^ 
himself  in  the  modern  languages,  he  had  opportunities  of 
i'eading  in  particular  the  works  c^f  Apollonius,  Archimedes, 

:»  Fcrmat,   Huygelis,  DeWitt,  Slusius,  James  Gregory,  Dr. 

•  Barrow,  sir  Isaac  Newton,  Dr.  Taylor,  and  Mr.  Cotes. 
These  authors  he  readily  understood  without  any  assistance, 

'  4f  which  he  gave  frequent  proofs  to  his  friends :  one  was, 
'  ii  demonstration  of  the  last  proposition  of  sir  Isaac  Newton's 
treatise  on  quadratures,  which  was  thought  not  undeserv- 
'  ing  a  place  in  the  "  Philosophical  Transaction s,"  No.  397, 
for  1727.     Not  long  after,  an  opportunity  offered  of  exhi- 
biting to  the  public  a  specimen  also  of  his  knowledge  in 

1  Hutory  of  the  coDSpiraejr  of  Robeipierre,  by  Montjoye.— Biographical 
Anecdot^f  of  the  Founders  of  the  Freoch  Republic— Blogriphie  Moderne.-^ 

*  Quarterly  Review,  >Io.  XIV. 

fll8  ROB  IN  S. 

iuttutal  philosophy.  The  royal  academy  of  sciences  atr 
JParis  bad  proposed,  among  their  prisie-queations  vin  172^ 
and  1726/ to  demoosirate  the  law^  of  motion  in  bodies  im-« 
pinging  on  ooe  another.  John  Bernoulli  here  condescended 
to  be  a  candidate;  and^  though  his  dissertation  lost  the 
reward^  he  appealed  to  the  learned  world  by  printing  it  m 
1727  ;  and^  ia  it,  endeavoured  to  establish  Leibnitz's  opi^ 
Dion  of  the.  force  of  bodies  in  moiion.  from  the  effects  of 
their  striking  against  springing  materials ;  as  signor  Polent 
bad  before  attempted  tQ  evince  the  same  thing  (una  expe4 
riments  of  bodies  falling  on  soft  and  yielding  substances^ 
But  as  the  insufficieucy  of  Poleni^s  arguments  bad  beetl 
demonstrated  in  the  ^^  Philosophical  Transactions^*'  No»  S71^ 
for  1722)  so  Robins  published  in  the.  <*  Present  State  ol 
the  Republic  of  Letters,*'  for  May  172a,  a  confutation  of 
Bernoulli'^  performance,  which  was  allowed  to  be  unan<» 
swerable.  $ 

.  Robins  now  began  to  take  scholars,  and  about  this  time 
quitted  the  garb  and  profession  of  a  quaker ;  but  though  he 
professed  to  teach  the  miktbematics  only,  he  would  fre-^ 
quently  assist  particular  friends  in  other  matters  ;  for,  he 
was  a  mau  of  universal  knowledge  t  andi  the  confinement 
of  his  way  of  life  not  suiting  his  disposition,  which  wias 
aptive,  he  gradually  declined  it,  and  aik>pted  other  pursuits 
that  required  more  eiiercise.  Hence '  he  tried  many  labo* 
rious  experiments  in  gunnery ;  bdieving,  that  the  resist:**^ 
ance  of  the  air  had  a  much  greater  influence  on.  swift  pro« 
jectiles  than  was  generally  supposed.  Hence  he  washed  to 
consider  those  mochauic  arts  that  depended  on  mathema* 
tical  principles,  in  which  he  might  employ  his  inv^otion ; 
as,  the  constructing  of  mills^  the  building  of  bridges,  drains 
ing  of  fens,  rendering  of  rivers  navigable,  and  makiti|^^ 
harbours.  Among  other  arts  of  this  kind^  fortification  very 
much  engaged  bis  attention ;  in  which  he  met  with  bppor« 
tunities  of  perfecting  himself,  by  a  view  of  the  principal 
strong  places  of  Flanders^  in  some  journeys  he  made  abroad 
with  persons  of  distinction. 

On  his  return  home  from  one  of  these  excursions,  he 
found  the  learned  here  amused  with  Dr.  Berkeley's  treatisei 
printed  in  17S4»  entitled  '*  Tbe  Analyst  ;^'  in  which  an  ex^ 
amination  was  ifiade  in  the  grounds  of  tbe  fluxionary  me^ 
thod,  and  occasion  taken  thus  to  explode  that  method. 
Robins  therefore  was  advised  to  clear  op  this  affair,  by  giv- 
ing a  full  and  distinct  accoiiht  of  sir  IsalU^  Newton's  dac* 

,%  O  B  J  N  Si  f» 

tiioes  in  wch  a  nmnoera^  to  obviate  jtU  the  otj^ctionsy 
witbotili^t  naming  tbeoiy  wbicb  had  been  advanced  by  the 
aotbor  Qf  *^  The  Analyst;''  an^  accordingly  ,he  publitbed^ 
in  n^^f  **  A  .DiscQurae  concerning  the  ^Qature'fkqd  cer- 
tainty of  sir  Isaac  Newton'js  niiethod  of  FluKiop9^  and  of 
prianeand  ttUimate  raiio$."  Spm^  even  of  those  whoba4 
wmten  against  ^^Tbe  Anal^at,"  taking  exception -at  SLo^ 
bios's  manner  of  defending  »ir  I^as^c  NevrtonV  doctrine,  be 
afterM»rda  iwrote  two  or  three  additional  fdispoitrseSf  In 
1738)  be  defended  air  IsaaqNeviiton  against  an  objcsctioo^ 
contained  >in  a.  note  at  the  end  of  a  Latin  piece,  called 
$f.Miktbo,.slveC}psaii0tbearia  puerilis/'  written  by  Ba^ter^ 
author  of  the  .*'  Inquiry  into  the  Ns^tQre  of  the  huQianSoiil;;** 
and,  the  year  after,  printed  *'  Reiki^ks*'  Of)  £uler's  ^*  Treai^ 
lise  6f  Motion,'*^  on  •Smith's  '/  Systeo  of  Optics,!'  and  on 
Junn7a  ''^  Discoiurse  of  disunot  and  indistinct  Vision,"  ,ao^ 
aexed  to  Dr.  Sinitb*s  work«  In  the  mean  time  Robins'a 
perforaianoes  were  not  confipedto  luatheinaticai  (subjects : 
fioHT,  in  1339>y  there  came  out  throe  pamphlets  upon  politi«r 
oiA  affairs^  wbicb.did  him  .gf^ai>honour.  The  first  was  en^ 
lilied  ^ S  Observations »  on  the  present  Convention  with 
Bpain;"  the  second,  ^^A  Nanative  of  what  passed  in  the 
Gomsion  Hall  of  the  citiaens  of  London,  assembled  for  the 
dection  of  a  lord  mayor ;"  the  tbird^^^'  An  Addi^ess  tp  the 
fileetors  and other^free subjects. ofijrreat  Britaim  occasion^ 
ed  by  the  late  Succession;  jnwbiqh  is  contained. a  parti* 
oiriar  account  of;  all  our  negoMationa  with  Sp^iio,  and  their 
tneataoent  ofi  us  for  above  rten  y^ars  past''  These  were.aU 
pRihlishal  witboet  iiis  name ;  .and  tbet  first  and  last  were  m 
universaUy  esieemed,  that  they  were:g»eoeraUy  reputed  toi 
have  been  tbe.production  of^Mr.  Pujteney,  who  was  at  the 
head  JdE  the  opposition  to  sir  Robert  Walpole*  They  proven 
fd  of  ^aM0b'«onse<|iienoe' to  }Afr»  Jlobins  as  to  occasio|i,hia 
bftifigi  employed  in  i^  vesyihoaiourabl^post;  for,  the  pppo* 
tttiou  having,  defeated  siriiBohert,  iai^d  a. committee  of  the 
iiouse  of  Qommoos  heioK  appointed  to  .e^^amine  into  bia 
past  conduct,  Robins,  waa^  chorea*  their,  seciretary.  But 
alter  a  committee  : had. :piiBS^n4ed  two  reports  of  thetir  pro- 
ceedings a^sudden  %top  wasiput  .to  their  iarther  progress, 
fay  ai  compromise  jbefiweenthi^  contending  parties. 
t.l4i.i?4S,;,.lm9re,  be -published  a  soiaU 
treatise,* entitled  '*  Now  Principiies  gf  Gunnery  ;"  ppntain*. 
iog'the  result  of,  maoyiexi^eriaiMeots  he  had  made,  by  which 
are  discovered  the  ferae;  of  .guorfiowderf.  and  the  diiferenct 

««0  R  6  B  f  K  S. 

in  the  resisting  power  of  the  air  to  swift  and  slow  motion # 
This  treatise  was  preceded  by  an  account  of  the  progrtes 
wbieh  modern  fortification  had  made  from  its  first  rise;  aa 
also  of  the  invention  of  gun-powder,  and  of  what  bad 
already  been  performed  in  the  theory  of  gunnery.  U{A>a 
h  discourse  concerning  certain  experiments  being  pdbKsbed 
in  the  ^'  Philosophical  Transactions/*  in  order  to  invalidate 
some  opinions  of  Robins,  he  thought  proper,  iti  aa  liceottafc 
life  gave  of  his  book  in  the  same  Tmnsacttons,  to  take  wo^ 
tice  of  those  experiments:  and,  in  consequence  of  this,  se» 
veral  dissertations  of  bis  on  the  resistance  of  the  air  were 
read,  and  the  experiments  exhibited  before  the  Royal  So- 
ciety, in  1746  and  1747 ;  for  which  he  was  presented  whb 
a  gold  medal  by  that  society.       .  ,  r: 

'  In  1748,  came  out  lord  Anson's*'^ Voyage  round  the 
World ;''  which,  though  it  <3arries  Walter^s  name'  in^  the 
title-page,  was  in  reality  written  by  Robins.  Of  this  voyj^e 
fbe  public  had,  for  some  time,  been  in  expectation  of  see- 
ing an  account,  composed  under  his  lordship's  own  'inspec- 
tion :  for  which  purpose  the  rev.  Richard  Waker  was  em- 
ployed, as  having  been  chaplain  to  the  Centurion  the 
greatest  part  of  the  expedition.  Walter  had  *  accordingly 
almost  finished  his  task,  having  brought  it  down  to  his  own 
departure  from  Macao  for  England  ;  when  be  proposed  to 
print  bis  work  by  subscription.  It  was  thought  proper^ 
however,  that  an  able  judge  should  first  review  and  correct 
it,  and  Robins  was  appointed ;  when,  upon  examination,  it 
was  resolved,  that  the  whole  should  be  written  entirely  by 
Robins,  and  th^it  what  Waiter  had  done,  being  almost  all 
taken  verbatim  from  the  journals,  should  serve  as  materials 
only.  Hence  the  introduction  entire,  and  many  disserta- 
tions in  the  bc^y  of  the  book,  were  composed  by  Robitts, 
without  receiving  the  least  hint  fii'om  Walter's  manuscript ; 
and  what  he  had  thence  transcribed  regarded  chiefly  die 
wind  and  the  weather,  the  currents,  cowsesy  bearings,. dis- 
tances, offings,  soundings,  moorings,  the  qualities  of  the 
ground  they  anchored  on,  and  such  particulars  as  generally 
fill  up  a  saUor's  account.  No  production  of  this  kind  ever 
aiet  with  a  more  iavourable  reception,  four  Uirge  impres- 
sions being  sold  off  within  a  twelvemonth :  it  has  been 
translated  into  most  of  the  European  languages;  and  it  still 
supports  its  reputation,  having  been  repeatedly  refmnted 
in  various  sizes.  The  fif^h  editton  at  London  in  1749  was 
revised  and  corrected  by  RoUns  himself  . 

R  O  B  I  N  a  2«i 

* '  Be  w^  ne^  requested  to  compose  an  apdi^y  for  the 
r  uafortuii^te  affair  at  Preston  Panii  in  Scotland.    This  was 
,  prefixed  as  a  preface  to  **  The  Report  of  the  Prpceedings 
and.  Opinion  of  tbe  Board  :of  General  Officers  on  their 
efcamination  intQ  tbe  conduct  of  Lieut^pant-general  sir 
:  John  Cope»  &c.^'  printed  at  London  in  1749  ;  and  this  pre- 
face was  esteemed  a  master*piece  in  its  kind.     Afterwards, 
Robins  bad,  by  tbe  favour  of  lord  Anson,  opportunities  of 
flaking  farther  experiments  in  gunnery ;  which  have  been 
<   published  since  his  death.     He  also  not  a  little  contributed 
%o  the  improvements   made   in  tbe  royal  observatory  at 
preenwich,  by  procuring  for  it,  through  the  interest  of  the 
/  same  noble  person,  a  second  mural  quadrant  and  other  in- 
struments, by  which  it  became  perhaps  the  completest  ob- 
tervatory  then*  known.     His  reputation  being  now  arrived 
at  its  full  height,  he  was  offered  the  cbqjce  of  two  very  con- 
siderable employments*     Tbe  first  was  to  go  to  Paris,  as 
.  Qi^e  of  the  commissaries  for  adjusting  the  limits  in  Acadia ;  * 
>be  other,  to  be  engineer-general  to  the  East  India  Com- 
pany,   whose  focis,    being  in  a  roost  ruinous   cDr\dition, 
ivanted  a  capable  person  to  put  them  into  a  posture  of  de- 
fence.    This  latter  he  accepted,,  as  it  was  suitable  to  his 
.genius,  and  as  the  Company's  terms  were  both  ad  van  ta- 
,  geous  and  honourable.     He  designed,  if  he  had  .remained 
,  jn  England,  to  have  written  a  second  part  of  the  ^^  Voyage 
;  round  the  World  ;^*  as  appears  by  a  letter  from  lord  An- 
son to  hiqi,  dated  ^<  Bath,  October  22,  1749 :'' 

"Dear  Sir, 
.  ^f  Whep  I  last  saw,  you  in  town,  I  forgot  to  ask  you,  whe- 
'  ibejr  you  intended  to  publish  the  second  volume  of  my 
'  Voyage^  before  you  leave  us ;;  which,  I  confess,  I  am  very 
sorry  for.  If  you  should  have  la,id  aside  all  thoughts  of 
favouring  the  world  with  more  of  your  works,  it  will  be 
much  disa.ppointed,  and  no  one  in  it  more  than  your  very- 
much  obliged  humble  servant,  Anson/' 

.Robins  was  also . preparing  an  enlarged  edition  of  his 
.  f*  New.Principlesof  Qunnery  ;'\but,  having  provided  him- 
self with  a  complete  set  of  astronomical  and  other  instru- 
Dients,  for  making  observations  and  experiments,  in  the  lu^ 
'dies,  be. departed  hence  at  Christmas  in  1749;  and,  after 
a  voyage  in  which  tbe  ship  was  near  being  cast  away,  ar-  ^ 
rived  at  the  Indies,  July  13,  1750.  There  lie  immediately 
set  about  bis  proper  business  with  unwiearied  diligence,  arid 
formed  complete  plans  for  Fort  St.  David  and  Madras :  but 

a8»  ft  O  B  {  N  S^ 


he  lived  not  to*  put  tfaetn  into  exteation.  For^  the  gf^eat 
difierence  of  tfae  climate  being  beyond  hi»  constiliitiofl  ^ 
support,  be  was  attacked  by  a  fever  in  September ;  dndf 
though  be  recovered  out  of  this,  yet  about  eight  mootlw 
after  he  fell  into  a  languishing  condition,  in  which  he  con^ 
tinned  till  his  death,  July  29,  1751.  By  his  last  will, '^e 
left  the  publishing  of  his  mathematical  works  to  his  ho^ 
soured  and  intitoate  friend  Martin  Folkes,  esq.  president 
ef  the  Royal  Society,  and  to  James  Wilson,  M.  D.  doetor 
of  physic  ;  but,  the  former  of  these  gentlemen  being  inca^ 
pacitated  by  a  paralytic  disorder  for  some  time  before*  bit 
death,  they  were  afterwards  published  by  the  latter,  1761^ 
2  Tols.  6vo.  To  this  collection,  which  contains  his  mathe-' 
matical  and  philosophical  pieces  only.  Dr.  Wilson  ha9  pre<t^ 
fixed  an  account  of  Mr.  Robins,  from  which  this  memoir  is 
chiefly  extracted,  fie  added  also  a  large  appendix  at  the 
end  of  the  second  volume,  containing  a  great  many  carious 
and  critical  matters  in  various  interesting  parts  of  tfae  ma« 

It  is  but  justice  to  say  that  Mr.  Robins  was  one  ef  th^ 
most  accurate  and  elegant  mathematical  writers  that  our 
language  can  boast  of ;  and  that  he  made  more  realim* 
provements  in  artillery,  the  flight  and  the  resistance  ofpro^ 
jectiles,  than  all  the  preceding  writers  on  that  subject. 
His  <'  New  Principles  of  Gunnery^'  were  translatcid  inter 
several  other  languages,  and  commented  upon  by  several 
eminent  writers.  'Thex;elebrated  Euler  translated  the  worfe 
into  the  German  language,  accompanied  with  a  large,  and 
critical  commentary;  acKl  thi»  work  of  Euler's  was  agtiin 
translated  into  English  in  1784;  by  Mr.  Hugh  Brown^  witk 
notes,  in  one  volume,  4to. ' 

ROBINS,  or  Robyns  (John),  an  English  mathematician^ 
was  born  in  Staffordshire  about  the  close  of  tfae  IBth  eeii<j 
tury,  as  be  was  entered  a  student  at  Oxford  in  iSlSj  anil 
was  in  1620  elected  a  fellow  of  AH  Souls  college,  where 
he  took  his  degrees  in  arts,  and  was' ordained.  '  But  the 
bent  of  his  genius  lay  to  the  sciences,  and  he  soon  made 
Such  a  progress,  says  Wood,  in  ^^the  pleasant  studies  of 
mathematics  and  astrology,  that  he  became  tfae  ablest  per^ 
son  in  his  time  for  those  studies,  not  excepted  his  friend 
Record,  whose  learning  was  more  general.     At  length,* 

')  til*  by  Dr.  WiliieD.*-«»Bipf.  Brit. .  JSkipplAiMiit.-rltoliB's^  Bi<^  Pb'itot^-^ 
HuttoH's  Dictionarj. 

B  O  B  I  K  S.  ^& 

tftkiitg'thb  degree  of  B.  p/in  15SI,  he  waathe  yearfoHo^-* 
isg^made  by  king  Henry  tbe  V^IIlb:  (to  whom  be  was  chap-^ 
lain)  <one  of  the  caaonsofhia  college  in*  Oxon,  and  in  De<L 
fiember  1543,  canoit  of  Windsor,  and  in'fine  chaplain  to 
queen  Marff  who  had  him  ingiseatyenei^ation  for  his  learn-^ 
iHg.  Among  teveral  things  that  he  hath  written  re)atit>g  to 
aatrology  (or  astronomy)  I  find  these  following:  * De  cuU 
mnaiidne  Fixarum  Stellarnm/  &c.;  ^  De  ortu  et  occasu 
SneUarum  Fhcarum/  &c.;.  '  Annotationes  Ascrologicee/ 
ke.  lib.  3  ;'  ^  Annotationes  Edwardo  VI.  ;^  ^  Tractatu^  • 
de  pro^nosticatioiie  per  EcUpsin.'  All  which  books,  that 
ate  in  MS.  were  some  time  in  the  choice  library  of  Mr. 
Thomas  Allen  of  Olocester  Hal).  After  his  death,  coming 
into  the  hands  of  Sir  Kenelm  Digby,  they  were  by  hiol 
given  to  the  Bodleian  library,  where  they  yet  remain.  It 
is  also  «aid,  that  be  the  said  Robyns  hathwritten  a  book 
entitled  ^  De  Portentosis  Gometis ;'  but  liu'cb  a  thing  f 
baTO  not  yet:  seen,  nor  do  I  know  any  thing  else  of  the  an- 
tboi^,  only  that  paying  bis  last  debt  to  nature  the  25th  of 
Ajugust  i558f  hewas'buHed  in  tlie  chapel  of  St.  George, 
at  Windsore.*'  This  treatise  "  De  Portentosis  Cometis," 
which  Wood  had  not  seen,  is  in  the  royal  library  (12  B.  xv.) ; 
aadinihe  British,  museum  (Ayscough^sCat.)  are  other  works 
by  fiobina;  and  one  ^^  De  sterilitatem  generantibus,''  in 
the  Asbmoieatt  museum. '  « 

ROBINSON  (Akastasia),  an  accomplished  musical  per-^ 
former,  descended  from  a  good  iamily  in  Leicestershire, 
was  the  daughter  <of  a  portrait  painter,  who,  having  risited 
haiy  foir  improvement  in  his  art,  had  made  himself  mastei" 
ef. the  Italian  lai^uage,  and  acquired  a  good  taste  in  mu- 
sic. Finding  that  his  daughter  Anastasia,  during  her  child-* 
hood,  tiadain<ear  for  music,  and  a  promising  voice,  he  had 
her  taught  by  ^  Dr.  Crofts,  at  first  as  an  accomplishment ; 
bat  afterwards  i being  afflicted  with  a  disorder  in  his  eyes,' 
which  terminated  in  a  total  loss  of  sight,  and  this  misfor«* 
tntm  deprivmg^  him  of  the  means  of  supporting  himself  and- 
iuiiily  by  hils' pencil,  he  was  under  the  necessity  of  availing 
fcknselftof  his^aughter^s  disposition  for  music,  to  turu  it  to 
acoonnt  as  a. profession.  She  not  only  prosecuted  her  mu-^ 
aical  studies. with  great  diligence^  but  by  the  assistaince  of 
i^r  fether:  bad  acquired  such  a  knowledge  in  the  Italtan 
tongtie  as  enabled  her  to  converse  in  that  language,  and 

>  Ath»  Ox.  vol.  h  aew  edlt^ 


to  read  the  best  poets  in  it  with,  facility.  And  t^t'Ukf 
taste  in  singing  might  approach  nearer  to  that  of  the  natives 
of  Italy, 'she  had  vocal  instructions  from  Sandonr,  at  that 
time  an  eminent  Italian  singing-master  resident  in  London^ 
and  likewfse  from  the  opera  singer  called  the' Baroness. 

Her  first  public  exhibition  was  at  the  concerts  in  York- 
buildings,  .and  at  other  places,  where  she  usually  accom- 
panied herself  on  the  harpsichord.  Her  general  education 
bad  been  pursued  with  the  utmost  care  and  attention  to  the 
>  improvement  of  her  mind,  as  well  as  to  ornamental  and  ex- 
ternal accomplishments ;  and  these  advantages,  seconded 
by  her  own  disposition  and  amiable  qualities,  rendered  her 
conduct  strictly  prudent  and  irreproachable.  And  what 
still  entitled  her  to  general  favour,  was  a  behaviour  full  of 
timidity  and  respect  to  her  superiors,  and  an  undissembled 
gentleness  and  affability  to  others,  which,  with  a  native 
cheerfulness  that  diffused  itself  to  all  aroudd  her,  gainefd 
her  at  all  times  such  a  reception  from  the  public,  as  seemed 
to  ensure  her  success  in  whatever  she  should  undertake. 
Encouraged  by  the  partiality  of  the  public  towards  his 
daughter,  and  particularly  by  the  countenance  and  pa- 
tronage of  some  persons  of  high  rank  of  her  own  sex,  Mr. 
Robinson  took  a  house  in  Golden-square,  where  he  esta- 
bhshed  weekly  concerts  and  assemblies  in  the  manner  of 
conversazioni^  which  were  frequented  by  all  such  as  had  any 
pretensions  to  politeness  and  good  taste. 

Thus  qualified  and  encouraged,  she  was  prevailed  upon 
to  accept  of  an  engagement  at  the  Opera,  where  she  made 
her  first  appearance  in  Creso,  and  her  second  in  the  cha- 
racter of  Ismina,  the  principal  female  part  in  Armitiio* 
From  this  period  till  1724,  she  continued  to  perform  a 
principal  part  at  the  Opera  with  increasing  favour  and  ap- 
pfanse.  Her  salary  is  said  to  have  been  1000/.  and  h^r 
emoluments,  by  benefits  and  presents,  were  estimated  at 
nearly  as  much  more.  When  she  quitted  the  stage  it  was 
supposed  to  have  been  in  consequence  of  her  marriage  with 
the  gallant  earl  of  Peterborough,  the  friend  of  Pope  and 
Swift,  who  distinguished  himself  so  heroically  in  Spaih 
during  the  reign  of  queen  Anne.  Though  the  marriagle 
was  not  publicly  declared  till  the  earPs  death  in  1735,  yet 
it  was  then  spoken  of  as  an  event  which  had  long  taken 
place.  And  such  was  the  purity  of  her  conduct  and  cha- 
racter, that  she  was  instantly  visited  at  Fulham  as  the  lady 
of  the  mansion^  by  persons  of  the  highest  rank.    Here, 

HOB  IN  S  ON;  2«* 

jind  at  Mount  B^vis,  the  earl's  seat  near  Sputbampton,  she 
resided  in  an  exalted  station  till  the  year  of  her  decease^ 
1750,  surviving  her  lord  fift«en  years;  who,  at  the  tiinie 
of  the  connexion,  must  have  been  considerably  beyond 
bis  primey  as  he  was  arrived  at  his  seventy-fifth  year  when 
be  died. 

The  following  anecdotes  of  Mrs.  Anastasia  Robinson  wera 
communicated  to  Dr.  Burney  in  1787,  by  the  late  vene- 
rable Mrs.  Delany,  her  contemporary  and  intimate  ac- 
quaintance. '^  Mrs.  Anastasia  Robinson  was  of  a  middling 
stature,  not  handsome,  but  of  a  pleasing,  modest  coun- 
tenance, with  large  blue  eyes.  Her  deportment  was  easy^ 
unaffected,  and  graceful.  Her  manner  and  address:  very 
engaging;  and  her  behaviour,  on  all  occasions,' that  of  a 
gentlewoman,  with  perfect  propriety.  She  was  not  onlj 
liked  by  all  her  acquaintance,  but  loved  and  caressed  by 
persona  of  the  highest  rank,  with  whom  she  appeared  al- 
ways equal,  without  assuming.  Her  father'3  house  ia 
Golden-square  was  frequented  by  all  the  men  of  geniu» 
and  refined  taste  of  the  times ;  among  the  number  of  per- 
sons of  distinction  who  frequented  Mr.  Robinson^s  bouse» 
aud  seemed  to  distinguish  his  daughter  in  a  particular  man^p 

ner,  were  the  earl  of  Peterborough  and  general  H j  the 

latter  had  shewn  a  long  attachment  to  her,  and  his  atten*^ 
,  tions  were  so  remarkable,  that  they  seemed  more  than  the^ 
efiiects  of  common   politeniess;    and  as  he  was  a  very 
agreeable  man,  and  in   good   circumstances,  he  was  fa- 
vourably received,  not  doubting  but  that  his  intentions 
\  were  honourable.     A  declaration  of  a  very  contrary  nature 
was  treated  with  the  contempt  it  deserved,  though  Mrs.  A. 
;  Robinson  was  very  much  prepossessed  in  his  favour. 

^^  Soon  after  this,  lord  Peterborough  endeavoured  to  con- 
vince her  of  his  partial  regard  for  her;  but,  agreeable  tod 
artful  as  be  was,  she  remained  very  much  upon  her  guard, 
.which  rather  increased  than  diminished  bis  admiration  and 
passion  for  her.  Yet  still  his  pride  struggled  with  his  in- 
.dihatioo  ;  for  all  this  time  she  was  engaged  to  sing  in  pub- 
lic, ia  circumstance  very  grievous  to  her,  but  urged  by  tba 
.  best  of  motives,  she  submitted  to  it,  in  order  to  assist  her 
parents,  who^e  fortune  was  much  reduced  by  Mr.  Robin-* 
son^s  loss  of  sight,  which  dicfprired  him  of  the  benefit  of  hii 
profession  as  a  painter. 

'^  At  length  lord  Peterborough  made  his  d^claraticm  to 
^erph  honourable  terms;  he  found  it  would  be  vain  tooiakf 

4TO  R  O  B  I  N  8  O  W. 

ptoposalson  any  other  ;*  and  as  be  omitted  ho  cirdi&istanGe, 
^bat  could  engage  her  esteem  and  gratitnde,  she  accepted 
thenif  as  sbe^vras  sincerely  attached  to  him.  He  earnestly 
irequeUed  her  keeping  it  a  secret  till  itvrasa  more  conve^ 
fiiont  time  for  him  to  make  it  known,  to  which:  she  readily 
consented,  having  a  perfect  confidence  in  his  honour;. 
Among  th^  persons  of  distihctioiithat  professed  a  frien<^- 
afaip  for  Mrs.' A.  Robinson,  were  the  ear)  and  countess  of 
Oxford)  daugbter-in^lavr  to  the  iord-treasurer  Oxford,  Who 
iiot  only  bore  every  publie  testimony  of  their  affection  and 
esteem  fot"  Mrs.  A.  Robinaon,  but  Jady  Oxford  attended  her 
when  she  was  privately  married  to  the  earl  b(  Peterborough^ 
and  lady  Peterborough  erv0r  acknowledged  her  jobligations 
irilh  die  warmest  gratitude;  and  after  bidy  Oxford^s  death 
.the  was  particularly  distingaished  by  the  dachess  of  Port* 
landi  lady  Oxford^s  daughter,  and  was  always  mentioned! 
by  her  with  the  greatest'  kindness  ^r  the  many  friendiy 
offices  ahe  used  to  do  her  in  ber  childhood  when  in  lady 
Oxfoid*s  family^  whioh  tnade  a  la^tin^g  impression-npt^n  the: 
4uchess  of  Portta^dV  nobte  and  generoiM  beartj 

<*  Mr^4.A«ftobin$on  had  one  aister^  a  very  pretty  accomv 
pliflbed  woman^  who  married  Dr.  Arbuthnot's  broiixer.  Af4 
lev  the  death  of  Mr.  Robinson,  lord  Peterborough/  tocde  a 
^ome  near  Fulbam,  in  the  neigbbourbood  of  ftis  own  vilia 
at  Parson'ft* Green,  where  be  settled  Mrs.  Robinson  and. 
ber  fnotben  They  never  lived  nnder  the  same*  rdof  till  the 
earl>  being  seized  with  a  violent'fit  of  illness,  solicited  heir 
10  attend  him  at  Mount  Bevis,  near  Soothampton,  which 
ahe  reftisedrwkb'  firmnessi,  <  but  npoii  condition  tbat,  though 
ftiU  denied  to  take  bis  name,  sbe/migfat  be  permitted  to 
wear  her  weddiiig<'ving ;  to  wUch,* finding  her  loie^ot^ble, ' 
be^  at  lengdi  consented. 

.  :f^  Hiahftoghty  (Spirit  was  still  reluctant  to  the  making  n 
dedbiratioki  that  wootd  have  dune  justice  to  00  worthy  a 
character  as  tbe^'t^tei^soh  to  whom  be  was  now  utiited  ;  and, 
indeed^  bis  uncontrollableitemper,  and  high  opinioa  of  Ms 
pwn -actions,'  made  hisfi  a  very  awful  husband,  ill  suited  to 
lady  Peterborough's  good  sense,  amiable  temper,  and  de^ 
licite  sentiments.  She  was  a  Roman  catholic,  but.  never 
gave  oSence  to  those  of  a  contrary  opinion^  though  very 
•tri^t  in  what  she  thought  herdiity.  Her  exceHent'  prin* 
ciples  and  fortitude  of  mind  support;ed  her  through  many 
severe  trials  in  her  conjugal  state.  Bat  at  last  he  prevailed 
#11  himself  to  do  her  justice,  instigated^  it  is  supposed^  b/ 


BU  bad  ftat^  x>i  health, .  whi^h  objliged  bim  (o  seek  aooiber 
climate,  and  she  al^solutel^  refused  to  go  with  him  unless 
he  declared  his  marriage;,  her  atte^idanceupon  bim  in  im 
illne39  nearly  co^t  her  her  life* 

*y  He  appointed  a  day  for  all  bis  nearest  relations  to  mee( 
him  at  the  aparrment  over  the  gate-way  of  St.  James's 
paUi?e,  belonging  to  Mr.  PoiotZi  who  was  married  ta 
lord  Pet^bpro^gh's  nieqe^  .ai^d  at  that  time,  preceptpr  Xo 
prii^ce  \VJlliam,  a/terwards  duke  of  Cumberland.  l>ord 
P^tejrbofough  also  appointed  lady  Peterborough  to  be  there 
at  the  siame  time*  When.they  were  a}l  assembled,  be  began 
a  most  eloquent  oration^  enuioerating  all  the  virtues  and 
perfections  of  Mrs.  A.  Biobinson,'  and  the  rectitude  of  hev 
cpnduct^during  his  long  acquaintance  with  heri  for  wbicb 
be  acknowledged  his  great  obligations  and  sincere  attache 
men^,  declaring  he  ^asdctermined  to  do  her  that  justice 
which  he  ought  to  liave  done  long  ago,  which  was  preseojU 
ing  her  to  all  his  family  as  bis  wife.  He.  spoke  this  ba<« 
rangue  with  so  much  enexgyv  aiid^  ia  paits  so  pathetically^/ 
that  lady  Peterbovough^.oot  being  apprised  of  hisinten* 
tionsy  was  so  affected  tba^  she  faulted  aivay  in  the  midst  oC 
.Ibe.  company. 

**  After  lord  Pe^rbprougb'sileatb she  lireda  vesy  relire4 
life,  chiefly  at  Mpunt  Bevjs,  and  was  seldom,  prewailed  qu 
to  leave  that  habitasioa,  biu  by  the  duchesa  of  Pordaad* 
who:  was  alwsays  happy  to  have  her  company  at  Bul^lrodft 
whea  she  pould  oj^tatp  it,  and  often  yisiteid  ber  at  ber  man 

<^  Among  lord. Petdvborongh's  papera  she  foiind  his  iiie«> 
moirsj  written  by  himself,  iu  wbic^  be  declared  he  had  beeu 
guilty  of  such  aqtions  as  would  have  reflected  very  mi^ph 
upon  his  character.  For  which  reason  she  burnt  them  i  tbi^^ 
howe.ver,  contributed  to  complete  tbe  excel^enoy  of  her 
principles,  thpugh  it  did  not  fail  giving  offence  .to  the  cu* 
rioiM  inquirers  after  anecdotes  of  S9  re^iarkable  a  cbaraqter 
as  that  of  tbe  earl  of  Peterborough.''  ^ 

ROBINSON  (Huoa),  a  learned  divine  and  schoolmaster^ 
was  born  in  St.  Mary's  par.ish,  in  the  county  of  Angleseap 
andeducated  at  Winchester  ^bool,  where  he  was  admitted 
probationary  fellow  of  New  college»  O)cford|  in  160%9  and 
in  1605  perpetual  fellow.  He  completed  bis  master's.  de«^ 
gree  in  161 1,  and  about  thcee  years  afbart  leaving  colleg;e,. 

}  Barney '«  Hi^t.  of  Mu»ie.-«»Pope^  Works,  bf  Btwl^t. 

tSS  E  O  B  IN  1^0  19. 

became  <:bief  master  of  Winchester  school. '  He  was  ftft«rM 
wards  archdeacon  of  Winchester,  canon  of  Wells,  D.!}-* 
and  archdeacpn  of  Gloucester.  Having  sided  with  the 
party  that  were  reducing  the  cbureb  to  the  presbyterian 
form,  and  taken  the  covenant,  be  lost  the  advantages  of 'his 
canonry  and  archdeaconry,  but  obtained  the  rector^  of  Hin<^ 
ton,  near  Winchester,  in  room  of  a  loyalist.  He  diedMareb 
30,  1655^  and  was  buried  in  St.  GilesVin^^tbe* Fields,  Lon*- 
don.  Wood  gives  htm  the  character  of  an  excellent  linguist^,' 
an  able  divine,  and  very  conversant  in  ancient  faistoi*y.  Her 
wrote  for  the  use  of  Winchester  school,  *«  Preces;  GraYn-^ 
maticalis  qusedam;  &  Anti^fi®  Historio  Synopsis,''  prints 
ed  together  at  Oxford  in  1616,  8vo ;  •'*  Scholte  Wintonien* 
sis  Phrases  Latinee,*'  Lond.  1654  and  1664,  published  by  hik 
aoH  Nicholas;  and  '^Annalium  mundi  universalium,  &c« 
Tomus  Unicus,  lib.  14.  absolutus/'  &c.Lond.  1677,  fol.  im-^ 

frqved  by  Dr.  Thonas  Piairce,  dean  of  Salisbury,  by  tbd 
jng's  command.     Wood  adds,  that  he  wrote  a  vindication 
cf  the  covenant,  which  he  had  not  seen.* 

ROBINSON* (John),  a  distinguished  English  prelate aniL 
•talesmai),  was  bprn  at  Cleasby,  in  Yortcahire,  Nov.  7,  1650, 
and  educated  at  Oriel  college,  Oxford,  to  which  he  Was 
afterwards  a  liberal  benefactor.    After  he  had  completed 
bis  notaster^s^egree,  and  taken^  orders,  hewent  about  16SSf 
to  Sweden,  as  domestic  chaplain  to  the  British  ambaissador' 
at  that  court ;  and  in  his  absence  was  appbinted  first  fest^. 
dent,   then  envoy  extraordinary,  •  arid  lastly  ambassador. 
He  remained  in  this  rank  until  1708.     During  this  timefatf 
published  his  '^  Account  of  Sweden,  as  it  was  in  t6Sft/*' 
tvhich  is  generally  printed  with  4erd  Moiesworth^s  aeeoutHl 
of  Denmark.  On  his  return  to  England,  her  majesty,  qu^eff 
Anne,  was  so  sensible  of  the  value  of  bis  services^  that  ^ her 
toade  him  dean  of  Windsor,  registrar  of  the  ordei"  of-  th^is 
garter,  and  prebendary  of  Canterbury.     He  was  also  'in 
1710  preferred  to  the  bishopric  of  Bristol.     His  political 
knowledge  recommerided  bitn  to  the  confidence  of  the  earl 
of  Oxford,  then  at  the  head  of  administration,  who  resolved 
to  have  him  ofthe  t>rivy  council.     For  this  p4)rpose,  be  vvas 
first  made  lord  privy  seal,  and  afterwards  was  admitted  to  a* 
seat  at  the  council  board,  where  he  so  distinguished  him- 
self that  queen^  Anne  made  choice  of  him  as  one  of  her  pie*-- 
Ntpotentiaries  at  the  memorable  treaty  of  Utrecht.     Witk 

1  AUi.  Ok.  vol.  II.  *      ' 

B  O  B  I  N  a  O  N.  489 

wtot  spirit  be  behaved  on  this  occasioiiy  appears  from  the 
common  histories  of  the  treaty ^  and  Swift's  **  Four  last  ^^eara 
of  the  Queen."  He  was  also  appointed  one  of  the  com-* 
inissioners  for  finishing  St.  Paul's  (cathedral,  and  for  bQild«> 
ing  fifty  new  cbttrches  in  London  ;*  was  a  governor  of  the 
Charter- house,  and  dean  o(  the*  cbapel  royal.  On  the 
death  of  Dr.  Compton  in  1714^  he  was  translated  to  the  see 
of  London,  and  the  queen,  indeed,  had  such  regard  for' 
bim,  that  had  she  .outlived  the  archbishop  of  Canterbury^ 
she  would  have  made  Dr.  Robinaon  primate. 
,  After  his  advancement  to  the  see  of  London,  he  gave 
nany  proofs  of  his  great  affection  for  the  established  churchy' 
by  opposing  innovations,  contribuiiug  to,  and  promotihj^ 
the  augmentation  of  poor  livings;  and  by  vindicating  hi» 
dergy  against  unjust  asper&ions.  His  steady  attachment 
to.  the  civil  constitution  was  not  less  conspicuous,  in  hia 
charges  to  his  clergy,  and  his  personal  example  and  coiw 
duct.  As  a  benefactor,  he  was  distinguished  by  many  acta 
of  munificence.  Every  place,  indeed,  with  which  he  wai 
connected^  felt  ibe  benefit  of  his  public  spirit;  the  plac^ 
of  his  birth,  in  the  'building  and  endowment  of  a  chapet 
SHud  a  school ;  Oriel  college,  in  the  addition!  of  buildings'' 
towards  the  east  side  of  the  garden,  and  the  foundation  of 
some  ample  exhibitions ;  the  ecclesiastical  houses  in  which 
he  refided  were  generally  repaired  by  him  at  great  ex^ 
pence;  and  to  the  poor  in  general  he  was  very  generous.  • 
Machay  has  described  this  worthy  prelate  as  '<  a  little 
brown  man ;  of  a  grave  and  venerable  countenance ;  very 
charitable. and  good^humovred*;  strictly  religious  himself, 
and  taking  what  care  he  c^n  tamake  others  so.''  .  He  died 
at  Hampsteadi  of  an  asthmatic  disorder,  April  11,  1723^ 
and  was  buried  at  Ful ham,  April  19.  He  was  twice  mar- 
ried ;  his  first  wife,  Maria,  was  daughter  of  William  Lang- 
ton,:  esq.  Her  liberal  mind  is  delicately  commemorated 
on  the  inscription  on  the  front  of  bis  buildings  at  Oriel 
OPfUege*     His  second  wife,  Emma,  whose  family  name  we 

^  It  was  on  this  prelate  (hat  the  other  bookselier««  aud  that  he  would 

ni>tl>rioa»  Ednhuiid'Cartl  cndeaToored  send  his  lordship  an  interleaved  cdpy 

tft  pbiy'A  triickY  which  has  beenr  attri*  from  which  he  might  strike  oat  what^ 

buted  to.and  perhaps  really  attemjHed  e^er  he  thouj^ht  amissy  and  the  th^eXM 

by  others.     The  good  bishop  sent   a  thus  Altered  should  be  reprinted,  and 

^MemAtk  to  Cortl  to  express  his  oon-  "  rendered  oooformable   to  bis'  U^d^ 

c^m  at  hearing  that  he  meant  to  pab-  ahip^s  opinion.*'  The  bishop,  iiowever, 

lish  an  edition  of  Rochester's  poems,  saw  through  the  trick,  aad  rejaieted  the 

Corll  allowed  that  such  an  edition  was  protferrCMl  copy. 
actually  printed,  not  for  him  oolyi  but 

Vol.  XXVI.  U 


know  not|  sumved  bim,  and  was  buried  at  Folbam,  Jaii* 
36,  1T48.  He  left  no  issoe,  but  many  collateral  descend* 

-  ROBINSON  (Maru),  a  ladjr  of  consvderable  literary 
talents^  wbose  maiden  name  was  Darby,  was  bom  at  Bris- 
tol,' Not.  27,  1758.  Her  life  having  been,  published,  io 
pai^  written  by  herself)  and  completed  by  a  friend^  it  may- 
be tbdught  we  cannot  be  deficient  in  materiala  fur  the  pre- 
sent article*  But  these  documents  partake  too  much  of 
the  nature  of  a  novel  for  our  purpose.  Mrs.  R<ri>insoR  waa 
a/mt/'iady  of  much  note  in  her  day,  and  for  such  it  has 
been  tbe  fashion  of  late  years  to  encourage  the  publication 
of  *^  Apologies,''  tbe  object  of  all  which,  for  they  are  very 
uniform,  is  to  relax  the- obligations  of  virtue,  and  to  prove 
that  vice,  with  its  attendants,  vanity  and  esttravagaoce^ 
has  nothing  to  dread  but  from  poverty.  It  is  then  oaiyy 
when  all  is  spent,  and  indigence  stares  in  the  face,  that  wer 
are  to  begin  to  think  that  something  has  been  amiss,  and  to 
pour  out  our  exculpatory  sympathies  in  sentimental  stFaios./ 
From  such  narratives,  it  becooies  4)s  to  borrow  with  cautions 
Mrs.  Robinson  was  married  very  early:  in  life  to  a  bus-^ 
band  who  had  little  to  maintain  her,  and  for  some  time  she 
shaped  in  his  misfortunes,  but,  according  to  her  own  ac«^ 
county  she  spent  what  she  could  in  dress,  resorted  muofaK 
to  public  places,  >and  admitted  the  visits  of  nohlemeo  of 
libertine  charaetera.  At  length  she  had  recourse  to  dief 
stage,  and  while  performing  the  character  of  Perdita  in* 
Shakspeare^a  *^  Winter's  Tale,"  captivated  the  you^bfiil. 
afiections  of  a  distinguished  personage,  aod  consented  ta. 
his  terms.  This  connexion,  with  all  its  gay  and  splendiii 
embellishinents,  and  all  the  flattery  and  admiration  wbtok 
beatity  and  levity  oould  wish,  lasted  about  two  years,  at  the. 
end  of  which  period  she  found  >  herself  inr  possession  of- 
jewels  to  :the  amount  of  8000/.  and  an  annuity  of  500/.' 
After  a  short  recess  from  a  mode  of  life,  into  which  hep 
apologists  tell  usahe  was  driven  by  necessity,  she  formed 
another  coiinexion  of  the  same  kind,  which  they  allow  was 
from  choice,  with  a  gentleman  of  the  armfy,  and  lavished 
thox whole  of  her  dis{K>sable  property  on  this  new  favourite*' 
She  also  lost  the  use  of  her  limbs  in  following  him,  during 
a  severe  winter  night,-  to  a  sea^port,  where  she  hasted  to 

'  Nidiolf *8  Atterbury. — Lysons's  Environs,  vol.  II. — and  Supplement. — CbaU 
mers'g  Bi8t.  of  Oxford — ^bVifi't  Workt.— Burnetts  Own  Tunes.— Gent.  Mag.  toL' 
LIV.  and  iXXII. 


tdiev^'bim  firoih  a  tern  pom  vj  etnb«rMisBineiitl  Not  kmg 
Bftery  she  went  to  tbet^ontinentfor  her  health,  aod  remain* 
ed  there  about  five  years.  On  her  return  in -1788,  she 
e^mmenced  her -literary  career,  in  whrcfasbe  bad  consider- 
able sijccess*  IiT  1 800  her  healtb  begair  fea  decline  rapidly, 
l^incipaUy  fron*  want  of  propec  exercise,  for  khe  never  re- 
covered the  use  of  her  Kntbs ;  andafter  lingering  for  some 
trine;  sfaediedat  Englefield  Gtreen,  Dec/ 28,'  of  that  year, 
and  was'bnriedrin  Old  Windsor  xburch-yaird.  Sbe  retained 
in  ber  latter  days,  although  only  forty-two  years  old,  but 
little  of  that  beauty  for  which  sbe  was  once  admired,  aiid 
vdiicb,  friom-ffbe  ttiditient  aprice  was  set^ upon  it,  proved 
the  t^aose.  of  all  her  misfortunes. 

The  following  is  said  to  be  a  complete  list  of  her  publi- 
cations: 1.  "Poems,'*  in  twovolun^es,  8vo,  iJ.  "  Legiti- 
ipate  Sonnets,  with  Thoughts  on  .Poetical  Subjects,  and 
Anecdotes  of  the  Grecian  Poetess;  Sappho.''  iJ.  **  A  Mo- 
nody to  the  memory  of  the  Queen  of  France."  4.  "  A 
Monody  to  the  memory  of  Sir  Joshua  Reynolds."  5.  Mo* 
dern  Manners ;  a  Satire,  in  two  cantos,"*  4to;  6.  "The 
Sicih'an  Lover,  a- Tragedy,  in  fire  acts."  7.  "  Sight;  The 
Gavern  of  Woev  and  SoKtude;  three  Poems,"  4to.  8/ 
A  Pamphlet  in  vindication  of  the  Queen  of  France.;  pub« 
liabed  without  a  name.  i9.  A  Pam^phlet  entitled  ^'Thought^i 
on  the-  condition  of  Women,  and  the  Injustice  of  Mental 
Subordination.''  10.  ^  Vancensa^  a  Romance,"  2  vols. 
1  K  ^  The  Widow,"  a  Novel,  2  vols.  12.  "  Angelina,"  a 
Novd,  3  vols.  13.  «  Hubert  de  Sevrac,"  a  Romance,  3 
vols.  14.  "  Wateingbaro,'?  a  Novel,  4  vols*  15.  "The 
false  Friend,"  a  Novel,  4  vols.  .  16.  "  The  Natural  Daugh- 
ter^'?  a  Novel,  2^s.  17;  "  Lyrical  Tale«,"  1  vol.  crown 
Bw^,  IS:  **  A  Picture  of  Palermo,  translatfed  from  Dr* 
Hager;"  1^.  "The  Lucky  Escarpe,"  a  farce,  not  pub- 
lidbed.     20.  **  Nobody,"  a  comedy,  aW  not  published. 

Ofall'tbese^  it tis  probable  tbsM;  her  poems  will  longest 
continue  to  be  read»  ■■  She  bad  in  her  earliest  oflForts  of  this' 
Und  adopted  th6  false  style  of  the  Delia  Grosca  school,  so 
happily  ridiculed  by  the  author  of  the  **  Bavtad'?  and  "  Mob- 
viad,"  bdt  her  late  :prod actions  displayed  a  mOre  correct 
tiaisie,  anrd^more  ease  and  elegance  of  versification,  with 
equal, -hcliness  of  imagination.  Her  *<  Plays"  had  but 
tfemporary  success ;  and  her:^*  Novels/?  although  not  desti- 
tute of  inventipn,  were  written  with  too.  much  haste  fof 
lasting  reputation.     She  appears  to  have  been  frequently 

u  2 

i92  R  d  B  I  N  S  O  R 

importuned  by  her  employers  to  furnish  the  circulating  \u 
braries  with  novelties,  when  her  powers  both  of  *bocly  anS' 
mind  were  considerably  in^pairedy  y^t  she  laboured  with 
greiait  perseverance,  and  is  said  to  have  earned  by  her  lite* 
rary  performances  nearly  the  amount  of  her  ajinuity.^ 

ROBINSON  (Richard),   archbishop  df  Armagh^  and 
lord  Rokeby,  was  the  immediate  descendsint  of  the  Robin- 
sons of  Rokeby,  in  the  north  riding  of  the  comity  of  York^ 
and  was  born  in  1709.     He  was  educated  at  Westminst^« 
school,  whence  be  was  elected  to  Christ  chuixh,  Oxford,  in 
1726.     Afier  continuing  his  studies  therefor  some  years, 
and  taking  his  master^s  degree  in  173S,  Dr.  Blackburn^ 
archbishop  of  York,  appointed  him  his  chaplain,  and  cot- 
,  lated  him  first  to  the  rectory  of  Elton,  in  the  east  riditigof 
Yorkshire,  and  neict  to  the  prebend  of  Grindal,  in  the  ca.- 
thedral  of  York.     In  175 1  he  attended  the  duke  of  Dorset, 
lord  lieutenant  of  Irellind,''  to  that   kingdom,  as  his  first 
chaplain,  and  the  same  year  was  promoted  to  the  bishopric 
of  Killala.  A  family  connexion  with  the  earl  of  Hoidernesse, 
who  was  secretary  of  state  that  year,  with  the  earl  of  Sand- 
wich and  other  noblemen  related  to  him,  opened  the  fair- 
est prospects  of  attaining  to  the  first  dignity  in  the  IHsb 
church.     Accordingly,  in  1759,  he  was  translated   to  the 
isnited  sees  of  Leignlin  and  Ferns,  and  in  1761  to  Kildare. 
The  duke  of  Northumberland  being  appointed  to  the  Ireo- 
tenancy  of  Ireland  in  17j55,  JDr.  Robinson  was  advanced  to 
the  primacy  of  Armagh,  and  made  lord  almoner  and  vice- 
chancellor  of  the  university  of  Dublin.     When  lotd'^Haf-. 
court  was  lord-lieutenant  of  Ireland  in  1777,  the  king  was 
pleased,  by  privy-seal  at  St.  Jameses,  Feb.  6,  and  by  patent 
at  Dublin  the  26th  of  the  same  months  to  create  htm  bafon 
Rokeby  of  Armagh,  with  remainder  to  Matthew  Robinson 
of  West  Layton,  esq.  and  in  1783  he  was  appointed  predate 
to  the  order  of  St.  Patrick.     On  the  death  of  the  duke  oC 
Rutland,  lord-lieutenant  of  Ireland,  in  1787,  he  was  no- 
minated onQ  of  the  lords  justices  of  that  kitigdom.     Sir 
William  Robinson,  his  brother,  dyiiig  in  1785,  the  primate 
iucceeded  to  the  title  of  baronet,  and  was  the  survivor  in 
the  direct  male  line  of  the  Robinsons  of  Rokeby,  being  tiie 
eighth  in  descent  from  William  of  Kendal.    His  grace  died 
at  Clifton,  near  Bristol,  in  the  end  of  October,  1794. 

No  primate  ever  sat  in  the  see  of  Armagh,  who  watched; 


.t.«  Mtmoirs  of  Mn*  Robiason^  written  by  berielf,'*  dec  13Q1>  4  wUu.  ISmo.. 

R  O  E  I  N  S  O  N.  293 

More  carf  fully  over  the  legal  rights  of  the  church  of  Ireland, 
as  the  statute*book  evinces.  The  act  of  the  1  ith  and  l^ih 
of  bis  present,  majesty,  which  secures  to  bishops  and  eccle- 
siastical persons  repayinenc  by  their  successors  of  expendi- 
tures in  purchasing  glebes  and  bouses,  or  building  new 
liouses,  originated  from  him,  and  must  ever  endear  his 
Dame  to.  the  clergy*  The  other  acts  for  repairitig  clxurches^ 
and  facilitating  the  recovery  of  ecclesiastical  dues^  were 
.among  the  mauy  happy  exertions  of  this  primate. 

But  it  was  at  Armagh,  the  ancient  seat  of  the  primacy, 
that  he  displayed  a  princely  munificence.     A  very  elegant 
palace^  90  feet  by  60,  and  40  high,  adorns  that  town ;  it  is 
Ijlgbt  and  pleasing,  without  the  additioa  of  wings  or  lesser 
parts ;  which  too  frequentl}%  wanting  a  sufficient  uniformity 
with  the  body  of  the  ediGce,  are  unconnected  with  it  ia 
.effect,  and  divide  the  attention.     Large  and  ample  offices 
are  conveniently; placed  behind  a  plantation  at  a  small  dis- 
tance.    Around  the  palace  is  a  large  lawn,  which  spreads 
on  every  side  over  the  hills,  skirted  by  young  plantations, 
in  one  of  which  is  a  terrace,  which  commands  a  most  beau- 
tiful view  of  cultivated  hill  and  dale.     This  view  from  the 
jpalace  is  much  improved  by  the  barracks,  the  school,  and 
^  new  church  at  a  distance ;  all  which  are  so  placed  as  to  be 
e.xceediiigly  ornamental  to  the  whole  country.     The  bar- 
,)facks  were  er^ected  hnder  the  prioiate^s  direction,  and  form 
^^j^rge  and  handsome  edifice.     The  school  is  a  building  of 
fco^siderable  extent,  and  admirably  adapted  for  the  pur- 
^ppse ;  a  more  beautiful,  or  one  better  contrived,  is  no  wt^ere 
;tQbeseen;  there  are  apartments  for  a  master;  a  school- 
TQom  56  feet  by  2d,  a  large  dining-room  and  spacious  airy 
^dormitories,  with  every  other  necessary,  and  a  spacious 
,  play-ground,  walled  in;  the  whole  forming  a  handsome 
from:  and  attention  being  paid  to  the  residence  of  the 
master  (tl^e  salary  is  400/.  a  year)  the  school  flourishes,  and 
must  prove  one  pf  the  greatest  advantages  to  the  country. 
.This  edifice  was  built  entirely  at  the  primtfte^s  expence. 
The  church  is  erected  of  white  stone,  and  having  a  tall 
^pire,  makes  a  very  agreeable  object,  in  a  country  where 
churches  and  spires  do  not  abound.     The  primate  built 
three  other  churches,  and  made  considerable  reparations 
>  in  the  cathedral :  he  was  also  the  means  of  erecting  a  pub- 
lic infirmary,  contributing  amply  to  it  himself.     He  like- 
wise coitstructed  a  public  library  at  his  own  cost,  endowed 
it^  and  gave  it  a  large  collection  of  books.    The  room  is 


45  feet  by  2 5/ and  20  high,  with  a  gallery;  atid  apariments 
for  the  librarian.  7'he  town  iie  ornamented  with  a  market-* 
bouse  and  shambles,  and  was  the  direct  means,  by  giving 
leases  upon  that  condition,  of  almost  new  building  the  whole 
place.  He  found  it  a  nest  of  mud-CiibinS(  and  he  left  it  a 
well-built  city  of  stone  and  slate.  Nor  was  he  forgetful  of 
the  place  of  his  education.  On  the  new  gate,  built  bv 
Wyat,  for  Christ-church,  Oxford,  the  primate  is  comme** 
morated  as  one  of  the  principal  contributors  to  the  eXpenca 
of  building  that  gate- and  repairing  Canterbury  quadrangle. 
In  these  noble  and  spirited  works,  the  primate  expended 
upwards  of  30,000/,  The  celebrated  Mrs.  Montagu  \Vas 
cousin  to  this  prelate;  and  her  brother,  the  late  eccentrio 
lord  Rokeby,  bis  successor  in  that  title^  on  which,  however^ 
be  set  no  value.'  *  •      '    ;  ' 

ROBJNS^ON  (Robert),  a  dissenting  divine,  of  the  Bap^^ 
list  persuastoiiy  was  born  in  October  1735,  at  Swaflliam,  in 
the  county  of  Norfolk,  and  was  son  of  Mr.  Michael  Iiobiu-> 
sop,  a  native  of  North  Britain,  who  possessed  a  moderate 
independence.  He  wa3  sent  to  a  Latin  school  at  SwafFham^ 
at  the  age  of  six  years,  vyhere  he  made  a  considerable  pro« 
ficiency,  and  discovered  tn  Uncommon  capacity  for  learn# 
ing,  and  afterwards  to  an  endowed  grammar-school  at 
Scarning,  where  be  gained  some  knowledge  of  the  French^ 
as  well  as  of  the  cla^ical  Idnguages.  Ail  this,  however^ 
ended  in  his  being  put  apprentice  to  a  hair-dresser,  in 
Crutched-Friars,  London.  For  this  occupation  his  mind 
was,  as  may  be  supposed,  already  unfitted  by  the  taste  foif 
learning  which  hh  education  had  given  him,  and  \^i>ich  he 
still  endeavoured  to  improve  during  some  part  of  the  hours 
devoted  to  sleep.  During  his  apprenticeship  he  appears 
to  have  imbibed  serious  impressions  of  religion,  whi^h  b^ 
encouraged,  by  attending  the  most  celebrated  preachers  of 
the  day  among  the  independents,  the  baptists,  and  the 
Calvinistic  clergy.  Dr.  Guyse  and  Gill  among  the  dUsen^ 
ters,  Romaine  in  the  church,  and  Whitfidd,  the  leader  of 
the  Calvinistical  methodists,  were  his  chief  favourit^k; 

When  about  the  age  of  twenty,  his  indentures  were  given 
up,  at  his  own  request,  as  he  had  a  strong  desire  to  become 
a  preacher.  His  first  sermon  was  delivered  to  a  ismall  con* 
gregation  at  Mildenhall,  in  Suffolk,  and  he  afterwards  con* 
tinued  to  preach  among  the  methodists,  at  various  places^ 

)  Eooydopgiclis  Sritsaniqat 


ibr  about  two  years,  when  being'  Ofisuccessrul  in  forming  k 
.church  among  them,  be  left  them,  and  formed  a  small  in^ 
xlependeiit  congregation  at  Norwich,  on  leaving  which,  he 
»lso  gave  up  infant  baptism^    lii  1759,  he  became  preadh^ 
^o  a  congregation  of  baptists  at  Cambridge,  and  such  wato  . 
his  popularity  here,  that  bis  hearers,  daily  increasing,  were 
jeqaUed  to  build  a  new  and  commodious  meeting,  in  1774* 
here  he  was  frequently  interrupted  by  the  impertinent  visins 
of  some  under-graduatQs,  against  whom  be  was  finally  com^ 
pelled  to  appeal  to  the  laws  of  bis  country,  which  secured 
<the  future  tranquillity  of  the  assembly.    This  seeolsi  to  hto 
the  period  of  his  life  most  happy  and  faultless^    He  had  not 
as  y^t  publicly  engaged  in  abstruse  theological  difi^putatiotifT; 
bQ  vigilantly  performed  the  duties  of  his  pastoral  office*; 
and,  if  some  of  the  younger  students  of  the  university^  in 
ibe  gaiety  of  youthful  intemperance,  had  insulted  him,  be 
was  amply  repaid  for  it  by  the.  friendship  and  protection  of 
many  of  its  most  worthy  and  learned  metnbers  ;•  for^  he 
embraced  erery  opportunity  which  that  university  afforded  * 
of  making  amends  for  a  defective  education,  and  pursued' 
a  course  of  reading  extensive  and  varied.  ^  The ^piibHc  li- 
braries were  not  only  open  to  biro,  but  he  was  allowed  tb*e 
plrivilege  of  having  books  from  them  at  his  own  habitation*.  . 
.  In  17713,  as  his  salary  was  inadequate  to  provide  fot  his 
numerous  family  (be  married  in   1759),  he  removed  to  - 
Chesterton,  near  Cambridge,  and  commenced  farmer,  to 
which,,  in  tinrie,  be  added  the  businefss  of  ^'dealer  in -corn 
and  jcoals.     These  occupations,  however,'  did  not  intefrupt 
bis  literary  pursuits,  nor  do  they  appear  to  have  been  very 
profitable.     He  was  first  known  ad  an  author  by  publishing, 
in  1774,  "  Arcana,"  a  pamphlet  respecting  the  petition  tb 
parliament  for  relief  in  matters  of  subscription  ;  and  the  fol- 
lowing year,  an  appendix  to  Alleyne's  *'  Legal  Degrees  of 
Marriage.**     It  consists  of  a  discussion  of  the  question,  *'  Is 
it  lawful  and  right  for  a  man  to  marry  the  sister  of  his  de- 
ceased wife?"  in  which  he  maintained  the  affiriihative.     In 
the  same  year  he  published  a  volume  of  "  Sermons,^  trans- 
lated from  the  French  of  Saurin,  which  was  followed,  at 
different  periods,   by  four  others.     Introductory  to  these 
volumes  are  prefatory  dissertations,  containing  memoirs  of 
the. reformation  in  France,  and  the  life  of  Saurin,  together 
with  reflections  on  deism,  Christian  liberty^  &c.  -^    » 

In  the  year  1776,  during  the  controversy  respecting  the 
divinity  of  Christ,  which  had  been  carried  on  principalfy 



196  R  O  BINS  QN. 

jby  ojiemberii  of  the  church  of  England,  Mr.  Robinson  pdbk 
lisbed  **  A  Plea,  for  the.  Divinity  of  our  Lord  Jesus  Cbriat^ 
&c.'V    This  piece  is  written  with  much  ingenuity,  and  it 
procured  the  author. a  number. of  handsome  complicnents^ 
not  only  from,  dissenting  ministers,  but  ^so  from  sevexai 
dignitaries  of  the  established  church.  .  Among  the  lattee 
were  Dr.  HinchlifTe,  bisbop  of  Peterborough,  Dr.  HaiUfax^ 
afterwards  bishop  of  Gloucester,  Dr.,Beadon,  afterwarda 
bishop  of  Bath  and  Wells,  and  Dr.  Tucker,  dean  of  Giou* 
ceater.     Some  years  after,   Mr.   Lindsey  published,    first 
without,  but  afterwards  with  his  name,  ^^  An  Examination 
of  Mr.  Robinson's  Plea  for  the  pivinity  of  Christ  ;'l  to 
•which  Mr.  Robinson,  although  frequently  called  upon,  de^ 
dined  to  reply. .  To  his  friends  he  ss^id,  '^  The  anonymous 
examiner  has  not  touchj^d  loy  arguments^  aod  his  spirit;  is 
•  bitter  and  contemptuous.     His  faith  stands  on  criticisms^ 
and  my  argument  is,  that,  if  :the  doctrine  requires  critical 
prqof,  it  is  not  popular,  and  therefore  not  divine.">    Thil 
silence,  however,,  occasioned  some  suspicion  .that  be  was 
not  very  sincere,  which  his  conduct  aftexwards  confirmed; 
In  1777,  Mr.  Robinson  pqbiisi^ed  a  small  trat^t,  eutitled 
/*  The  History  and. Mystery  p^f  Qood  Friday,"  in  which  he 
employed  the  same   ^^  bitter. and  contemptunus  spjritv^/ 
which  be  had  just  complained  pf,  in  ridiculing  tb^a  i:iOiiiiii«'-* 
iDoration  of  the  death  of  our  Saviour.   In  1778,  MiT.  Robin* 
son  published  ^^  A  Plan,  of  Lectures  on  the. Principles-  of 
Nonconformity,  for  the  instruction  of  Catechumens.!*  This 
piece  contains  an  outline,  of  the  whole  controveray  of  the 
•dissepters  with  the  church  of  England,  and  of  their  bisteuc):, 
,from  the  period   of  the   reforfiiation,  to    1778,  which  of 
course  appeared  highly,  satisfactory,  to  his  brethren,     Toi^ 
wards  the  close  of  the  same  year,  be  published  ^^  An  Essay 
on  the  Composition^of  a  Sermoji,  t^ranslat^d  from  the  ori« 
ginal  French  of  the,  rev.  John.  Claude,  with  Notes,"  in  i 
vols,  8vo, .  The  preface:  to  the  first  volume  of  ihe/^Eway'' 
consists  of  nxemuirs  of  the  life  of  the  author.         *  i 

In  1780^  i^r:  Robinson  paid  a  visU  to.  the  university  of 
Oxford,,  apd  afte;rwards  accompanied  some  friends  on  II 
toiir  into  Scotland,  whc^re  he  was  much, gratified  by  civi> 
lilies  shewn  him  by  soq[ie  of  the  literati  of  Edinburgh^  and 
he  might  have  received  the  diploma  of  .doctor  of  divinity, 
had  he  not  thought,  proper  to  decline,  that  compliment. 
Soon  after  his  ret.urn  to  Cambridge,  he.  published  a  iittle 
tract  well  calculated  to  produce  a  Catholic  spirit  among 

K  O  B  I  N  S  O  N.  1J97 

hik  beeifaren  of  the  Baptist  denomination,  et^tuled  '<  The 
General  Dodtrine  of  Toleration,  applied  to  the  particaiar 
Case  of  Free  Communion,*'  It  was  about  this  period  he' 
preached  and  published  a  sermon,  entitled  *^  Slavery  in-' 
eonaiatent  with  the  Spirit  of  Christianity,**  and  he  was  the 
aotbor  of  atv  excellent  petition  from  tbe  gentry,  clergy; 
fve^holders,  and  other  inhabitants  in  the  county  of  Cam^ 
bridge,  which  was  presented  to  the  House  of  Commons. 
In  the  year  1781,  at  the  desire  of  his  brethren,  he  began 
ilo  collect  materials  for  the  History  of  the  English  Baptists. 
Ift  his  researches  he  was  led  to  enter  on  a  larger  field  than 
5¥hat  bad  been  originally  proposed  to  him,  and,  instead  of 
confining  himself  to  the  history  of  English  Baptists,  he 
Mra^t  induced  to  trace  the  history  of  baptism  from  the 
i»trliest  use  of  that  rite,  as  well  as  that  of  Bap^sts  in  all 

f  In  tbe  y«ar  17»2,  Mr.  Robinson  published  **  A*  Politicgd 
Catechism,*'  intended  to  convey,  in  a  familiar  manner, 
.what  be  conceived  to  be  just  ideas  of 'good  civil  govern- 
Jbent,  and  the  British  constitution.  In  1786,  he  published 
tf^Siirteen  Discourses  on  several  Texts  6f  Scripttlre,  ad- 
dheeased  to  Christian  Assemblies,  in  vilUges  near  Cam- 
bridge; to  which  are  added,  Six  Morning  Eicercises/* 
Siich  of  these  as  touch  on  docjtrinal  subjects  \^ere  writteh 
in  a  manner  which  gave  bis  friefids  reason  to  thin£  that  he 
(was  now  beginning  to  depart  from  the  principles  he  had 
hitherto  held  so  strenuously  ;  and  they  were  not  mistaken. 
With  his  congregation  at  Cambridge,  however,  he  still 
continued  hi$  ministerial  labours;  and  remained  high  in 
their  esteem,  although,  as  a  public  instructor,  he  must, 
among  so  many  changes,  have  become  either  useless  oir 

.^  During  the  latter  years  of  his  life  the  intense  application 
he  had  bestowed  on  his  work  on  Baptism  undermined  the 
strength  of  his  constitution,  and  brought  on  a  gradual  de* 
cay,  attended  with  a  great  depression  of  spirits.  In  these 
eircunistaoces,  it  was  hoped  by  bis  family  that  a  journey 
to  Birmingham,  and  an  interview  with  Dr.  Priestley,  which 
he  had  long  wished  for,  might  prove  beneficial  to  bim. 
Jiaving  arrived  at  that  town,  he  ventured  to.  preach  twice 
on  the  same  Sunday,  for  the  benefit  of  the  charity  schools. 
.His  friends  peroeiVed  that  he  was  ill,  but  none  of  them  sus* 
pected  his  end  was  so  near ;  he  spent  the  evening  of  the 
/following  Tuesday  in  tbe  cheerful  society  of  his  friends. 


but  next  nHoriiing,  Jun^  3,  l%90j  be  was  f6iindtk»d  ih  liiii 
bed.  Some  tioie  before  ^bis  be  bad  became  a  complete 
convert  to  ttie  doctrines  of  the  htodern  Socinians ;  acban|{4 
whicb  they  seem  willing  to  attribute  to  tbe  writings  of  tit\ 
Priestley.  This  diviiie,  we  are  told,  charmt^d  as  he  was 
with  Mr«  Robinson^s  conversation,  confessed  himself  much 
disappointed  with  bis  preachings  and  characterized  it  in 
these  words:  '^  His  discourse  was  unconnected  arid  desuU 
lory  :  and  bis  manner  of  treating  the  Trinity  savoured  ra^ 
ther  of  burlesque  than  serious  reasoning.  He  attacked 
orthodoxy  more  pointedly  aad  sarcastically  tbaa  ever  I  did 
in  my  life.!'  Few  of  our  readers  will  require  any  other 
character  of  Mr.  Robinson's  attacks,  on  those  prificiplep 
which  he  once  held  sacred.  His  largest  work,  *'The  His^ 
tory  of  Baptism/'  &c»  appeared  after  bis  death  in  a  quarts 
voIume>  with  another  connected  with  the  subject,  but  evh 
titled,  <<  Ecclesiastical  Researches  •;"  both  written  with 
considerable  ability,  but  less  finished  than  if  he  had  lived 
to  prepare  them  Tor  tbe  press.  The  latter,  in  .parttculaf^ 
exhibits  striking  proofs  of  his  rooted* inveteracy  tolheestab^ 
lished  church,  as  well  as  of  his  glaring  inconsistency*  .H^ 
appears,  indeed,  in  none  of  bis  works,  as  a  man  who  hiUl 
attained  that  truth,  or  those  positions,  which. he  soiiigbt  to 
establish  ;  what  was  wanting  in  argument  he  aimed  to  sup** 
ply  by  a  kind  of  buffoonery  peculiar  to  himself ;  and  yetj; 
ivhiie  thus  versatile  and  unsteady  in  all  his  opinions,  no  mail 
was  more  intolerant  towards  t:l)ose  who  rested  in. tbe  belief 
of  what  they  had  been  taught,  and  were  desirous  to  pro^ 
pp.gate,  *  .  .  .   -  • 

ROBINSON  (Ti^NCR£D),  a  learned  physioian  and  bo<K 
tanist,  and  physician  in  ordinary  to  George  K  by  whom  he 
was  knighted,  was  the  very  intimate  friend  of  the  celebrated 
Ray,  who  distinguishes  htm  by  the  title  of  amicorum  alpha^. 
Of  his  early  history  we  have  not  been  able  to  recoveir 
many  particulars^  He  was  nearly  of  an  age,  and  ran  his  course 
for  some  time  with  sir  Hans  Sloane,  with  whom,  when  a 
student,  be  travelled  to  France,  He  was  educated  at  St^^ 
John's  college,  Cambridge,  where  he  took  his  degree  uf 
bachelor  of  medicine  in  1679,  and  that  of  doctor  iu  1:685, 
While  at  Montpellier  he  wrote  a  letter  to  Dr.  Martin  Lif- 
ter, dated  Aug.  4,  1 683,  concerning,  the  fabric  of  the  ie^ 
markable  bridge,  called.  Pont  de  S«  E^sprit,  on  the  Rbine^ 

*  Dyer's  Li£p  of  Robinsooj  1796,  Svo. 



Whieb  was  printed  in  the  Pbilosopbical  Transactions  for 
June  1684;  and,  after  his  return  in  that  year,  he  was 
elected  a  fellow  of  the  Rojal  Society.  To  this  learned 
body  he  made  various  comuiunications,  particularly  an  ac-^ 
count  of  the  first  four  volumes  of  the  ^*  tfortus  Matabari« 
cus  f  on  the  natural  sublimation  of  sulphur  from  the  pyrites 
end  limestone  at  ^tna,  &c.;  an  account  of  Henry  Jen-^ 
kins^  who  lived  169  years;  and  on  other  topics  of  natural 
history.  The  printed  correspondence  between  him  and 
itay  commenced  during  Dr.  Robin^n's  travels,  before  men^ 
ttonedy  and  was  continued  for  upwards  of  ten  years.  Se« 
Tenteen  of  his  letters  appear  in  the  ^^  Philosophical  Cor- 
respondence/* with  all  Mr.  Ray*s  answers.  They  run  much 
cm  the  subject  of  Zoology ;  but  contain  also  botanical  and 
philosophical  observations.  These,  and  what  be  communi<v 
cated  to  the  *^  Philosophical  Transactions/*  prove  him  to 
liave  been  a  man  well  acquainted  with  various  parts  of 
learning :  to  which  he  added  also  an  intimate  knowledge  of 
natural  history.  In  this  branch  Bf^y  bad  the  hii^hest  opinioa 
of  him',  and  placed  the  greatest  con'fidence  in  his  assist 
tance.  He  had  a  seat  in  the  council  of  the  Royal  Society 
for  many  years.     He  died  March  29,  1748.  * 

ROBINSON  (Thomas),  a  late  eminent  divine  at  Leii> 
cester,  the  son  of  James  Robinson,  hosier  of  Wakefield  iA 
Yorkshire,  was  born  Aug.  29,  1749.  He  was  educated  at 
the  grammar-school  of  his  native  place,  where  he  mad^ 
aucU  proficiency  that  his  masters  earnestly  solicited  hi% 
father  to  permit  him  to  cqn tin ue  a  l^rned  education,  in- 
stead of  putting  him  to  business,  which  was  his  originafl 
intention ;  and  when  it  was  determined  to  send  him  to  the 
ttniversity,  the  governors  of  the  school  unanimously 
agreed  to  allow  him  a  double  exhibition.  With  this  pro- 
vision he  was  admitted  a  sizar  of  Trinity  college,  Cam- 
bridge, in  Oct.  1768.  Various  circnthstances,  for  which 
we«iay  refer  the  reader  to  an  elabor?^te  life  of  him  lately 
published,  contributed  to  give  his  mind  more  serious  im- 
pressions than  are  usual  at  his  period  of  life,  and  his  wholb 
behaviour  as  a  student  became  exemplary.  He  scrnptr- 
lously  obsei'ved  all  the  attendances  which  were  required  of 
him,  and  quickly  obtained  the  reputation  of  having  made 
much  proficiency  as  a  scholar.  His  religious  character 
too^   though  not  yet  formed  to  that  degree  of  strifctne^s 

^  Bio|;.  ]9/it.  art.  Sloane.— Pulteney's  Sketches. 

fO#  ftOBIXSON. 

whtfh  it  Mftefw»h  attained^  vm  M  \eaut  to  fsa  advanced 
m  w  fvade  h»  loMUy  caovcr^atian^  and  a«wed  cyaiom 
wiMy  difff:fettt  from  tbute  at  u»e  ggeater  pan  «f  his  ooo* 

In  bit  acadeflMcai  pmnmu,  be  appean  to  bate  divided 
bf»  Mttmiim  betireen  clue  clMiea  aod  matbeaaocay  relier* 
ing  both  occaMOfiallj  bj  tbe  penual  of  treaciset  ia  divinigry 
ii»  irbu;ii  be  gai^e  ibe  ptefetence  to  tboie  of  tbe  CalrioiMc 
](»i>d.  In  April  1771  be  was  elected  a  sdiolar  of  Trioitj* 
eolieget  after  a  strict  ao4  cooprebeosive  examination.  Ip 
Dec^mhet  of  tbe  sapie  year  be  obtained  tbe  second  <tf  Dn 
Booper^s  prizes  for  tbe  best  Eoglisb  declamatioo.  He 
gained  greait  credit  from  bis  matbemgiiral  disputations  in 
$b^  schools^  tbe  year  previous  tp  bis  first  d^;ree.  What  is 
not  irery  common  eireti  with  tbe  more  advanced  matbemati- 
cal  proficients,  be  always  made  bis  own  arguments,  when 
be  kept  an  opponency,  and  these  were  in  general  skilful, 
ai(  well  (IS  ably  defended*  In  one  of  those  disputations, 
be  invented  an  argument  against  tbe  doctrine  of  prime  and 
ttliiinate  ratios,  a«  taught  by  one  of  our  ablest  matbemati- 
ciaiiK^  Mbich,  it  is  >aid,  has  never  yet  been  satisfactorily 
aiifti^crcil*  litrieed,  be  was  particularly  calculated  to  excel 
jn  rhis  speciei  of  exercise;  as  possessing  a  remarkable  de- 
gree of  acuteiiess,  solidity,  and  self-possession,  together 
with  a  fair  i»bare  of  niatheniatical  knowledge.  He  w^ 
well  acquainted  with  natural  philosophy,  though  but  littje 
with  aimlytics. 

Accordingly  he  was  ranked  high  from  the  school^,  being 
p1aci*d  in  the  first  class;  so  as  to  be  a  competitor  with 
those  who  were  far  his  superiors  in  depth  of  reading.  He 
stood  sitventh  in  the  senate-bouse  examination  ;  which  was 
considered  a  high  degree  at  tliat  time,  for  one  who  had 
not  enjoyed  the  advantage  of  a  private  tutor.  Dr.  Toqir 
line,  the  present  bishop  of  Lincoln,,  the  senior  ^rangier .of 
the  year,  with  whom  be  was  engaged  in  this  honourable 
competition  for  academical  distinction,  is  well,  known,  to 
have  expressed  a  high  respect  for  Mr.  Robinson^s  charac- 
ter, and  lor  his  attainments  as  a  scholar.  Mr.  Robinspn  at 
this  time  used  to  say  tjmt  he  never  .expected  to  cope  with 
hii  lordship  and  with  his  other  competitors,  who  were 
placed  bolbre  him,  in  algebra  and  fluxions^  what  he  knew 
,  was  chiefly  in  philosophy.  Locke's  *^  Essay,*'  and  Butler's 
*^  Analogy,''  which  he  had  studied  attentively,  were  also 
of  service  to  him  in  the  examination.    His  friends,  who 

R  O  B  I  N  S  O  N,  301 


could  daly  estimate  his  talents,  were  anxious  that  he 
should  be  a  candidate  for  one  of  the  classical  medals ;  but 
he  declined  offering  himself^  through  the  determination  he 
had  formed  of  entering  as  soon  as  possible  into  the  church. 
He  was  elected  fellow  of  Trinity-college,  with  peculiar 
circumstances  of  distinction,  Oct.  I,  1772;  and  in  1773 
he  obtained  the  second  of  the  middle  bachelor's  prizes  for 
the  best  Latin  essay  on  some  moral  subject.  On  this  occa-^ 
lion  he  had  eight  competitors.  Dr.  James,  the  late  head 
master  of  Rugby-school,  who  particularly  excelled  in  writh- 
ing Latin  prose,  gained  the  first  prize;  but  Mr.  Robinson 
was  allowed  to  be  at  this  time  the  best  general  scholar  of 
his  year ;  and  his  seniors,  who  were  most  competent  to 
decide  upon  his  Ifterary  merits,  declared  that  they  bad  not 
Itnown  his  superior.  His  biographer  gives  us  an  anecdote 
whichshows,  in  a  very  striking  point  of  view,  the  cfaarac-^ 
ter  he  held  among  his  contemporaries.  An  attempt  was 
made,  during  bis  under-graduateship,  to  set  aside  sub-* 
scription  to  the  Thirty-nine  articles.  Some  young  men 
went  about  the  university,  endeavouring  to  prevail  upon 
the  under-graduates  to  sign  a  petition  for. that  purp6se. 
In  Trinity -college,  the  first  question  which  the  under*, 
g^raduates  put  to  those  persons  who  applied  to  them  was, 
^  Has  Robinson  signed  the  petition  ?^'  and  they  declined 
signing  it,  when  they  found  he  had  not:  and  the  argument 
which  the  persons  applying  made  use  of  to  prevail  upon 
Mr.  Robinson  to  sign  was,  ^^  If  j/ou  will  sign,  ail  the  un-^ 
der*graduates  in  Trinity-college  will  sign."  Mr.  Robin- 
son, it' is  scarcely  necessary  to  add,  refused  to  sigh  this 

Soon  after  receiving  his  first  degree,  Mr.  Robinson  was 
;  brdained  by  bishop  Keene,  and  entered  upon  the  curacy 
of  Witcham,  in  the  Isle  of  Ely.  To  this  was  added  that  of 
Wichford ;  and  his  performance  of  the  duties  of  both  wajs 
equally  conscientious  and  successful.  About  two  ycar^ 
after,  he  quitted  this  situation  and  accepted  the  curacy  of 
St.  Mairtin's  Leicester,  under  the  rev.  Mr.  Haines  :  here  he 
had  considerable  oppbsition  to  encounter ;  but  at  length 
acquired  a  great  degree  of  general  popularity,  and  the 
respect  of  many  of  the  upper  classes,  who  were  at  first  pre- 
judiced against  his  youth  and  his  doctrines.  He  was  alsa 
chosen  afternoon  lecturer  of  All  Saints,  and  in  1774,  chap- 
lain to  the  Infirixiary.  To  these  labours  he  adiled,  during 
a  considerable  part  of  his  life,  the  care  of  instructinjj;  some 


young  getitlebien  in  ohtssical  learmng,  wko  were  preparing^ 
far  tbe  university)  but  in  some  cases  at  leasts  would  accept 
of  no  pecuniary  compensation.  In  tbe  same  year  (1774) 
he  married  a  iady,  whose  name  his  biographer  does  nols 
mention,  by  whom  he  bad  a  family,  and  who  died  in  179U 
III  1778  a  weekly  lecture  being  founded  at  St.  Mary'a 
church  by  Mr.  Joseph  Wheatley,  an  opulent  manufacturer 
of  Leicesteri  with  the  consent  of  tbe  incumbent^  and  of 
tbe  bishop  of  tbe  diocese,  Mt.  Robinson  was  appointed 
first  Tectur^r.  Soon  after,  in  the  same  year,  oh  the  death 
of  the  incumbent,  Mr.  Robinson  was  instituted  to  the  livw 
log  of  this  church,  by  the  lord-chancellor.  It  was  here 
that  he  preached  a  course  of  sermons  on'  **  Scripture  Cha- 
racters,^' which  has  since  been  -  printed,  and  forms  the 
most  popular  of  his  works,  having  gone  through  several 
editions,  in  4  vols.  8vo.  .       . 

'  In  1788,  when  a  general  stir  was  made  by  the  dissenters, 
throughout  the  kingdom,  to  obtain  the  repeal  of  the  Cor-» 
poration  and  Test  Acts,  and  when  the  Midland  counties 
were  made  to  feel  the  more  intense  flame  which  burned 
pretty  widely,  through  the  adjacent  influence  of  Dn 
Priestley,  a  large  c^itral  meeting,  for  the  purpose  of  pro* 
moting  the  cx)mm0n  object,  was  held  at  Leicester,  to  which 
Mr.  Robinson  was  earnestly  invited,  but  be  peremptorily 
refused,  and  thai  in  language  which  could  not  be  agree-^ 
able ;  for,  among  other  things,  he  told  the  applicants  that 
it  was  ^*  mbney  and  power"  which  they  wanted,  and  '^  not 
the  means  of  serving  God  more  acceptably,  or  of  preach*  ^ 
ing  his  gospel  more  extensively.''  Strong  attachment  to  . 
government ;  deference  to  the  powers  that  be ;  an  high 
sense  of  the  importance  and  utility  of  a  dignifled  bierar* 
chy,  together  with  cordial  approbation  of  the  forms  and 
discipline  of  the  church  of  England,  not  less  than  of  her 
doctrines;  were  a  sort  of  primary  element  in  bis  mind. 
On  the  same  principles,  one  of  his  last  public  acts  was  to* 
unite  with  a  large  body  of  his  brother  clergymen,  in  peti- 
tioning parliament  against  the  tepeat  of  the  remaining  re- 
strictions upon  popery, 

-The  seventh  of  March  18(3  was  the  thirty-ninth  aoni- 
versery  of  Mr.  Robinson's  connection,  as  a  preacher,  with 
the  town  of  Leicester.  He  hiad  been  ticar  of  St.  Mary's, 
during  thirty- four  years,  and  by  his  zeal  and  ability  in 
performing  his  pastoral  duties,  as  well  as  by  his  pious  and 
benevolent  character  in  private  life,  had  overcome  all  op- 

.ROB  I  N  SO  N.  303 

poiition  and  ali.  prejudice,  when  he  was  seized  with  a  fit  of 
a|iop]exj  on  the  24th  of  the  month  before-coentionedi  and 
expired  \)«thin  a  few  hours,  in  his  .sixtjfxfQur^h  year.  For 
many  minutiie  of  character,  many  illusitrative  anecd(>te9» 
and  much  discussion  on  his  character  and  writings,  we 
futistf refer  to  our  authority/  ^Besides  his  *'  ScHpture  Cba<- 
meters/'  already  noticed,  he  was  the  author  of  ^^  A  seri* 
ons  exhortasticm  to  the  Inhabitants  of  Great  Britain,  with 
reference  to  the  approaching  Faf^t,'*  179^ ;  *^  An  address 
to  the  Loyal  Leicester  Volunteer  Infantry,"  1795  ;  <*  The 
Christian  System  unfolded,  or  Essays  on  the  Doctrines 
and  Duties  of  Christianity/'  S  vols.  8vo,  intended  as  a 
popular  body  of  diTinity,  but  drawn. out  in  the  form  of 
Essays^* instead  of  Sermons,  in  which  the  .subjects  had  been 
formerly  discussed  from  the  pulpit:  ^^  The  Parochial  Mi-> 
leister's  address  to  his  Parishioners  ;"  .a  tract  **  On  Confir- 
mation;" «<  Address  on  the  Peace  of  15^02  ;*'  "  The  Se- 
siaas  Calif*  one  or  two  occasional  sermons,  and  ^'  Pro-' 
pkeciefton  the  Messiah."'  . 

'ROBISON  (J.oii:N),  an  eminent  natural  philosopher  and 
mathematician^  was  born  at  Boghall,  in  the  county  oi 
Stirling^  in  Scotland,  in  1739.  His  father,  a  merchant  in  • 
Glasgow,  having,  by. a  conirse  of  .aucicessfaliodustry,  ac- 
(j[uired  considerable  property,  employed  it  in  the  purciiase 
6f  an  estate :to  wiiich  he  retired  during:  the  latter  part  of 
his  life  His  son  was  educated  at  GlasgQw,  and  before 
entering  on  his  nineteenth  year  had  completed  his  course 
ef  study  at  that  university,  but  had  manifested  a  peculiar 
prediieclioQ  for  the  mathematics.  Though  he  went  deep 
iHtO'dlgebra  and  fluxions,  yet  he  derived  from  the  cele-* 
Wated  Simson,  and  always  retained,  a  disposition  to. prefer 
the  more  accurate  though  less  comprehensive  system  ojf 
ancient  geometry.  The  ^rst  thing  which  is  said  to  have 
obtained  him  the  notice  of  that  eminent  professor,  was  hij» 
havii^  produced  a  geometrical  solution  of  a  problem  which 
had  been  given  oixt  to  the  class  in  an. algebraic  form. 

He  was  designed  by  his  parents  for  the  clerical  profess 
sion,  but  though  he  was  deeply  impressed  with  the  truths 
of  veKgion^  he  bad  some  scruples  which  induced  him  to 
decline  eFntering  into  orders.  His  friends,  tUereforei  be-*^ 
gan    td   consider  of  some    other   situation  in    which  his 

'  From  "  Some  aceount  of,  &c.  by  thn  Rex.  Kdward  TJif^mas  Vau jhan,  M.  A. 
▼icair  of  St.  Martin's  and  All  Saitits,  Leicester/'  &c.   1315,  Svo. 

364  R  O  B  I  S  O  N. 

tnathematical  talents  might  be  turned  to  advantage*  Dr{ 
Dicky  professor  of  natural  pbilosophyi  being  iii  want  of  a» 
assistant,  Mr.  Robison,  then  not  quite  nineteen  years  of 
age,  was  recommended  by  Dr.  Adam  Smith  as  a  proper 
person  for  discharging  that  office.  Dr.  Dick  thought  him; 
too  young,  but  joined  with  Dr*  Simson  in  recommending 
him  to  Dr.  Blair,  prebendary  of  Westminster,  whom  they 
understood  to  be  in  quest  of  a  young  mah  to  go  to  sea 
with  Edward  duke  of  York^  and  read  mathematics  with, 
his  royal  highness.  On  reaching  London,  however,  this 
flattering  prospect  was  found  to  have- no  solid  fouodatkyn^ 
the  duke  of  York  having  no  intention  of  going  to  sea.  Mr* 
Robison,  however,  to  whom  a  return  to  Glasgow  would 
have  been  very  disagreeable,  embraced  an  opportunity 
which  now  offered  itself,  of  going  to  sea  as  mathematical 
tutor  to  Mr.  Knowles,  eldest  son  of  admiral  Knowles,  and 
the  duke  of  York's  intended  companion.  His  pupil  being 
appointed  lieutenant  on  board  the  Royal  William,  Mr. 
Robison,  at  his  own  request,  was  rated  midshipmao*; 
Here  he  spent  the  three  following  years,  which  he  often 
spoke  of  as  the  happiest  of  bis  lifew  He  devoted  himsellt 
particularly  to  the  study  of  the  art  of  seamanship,  and, was 
sometimes  employed  in  making  surveys  of  coasts  and 

In  this  capacity  his  merit  attracted  the  notice  of  lord. 
Anson,  then  at  the  head  of  the  Admiralty-board,  by  whom 
be  was  sent,  in  1 762,  to  Jamaica,  in  order  to  make  trial  of . 
Harrison's  time-keeper.     But  on  returning  from  this  mis- 
sion he  found  his  prospects  of  advancement  completely 
clouded :  lord  Anson  was  dead  ;  the  vessel,  on  board  of  ^ 
which  was  his  pupil  Mr.  Knowles,  had  foundered  at  sea,' 
and  all  on  board  perished ;  and  admiral  Knowles  had  rer 
tired  to  the  country  inconsolable  for  the  loss  of  his  son* 
He  determined,  therefore,  tp  return  to  Glasgow,  and  , ad- 
miral Knowles  soon  after  placed  under  his  care  his  remain- 
ing son,    who   was    afterwards    rear-admiral   sir   Charles 
Knowles.     At  Glasgow  Mr.  Robison  renewed  his  studies . 
with  great  assiduity,,  but  his  instructors  were  changed.. 
Dr.  Simson  was  dead ;  and  Dr.  Adam  Smith  had  left  Glas- 
gow to  travel  with  the  late  duke  of  Buccleugh ;  but  the 
place  of  the  latter  was  well  supplied  by  Dr.  Reid,  and  Mr. 
Robison  had  also  an  opportunity  of  attending  the  lectures. ^ 
of  Mr.  Millar  on  civil  law,  and  Dr.  Black  on  chemistry. 
When  Dr.  Black,  in  176^^  was  called  to  Edinburgh,  Mr. . 

it  6  B  I  S  ON.  SOI 

ftobison  was  appointed.' to  succeed' him  as  lecftirer  do 
bbemistryy  and  read  lecCures  on  that  science  with  great 
applause  for  three  ye^rs. 

In  1770,  sir  Charles  Knowles  having  gone  to  Russia,  on 
the  invitation  of  the  eniipress  Catherine,  then  intent  on  the 
ifll^provement  of  her  marine^  he  invited  Mr,  Robison  to 
Accompany  him  as  his  official  secretary,  with  a  salary  of 
i250/.  a-year/  Ashe  was  still  attached  to  the  navy  and  to 
his  former  patron^  and  as,  though  lecturing  on  chemistry» 
he  did  not  enjoy  the  rank  of  professor^  Mr.  Robison  made 
no  hesitation  in  accepting  the  proposal.  His  conduct  at 
St.  Petersburgh,  and  the  knowledge  which  he  had  there 
occasion  to  display,  seems  to  have  powerfully  recom- 
mended him  to  the  board  of  admiralty  ;  for  in  1772  he  was 
appointed  4nspector-general  of  the  corps  of  marine  cadets, 
an  a[cademy  consisting  of  upwards  of  four  hundred  young 
gVotlem^n  and  scholars  under  the  tuition  of  about  forty 
teachers.  As  the  person  who  fills  this  office  has  the  rank 
of  lieutenant-colonel,  it  became  necessary,  by  the  customs 
of  Russia,  that  Mr.  .Robison  should  prove  himself  a  gentle- 
nian,  or  what  is  there  called  a  dvoranin^  and  the  proof  rje- 
qiiired  was  entered  on  record.  In  this  office  his  employ- 
mhitt  consisted  in  visiting  daily  every  class  of  the  academy; 
in  receiving  weekly  reports  from  each  master,  stating  the 
diligence  and  prpgress  of  every  person  in  his  class ;  and 
tmce  a  year,  in  advancing  the  young  gentlemen  into  the 
higher  classes,  according  to  their  respective  merits*  Of 
these  he  was  considered  as  the  sole  judge,  and  from  his 
s0iitextce  there  lay  no  appeal.  He  lived  in  terms  of  the 
utmost  harmony  with  general  Kutusoif,  who  was  military 
head  of  the  academy,  and  held  the  third  place  in  the  ad- 
miralty college.  By  him  all  Mr.  Robison's  measures  were 
supported,  and  he  was  even  introduced  to. the  notice  of 
the  grand  diike,  as  an  admirer  of  the  Russian  language^ 
iNftiich  his  imperial  highness  patronized. 

But  although  his  situation  was  thus  honourable  and  ad- 
taptageous,  he  felt  that  something  more  was  necessary  to 
tender  it  comfoi:table.  He  could  not  but  regret  his  dis- 
tance from  his  native  country^  and  residence  among  a 
.people  who,  though  rapidly  improving,  weresiill  tinctured 
with  barbarism.  His  appointment  also  attached  him,  not 
'to  the  capital,  but  to  Cronstadt,  where  he  was  nearly,  cut 
off  from  all  effligbtened  society.  Receiving  an  invitation^ 
therefore^  from  the  magistrsttes  ^ud  towa-co\incil  to  ^U  tb« 

Vqi^XXVI.  X 

toe  R  O  B  I  S  O  N. 

place  of  professor  of  natural  philosophy  in  the  qniversit^ 
of  Edinburgh,  be  gladly  removed  to  that  city.  The  grand 
duke  parted  with  him  reluctantly,  and  requested,  when  be 
left  the  acadei)[iy,  that  he  would  take  with  him  some  young 
men  of  talents  from  the  corps  of  cadets ;  and  he^  promised 
him  a  pension  of  400  rubles  (SO/.)  a-year.  That  pen^ioa 
was  regularly  paid  only  during  the  three  years  that  the 
gentlemen  whom  he  selected  resided  in  Edinburgh ;  it  was 
then  discontinued,  it  is  believed,  because  he  did  not  con- 
tinue a  correspondence  with  the  academy,  and  commuoi- 
cate  all  the  British  improvements  in  marine  education. 

Of  his  lectures,  in  his  new  professorship,  high  expecta- 
tions were  formed  and  were  not  disappointed.  If  there  was 
any  defect,  it  was  that  h6  was  sometimes  abstruse,  and  did 
not  lower  himself  sufficiently  to  the  comprehension  of  bis 
youthful,  auditors.  This,  however,  appears  to  have  bef a 
owing,  not  to  any  want  of  order  or  perspicuity,  but  to  his 
expecting  to  find  in  them  a  more  complete  acquaintance 
with  pure  mathematics  than  many  of  them  had  attainef^. 
Unfortunately,  he  was  prevented  for  many  years  from 
teaching,  by  a  languishing  state  of  health,  accompanied 
with  peculiar  depression  of  spirits,  a  not  unfrequent  atten*- 
dctnt  on  too  entire  a  devotion  to  mathematical  studies,  and 
of  the  recluse  and  pensive  habits  which  they  tend  to  gi^ne- 
rate.'  By  the  judicious  choice,  however,  which  be  made 
of  substitutes,  the  want  of  his  personal  instructions  was 
less  severely  felt.  For  a  year  or  two  before  his  death  bb 
began  again*  to  lecture,  having  only  engaged  the  rev.  Tho- 
mas Macknight  to  afford  him  occasional  assistance;  an 
office  w  bich  was  performed  by  that  gentleman  with  ac- 
knowledged ability.  When  the  Royal  Society  of  Edin- 
burgh was  incorporated  by  charter  in  1783,  he  was  chosen 
by  that  learned  body  to  be  their  general  secretatyy^and 
iliseharged  that  office  to  their  entire  satisfaction,  as 
his.  health  permitted,  on  the  dechne  of  which  he  resigiiied 
it.  To  their  Transactions  he  contributed  several  intevesit-' 
ing  papers.  -  ' 

-  In  1798,  Mr.  Robisofn '  published  a  work  which  aittracte^, 
in  ah  uncommon  decree,  the  attention  of  tbe^public,  undefr 
•(he  title  of  <^  Preofs  of  a  Con'»piracy  against  altthe  religions 
•land  -governments  of  Europe,  carried  on  in  the  secret' nieeK- 
t\Sgs  of  Free-masons,  llluminati,  and- reading  societies,  &ci'* 
48vo.  It  is  needless  to  say  how  diflPerent  fafave  been*  tba 
fttdgodii^ts  probottoc^  on  tbia  p^bUoation^  according  •U> 

It  6  B  I  S  O  N,  CQ» 

Xh^  di^erent  parties  to  which  its  readers  happened  to  l>'^ 
mtached.  That  there  is  ^considerable  ground  for  the  state- 
Inents  contained  in  it,  appears  evidently  from  the  best  iri« 
formed  Gernoan  authors ;  at  the  same  time  several  circum- 
,  "Stances  led  the  author  to  form  an  idea  of  the  magnitade  and 
botis^quence^  of  the  conspiracy,  which  perhaps  was  some- 
'  What  exaggerated.  But  whatever  opinion  was  formed  ox\ 
this  subjecti  it  was  generally  acknowledged  that  his  mis* 
takes  were  unintentional,  and  that  the  work  was  written 
ifirom  the  best  of  motives,  aftd  with  the  sole  view  of  defend- 
ing the  most  important  interests  of  religion  and  civil  so* 

A  few  years  after;  on  the  death  of  Dr.  Black,  Mr.  Ro- 
i>ison  published  the  lectures  of  that  great  chemical  dis- 
coverer, with  notes,  which  are  universally  allowed  to  add 
greatly  to  their  value.     In  consequence  of  Mr.  Robison^s 
connexion  with  the  court  of  Russia,  a  copy  of  this  publi- 
cation was  sent  to  the  reigning  emperof,  and  the  editor 
deceived,  in  return,  the  present  of  a  box  set  in  diamonds, 
accompanied  by  a  letter  strongly  impressive  of  the  regard 
in  which  his  character  and  talents  were  held  by  that  vir- 
tdous  and  enlightened  monarch.    The  last  work  on  whicli 
Mr.  Robison's  attention  and  care  was  bestowed,  was  bis 
**'  £lements  of  Mechanical  Philosophy,^*  intended  to  com- 
prize the  substance  of  his  lectures  on  that  subject,  and  tQ 
Xionsist  of  four  or  five  volumes.    The  first  appeared  accord- 
ingly in  IB04,  atid  fully  answered  the  expectations  which 
the  scientific  ^6rld  had- entertained ;  and  although  his  death 
'prevented  the  completion  of  the  plan,  he  is  said  to  have 
left  materials  for  a  continuation,  which  are  intended  for  th^ 
press.     On  Monday,  Jan.  28,  1805,  he  delivered  a  lecturci 
'as  usual  to  his  class,  and  went  afterwards  to  take  his  accuse 
-'tbmed  walk*     Being,  however,  exposed  to  a  greater  degree 
'of.  cold  than  usual',  he  was  seized  soon  after  his  return  with 
^'M   exCrenii'e  degree  of  diebility,  which  terminated  in  his 
"^death,  Wednesday  morning  the  30th,     This  seems  to  have 
'been  less  the  consequence  of  any  particular  illness,  than  of 
'ft  frame  worn  out  by  long^continued  illness  and  suffering. 
'      In  17^8  he  was  complimented  with  the  diploma  of  LL.D* 
^  t>y  the  American  college  in  New  Jersey,  and  in  the  f(dlow- 
ihg  year  received  the  saine  honour  from  the  university  of 
*  Glasgow.     In  1900,  he  was  unanimously  elected  foreign 
member  of  the  imperial  academy  of  sciences  at  St<  PeietB» 
burgh,  in  the  room  of  Dr.  Black*  Besides  the  works  alreadj 

X  2 


804  R  O  B  I  S  O  N. 

mentioned^  it  must  not  be  forgot  that  Mr.  Bpbison  fur^ 
nished  some  most  valuable  contributions  to  the  edition  of 
the  ^*  EncyclopaBdia  Britannicay'*  superintended  by  his 
friend  Dr.  Gleig,  to  whom  the  public  is  indebted  for  thie 
preceding  particulars  of  his  life  ;  and  it  is  said  to  be  the 
intention  of  Mr.  Robison's  friends  to  collect  the  articles 
be  furnished  for  this  work,  and  publish  them  in  a  sepa^ 
rate  formi  along  with  what  he  inserted  in  the  <^  Transaci^ 
tions  of  the  Royal  Society  of  Edinburgh.^ 

ROBORPELLO  (Francis),  a  celebrated  critic  in  the 
sixteenth  century,  was  born  at'  Udina  in  1516.  After 
being  educated  at  Bologna,  he  taught  rhetoric  and  moral 
hilosophy  with  reputation  at  Lucca,  Pisa,  Venice,  Bo- 
pgna,  and  Padua,  in  which  last  city  he  died,  March  IQ, 
1567,  aged  fifty-one.  He  has  left  a  treatise,  "  On  History," 
1543,  8vo,  which  is  of  little  value;  commentaries  on  se- 
veral Greek  and  Latin  poets;  "  De  Vita  et  victu  popitii 
Romani  sub  Imperatoribus,**  1559,'  folio,  and  oth^r  works 
on  Roman  antiquities,  in  which  he  frequently  discovers  s^ 
degree  of  asperity  unworthy  of  a  liberal  mind.  His  con- 
tentious disposition  had  at  one  time  nearly  proved  fatal,  as 
lie  received  a  wound  from  the  sword  of  Baptist  Egnacius, 
and  for  some  time  his  life  was  thought  to  be  in  danger. 
He  had  also  some. fierce  literary  contests  with  Alciatus  and 

ROCABERTI  (John  Thomas  de)>  a  celebrated  general 
pfthe  Dominicans,  and  one  of  the  most  zealous  defenders 
of  papal  authority,  was  born  at  Peselada  on  the  frontiers  of 
Roussillon  and  Catalonia,  about  1624^  He  was  the  son  of 
Francis  viscount  de  Rocaberti,  of  an  ancient  family.  Hav- 
ing entered  the  Dominican  order  early  in  life,  be  became 
provincial  of  Arragon  in  1&66,  general  of  his  order  in  1670, 
archbishop  of  Valencia  in  1676,  and  grand  inquisitor  of 
the  faith  in  1695.  Flis  catholic  majesty,  whose  favour  he 
acquired,  made  him. twice  viceroy  of  Valencia.  He  died 
June  13,  1699,  leaving  a  long  treatise  ^  De  Romani  Pob- 
tificis  Autoritate,^'  Z  vols,  folio,  esteemed  in  Spain  and 
Italy,  but  prohibited  in  France  ;  and ."  Bibliotheca  Ponti* 
£cia  ;'*  a  large  collection  uf  all  the  treatises  which  have  beea 
'written  by  different  authors  in  favour  of  the  pope's  authority 
.^nd  infallibility;  Rome,  J  700,  &c.  21  vols^  folio.     The  par-' 

•   1  Phi)oiophio«)  Mpigftziiie,  vols.  X.  an4  Xllltf 
.   f,;^Qnri.— Tirabofchu— Diet,  Ui^ti. 

R  O  C  A  B  E  R  T  L  ,  30^ 

liament  of  Paris  also  prohibited  the  sale  of  this  immense 

ROCCA  (Angelus),  a  learned  Italian,  was  a  native  of 
Rocca  Contrata,  a  town  in  the  marche  of  Ancona,  and  born 
in  1545.  When  young  he  was  sent  to  Camerino,  wherei 
jn  1552,  he  took  the  habit  among  the  hermits  of  St.  Au* 
gastine,  and  remained  so  long  here  that  some  have  given 
iiim  the  surname  of  Camero.  He  afterwards  continued 
his  studies  at  Rome,  Venice,  Perusia,  and  Padua.  He 
received  the  degree  of  doctor  of  divinity  at  the  university 
of  Padua,  in  Sept.  1577,  and  acquired  much  celebrity  as  a 
preacher  at  Venice,  and  as  a  teacher  of  the  belles  lettres 
to  the  juniors  of  his  order.     In  1579  Fivizani,  the  vicar- 

~  general  of  the  Augustines,  invited  him  to  Rome  to  be  his 
secretary,  and  pope  Sixtus  V.  placed  him  in  the  Vatican 
in  1585,  and  confided  to  his  superintendance  those  edi- 
tions of  the  Bible,  the  councils,  and  the  fathers,  which  is- 
sued from  the  apostolical  press  during  his  pontificate.     In 

.1595,  pope  Clement  VIII.  made  him  apostolical  sacristan 
in  the  room  of  Fivizani,  now  deceased,  and  titular  bishop 
of  Tagast^  in  Numidia.  He  collected  a  very  large  and  ex- 
cellent library,  which  he  presented  in  his  life-time,  by  a 
deed  of  gift,  dated  Oct.  23,  1614,  to  the  Augustinian  mo- 
nastery at  Rome;  but  upon  the  express  condition,  that  it 
should  be  always  open  for  the  benefit  of  the  public.     Rocca 

■died  April  8,  1620,  at  the  age  of  seventy-five.  Rocca  had 
read  much,  but  was  either  deficient  in,  or  seldom  exer- 
eiseli  his  judgment,  as  appears  by  the  most  of  his  works, 
>Among  these  may  be  mentioned  his  ^<  Bibliotheca  Aposto- 
lica  Vaticana,"  which  Fabricius  calls  a  very  trifling  work  ;' 
*^  Bibliotheca  Tbeologica  et  Scripturalis ;"  "  Notae  in  No- 
vum Testamentum  ;•'  "  De  Patientia;"  "  De  Cometis  ;'* 
**  Observationes  in  VI  Libros  Elegantiarum  Laur.  Vallae  ;'* 

,  ^  Observationes  de  Lingua  Latina;"  and  other  pieces 
which  were  collected  together,  and  printed  in  1719,  2  "vols. 

-folio.  From  his  manuscripts  was  also  published,  in  1745,  a 
very  curious  collection,  entitled  "  Thesaurus  Pontificiarum 
Antiquitatum,  necnon  Rituum  ac  Ceremoniarum,*'  in  2 
vols,  folio.  •        . 

^  ROCHEFORT  (William  de),  a  modern  French  writer, 
was  born  in  1731,  at  Lyons.     He  had  an  eioployment  in 

f  GtD.  Diet— Mortri.  *  Niceron,  vol.  XXI.-*Dict.  Hiit. 


Sl(%  R  O  C  H  E  F  O  R  T. 

the  finances  at  Cette  in  Languedoc,  which  he  held  for  te» 
years;  but  having  more  turn  for  literature  than  calculations^ 
he  went  to  Paris,  and  composed  three  tragedies  upon  the 
Oreek  models,  but  bad  no  more  success  than  others  wbor 
have  made  similar  experiments  on  the  public  taste*  Iii. 
prose  he  published  a  "  Refutation  du  Systeme  de  la  Na*. 
ture  ;**  a  "  Critical  History  of  the  opinions  of  the>Ancient& 
concerning  Happiness,  1778,*'  8vo ;  and  a  **  Complete 
Translation  of  the  Plays  of  Sophocles."  The  last*nani$d 
work  gained  him  much  credit  by  the  elegance  and  fidelity^ 
of  the  version,  and  the  judicious  notes  annexed  to  iu  He 
undertook  also  a  complete  translation  of  Hoikier^s  Iliad  and 
Odyssey,  of  which  the  preliminary  discourses  and  the  notes 
obtained  more  applause  than  the  version  itself,  which,  how- 
ever, he  had  splendidly  printed  at  the  royal  press  in  1781, 
in  4to.  He  was  a  member  of  the  academy  of  inscriptions 
and  belles  lettres,  to  which  he  contributed  several  learned 
memoirs.  He  died  in  1788,  highly  esteemed  for  a  temper 
in  which  there  was  nothing  unsocial  or  selfish.  He  was 
always,  we  are  told,  fonder  of  talking  of  other  people's 
works  than  of  his  own,  a  case,  it  is  added,  of  some  singu-^ 
larity  in  literary  company.^ 

ROCHEFOUCAULT  (Francis,  Duke  of),  prince  of 
Marsillac,  and  governor  of  Poitou,  was  born  in  1613.  He 
was  the  son  of  Francis,  the  first  duke  of  Rochefoucauit,  and 
was  distinguished  equally  by  his  courage  and  his  wit  At 
the  instigation  pf  the  duchess  de  Longueville,  to  whom  he 
had  been  long  attached,  he  engaged  in  the  civil  wars,  and 
signalized  himself,  particularly  at  the  battle  of  St.  An^ 
toine.  After  his  return  his  house  became  the  rendezvous 
of  all  the  wits  of  Paris,  Racine,  Boileau,  &c.  who  were 
captivated  by  the  charms  of  his  conversation.  He  died  at 
Paris  in  1680,  aged  seventy-seven.  As  a  writer  he  i» 
chiefly  known  by  a  small  work,  which  has  often  beto  re« 
printed  in  this  country,  in  English,  entitled  <^  Maxims,'* 
of  which  Voltaire  has  not  scrupled  so  say,  that  it  contri* 
buted  more  than  any  performance  to  form  the  taste  of  the 
French  nation,  and  give  it  a  true  relish  of  propriety  and 
correctness.  ''  Though  there  is,'*  continues  he,  *^  but  one 
truth  running  through  this  whole  piece,  namely,  that  ^  self- 
love  is  the  spring  of  all  our  actions  and  determinations ;' 
yet  this  thought  presents  itself  under  such  a  variety  of 

1  Pict.  Hiit. 


forms  a8  sever  fail  to  strike  with  new  surprise.  It  is  not  so 
properly  a  book  itself,  as  a  set  of  materials  to  embeUish  a 
book.  Tbis  little  collection  was  much  read  and  admired ; 
h  accustomed  our  authors  to  think,  and  to  comprise  their 
tiaoughts  in  a  lively,  correct,  and  delicate  ti^rn  of  phrase ; 
which  was  a  mjerit  utterly  unknown  to  any  European  writer 
before  him  since  the  revival  of  letters."  It  has,  however, 
been  mostly  admired  by  those  who  entertain  an  unfavour- 
able opinion  o£  mankind,  and  who  have  been  soured  by 
disappointment  and  misfortune,  particularly  by  disap- 
pointed ambiuon*  Chesterfield  and  Swift  are  on  the  side 
of  Rochefoucault  We  have  also  of  this  noble  author 
^^  M^moires  de  la  R6geoce  de  la  Reine  Anne  d'Autricbe/* 
written  with  great  sense  and  a  deep  penetration. 

The  abb6  O'OUvet,  in  his  History  of  the  French  aca- 
demy, $ay3  that  Bochefoucault  could  never  be  a  member 
of  il,  though  greatly  desired  both  by  the  academicians  and 
himselfj  from  the  necessity  of  making  a  speech  of  thanks 
on  the  day  of  admission :  with  all  the  courage  he  had  shewn 
on  so  many  eminent  occasions,  and  with  all  the  superiority 
thtit  birth,  aud  such  prodigious  parts  as  the  vrorld  allowed, 
gave  him,  he  was  not  ^ble  to  bear  the  look  of  an  audience, 
nor  could  pronounoe  four  lines  in  public  without  fainting.^ 

RODNEY  (GfiORGE  BrVdges),  a  celebrated  nawl  com^ 
maiider,  was  the  second  son  of  Henry  l^odney,  esq.  of 
JWaltoa  on  Thames,  and  Mary,  eldest  daughter  and  co- 
keir  to  sir  Henry  Newton,  knight,  envoy-extraordinary  to 
XSenoa,  LL.  D.  judge  of  the  high-court  of  admiralty,  and 
chancellor  of  the  diocese  of  London.  His  father,  as  a  na- 
vaI  oflicer,  commanded  the  yacht- in  which  king.  George  h 
attended  by  the  duke  of  Chaiidos,  used  to  embark  in  going 
to  or  coming  from  Hanover,  and  in  consequence,  asked 
leave  that  his  son  might  be  called  George  Brydges.  He 
was  born  in  Dec.  1717.  At  the  desire,  or  by  the  com- 
mand, of  his  ray^i  and  noble  god-fathers,  he  entered  early 
into  Uie  navy,  and  in  1742  he  was  lieutenant  in  the  Namur, 
commanded  by  adoiiral  Matthews.  In  November  of  the 
same  year^  be  was  promoted  by  the  admiral  to  the  com- 
mand of  the  Plymouth,  of  sixty  guns;  09  returning  home 
he  was  removed  into  the  Sheerness,  a  i^mall  frigate ;  and 
in  1744  he  was  appointed  to  the  command  of  the  Ludlow;- 
oastle,  of  forty-four  guns.     In  this  ship  he. does  not  appear 

1  Diet.  Hut-^Siede  de  Louis  XIV. 

3l2  RODNEY. 

to  have  continued  long,. for  in  May  1746,  he  was  capt«iai 
of  the  £agle,  a  new  ship  of  sixty  guns,  then  employed  a 
a  cruiser  on  the  Irish  station.    While  here  he  captured  two 
large  privateers.     He  continued  in  the  Eagle  during  the 
remainder  of  the  war,  and  was  one  of  the  commanders 
under  the  orders  of  rear-admiral  Hawke,  when  in  1747  he 
defeated  L*£tendiere^s  scjuadron.     On  this  occasion  capt, 
Rodney  behaved  with  much  spirit,  and  may  be  said  to  have 
then  laid  the  foundation  of  that  popularity  he  afterwards  in 
so  high  a  degree  possessed.     On  the  conclusion  of  the  war 
be  was,  in  March  1749,  appointed  to  the  Rainbow,  a  fourth 
rate,  and  in  May  following  was  nomin